JUDICIAL

, or Judiciary Astrology; that relating to the forming of judgments, and making prognostications. See Astrology.

JULIAN Calendar, is that depending on, and connected with the Julian year and account of time; so called from Julius Cæsar, by whom it was established. See Calendar.

Julian Epoch, is that of the institution of the Julian reformation of the calendar, which began the 46th year before Christ.

Julian Period, is a cycle of 7980 consecutive years, invented by Julius Scaliger, from whom it was named; though some say his name was Joseph Scaliger, and that it was called the Julian Period, because he made use of Julian years. This period is formed by multiplying continually together the three following cycles, viz, that of the sun of 28 years, that of the moon of 19 years, and that of the indiction of 15 years; so that this epoch, although but artificial or feigned, is yet of good use; in that every year within the period is distinguishable by a certain peculiar character; for the year of the sun, moon, and indiction, will not be the same again till the whole 7980 years have revolved. Scaliger fixed the beginning of this period 764 years before the creation, or rather the period naturally reduces to that year, taking the numbers of the three given cycles as he then found them; and accounting 3950 years from the creation to the birth of Christ, this makes the 1st year of the Christian era answer to the 4714th year of the Julian period; therefore, to find the year of this period, answering to any proposed year of Christ, to the constant number 4713, add the given year of Christ, and the sum will be the year of the Julian period: thus, to 4713 adding 1791, the sum 6504 is the year of this period for the year of Christ 1791. Hence the first revolution of the Julian period will not be completed till the year of Christ 3267, after which a new revolution of this period will commence.

But the year of this period may be found for any time, from the numbers of the three cycles that compose it, without making use of the given year of Christ, thus: multiply the

numbers{4845}}sun,
respectively by
4200moon,
the year of the
6916indiction;
then add the three products together, and divide the sum by 7980, so shall the remainder after division be the year of the Julian period corresponding to the given years of the other three cycles. Thus, for the year 1791, the years of the solar, lunar, and indiction cycles, are 8, 6, and 9; therefore multiplying by these, &c, according to the rule, thus
484542006916
86   9
387602520062244
38760
62244
7980)126204(15
7980 
46404
39900
remains6504the year of the Jul. period.

Julian Year, is the old account of the year, established by Julius Cæsar, and consisted of 365 1/4 days. This year continued in use in all Europe till it was superseded in most parts by the new or Gregorian account, in the year 1582. In England however it continued to be used till the year 1752, when it was abolished by act of parliament, and eleven days added to the account, to bring it up to the new style. In Russia, the old or Julian year and style are still in use.

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Entry taken from A Mathematical and Philosophical Dictionary, by Charles Hutton, 1796.

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ISLAND
ISLES
ISOCHRONAL
ISOMERIA
ISTHMUS
* JUDICIAL
JULY
JUPITER
JURIN (Dr. James)