, is used for a circular motion; in which sense it agrees with revolution.


, in Clock or Watch-work, particularly denotes the revolution of a wheel or pinion.

In calculation, the number of Turns which the pi- nion hath, is denoted in common arithmetic thus, 5) 60 (12, where the pinion 5, playing in a wheel of 60, moves round 12 times in one Turns of the wheel. Now by knowing the number of Turns which any pinion hath, in one Turn of the wheel it works in, you may easily find how many Turns a wheel or pinion has at a greater distance; as the contrat-wheel, crownwheel, &c, by multiplying together the quotients, and the number produced is the number of Turns, as in the example here annexed: the first of

5)45( 9
5)40( 8
these three numbers has 11 Turns, the next 9, and the last 8; if you multiply 11 by 9, it produces 99; that is, in one Turn of the wheel 55, there are 99 Turns of the second pinion 5, or the wheel 40, which runs concentrical or on the same arbor with the second pinion 5: and if you again multiply 99 by the last quotient 8, it produces 792, which is the number of Turns the third pinion 5 hath. See Clock-work, and PINION.

TURNING to windward, in Sea Language, denotes that operation in sailing when a ship endeavours to make a progress against the direction of the wind, by a compound course, inclined to the place of her destination.—This method of navigation is otherwise called plying to windward.

TUSCAN Order, in Architecture, is the first, the simplest, and the strongest or most massive of any. Its column has 7 diameters in height; and its capital, base, and entablement, have no ornaments, and but few mouldings.

TWELFTH-Day, the festival of the Epiphany, or the manifestation of Christ to the Gentiles, so called, as being the Twelfth day, exclusive, from the nativity or Christmas-day; of course it falls always on the 6th day of January.

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Entry taken from A Mathematical and Philosophical Dictionary, by Charles Hutton, 1796.

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