*Some Numerals*

. Some of these Roman
numerals used in old titles and colophons are
difficult to read:Roman. |
Arabic. |
---|---|

C | 100 |

CC | 200 |

CCC | 300 |

CCCC | 400 |

IↃ or D | 500 |

DC | 600 |

DCC | 700 |

DCCC | 800 |

DCCCC or CM | 900 |

M or CIↃ | 1,000 |

MM | 2,000 |

MMM | 3,000 |

MMMM | 4,000 |

IↃↃ or V̄ | 5,000 |

CCIↃↃ or X̄ | 10,000 |

IↃↃↃ or L̄ | 50,000 |

CCCIↃↃↃ or C̄ | 100,000 |

IↃↃↃↃ or D̄ | 500,000 |

CCCCIↃↃↃↃ or M̄ | 1,000,000 |

The roman numerals have their own cozy little home in Unicode: I is U+2160 (Ⅰ), II is U+2161 (Ⅱ), and so on; I have used U+2183 Roman numeral reversed one hundred (Ↄ) for the backwards C. On my computer it is supplied by the DejaVu Sans font. In the book, the reversed C sits lower than other letters, but is the same size as a capital letter C; it is rotated through 180 degrees, which would have made it sit lower than the other letters.

There is also a Unicode character for CD, or CIↃ, which should look a little like an uncial M: U+2180 roman numeral one thousand C D (ↀ).

V̄ should be a V with a bar over it.

If the letter number be placed before the
greater, the lesser is to be deducted from the
greater; thus IV signifies one less than five,
*i.e.* four; IX, nine; XC, ninety. If the lesser
number be placed after the greater, the lesser
is to be added to the greater; thus VI signifies
one more than five, *i.e.* six; XI, eleven; CX,
one hundred and ten. An horizontal stroke
over a numeral denotes a thousand; thus V̄
signifies five thousand; L̄ fifty thousand; M̄
a thousand times a thousand, or a million.
IↃ or D signifies five hundred, the half of CIↃ.
M or CIↃ, a thousand, from *mille*. The latter
figures joined at the top [uncial M], formed the ancient
M.