Henry III. (12061272)

Henry III., king of England from 1216 to 1272, eldest son of King John; succeeded to the throne at the age of nine; during his minority the kingdom was wisely and faithfully served by the Earl of Pembroke and Hubert de Burgh; when he came to years he proved himself a weak ruler, and, according to Stubbs, his administration was “one long series of impolitic and unprincipled acts”; with the elevation of Peter des Roches, a native of Anjou, to the post of chief adviser, French interlopers soon became predominant at the Court, and the recipients of large estates and pensions, an injustice further stimulated by the king's marriage with Eleanor of Provence; justice was prostituted, England humiliated under a feeble foreign policy, and the country finally roused by infamous exactions; Simon de Montfort, the king's own brother-in-law, became the leader of the people and the champion of constitutional rights; by the Provisions of Oxford, forced upon the king by Parliament assembled at Oxford (1258), a wider and more frequent Parliamentary representation was given to the people, and the king's power limited by a permanent council of 15; as an issue of the Barons' War, which resulted in the defeat and capture of the king at Lewes (1264), these provisions were still further strengthened by the Mise of Lewes, and from this time may be dated the birth of representative government in England as it now exists; in 1265 was summoned the first Parliament as at present constituted, of peers temporal and spiritual, and representatives from counties, cities, and boroughs; internal dissensions ceased with the victory of Prince Edward over the barons at Eastham (1265), the popular leader De Montfort perished on the field (12061272).

Definition taken from The Nuttall Encyclopædia, edited by the Reverend James Wood (1907)

Henry II. * Henry IV.
Hengist and Horsa
Hengstenberg
Henley, William Ernest
Henley-on-Thames
Henotheism
Henrietta Maria
Henrietta Maria
Henriot
Henry I.
Henry II.
Henry III.
Henry IV.
Henry V.
Henry VI.
Henry VII.
Henry VIII.
Henry III.
Henry IV.
Henry IV.
Henry of Huntingdon
Henry the Navigator