Scotland

Scotland, the northern portion of the island of Great Britain, separated from England by the Solway, Cheviots, and Tweed, and bounded N. and W. by the Atlantic and E. by the German Ocean; inclusive of 788 islands (600 uninhabited), its area, divided into 33 counties, is slightly more than one-half of England's, but has a coast-line longer by 700 m.; greatest length from Dunnet Head (most northerly point) to Mull of Galloway (most southerly) is 288 m., while the breadth varies from 32 to 175, Buchan Ness being the eastmost point and Ardnamurchan Point the westmost; from rich pastoral uplands in the S.—Cheviots, Moffat Hills, Lowthers, Moorfoots, and Lammermoors—the country slopes down to the wide, fertile lowland plain—growing fine crops of oats barley, wheat, &c.—which stretches, with a varying breadth of from 30 to 60 m., up to the Grampians (highest peak Ben Nevis, 4406 ft.), whence the country sweeps northwards, a wild and beautiful tract of mountain, valley, and moorland, diversified by some of the finest loch and river scenery in the world; the east and west coasts present remarkable contrasts, the latter rugged, irregular, and often precipitous, penetrated by long sea-lochs and fringed with numerous islands, and mild and humid in climate; the former low and regular, with few islands or inlets, and cold, dry, and bracing; of rivers the Tweed, Forth, Tay, Dee, and Clyde are the principal, and the Orkneys, Shetlands, and Hebrides the chief island groups; coal and iron abound in the lowlands, more especially in the plain of the Forth and Clyde, and granite in the Grampians; staple industries are the manufacture of cottons, woollens, linen, jute, machinery, hardware, paper, and shipbuilding, of which Glasgow is the centre and commercial metropolis, while Edinburgh (capital) is the chief seat of law, education, &c.; of cultivated land the percentage varies from 74.8 in Fife to 2.4 in Sutherland, and over all is only 24.2; good roads, canals, extensive railway and telegraph systems knit all parts of the country together; Presbyterianism is the established form of religion, and in 1872 the old parish schools were supplanted by a national system under school-boards similar to England; the lowlanders and highlanders still retain distinctive characteristics of their Teutonic and Celtic progenitors, the latter speaking in many parts of the Highlands their native Gaelic; originally the home of the Picts (q.v.), and by them called Alban or Albyn, the country, already occupied as far as the Forth and Clyde by the Romans, was in the 5th century successfully invaded by the Scots, a Celtic tribe from Ireland; in 843 their king Kenneth was crowned king of Picts and Scots, and by the 10th century the country (known to the Romans as Caledonia) began to be called Scotia or Scotland; government and power gradually centred in the richer lowlands, which, through contact with England, and from the number of English immigrants, became distinctively Anglo-Saxon; since the Union with England (q.v.) the prosperity of Scotland has been of steady and rapid growth, manufactures, commerce, and literature (in all branches) having flourished wonderfully.

Population (circa 1900) given as 4,026,000.

Definition taken from The Nuttall Encyclopædia, edited by the Reverend James Wood (1907)

Scot, Reginald * Scots, The
Science
Scilly Islands
Scioppius, Caspar
Scipio, P. Cornelius, the Elder
Scipio, P. Cornelius, the Younger
Scone
Scopas
Scoresby, William
Scory, John
Scot, Reginald
Scotland
Scots, The
Scott, David
Scott, Sir George Gilbert
Scott, Michael
Scott, Thomas
Scott, Sir Walter
Scott, William Bell
Scranton
Scribe, Eugene
Scribes, The

Nearby

Antique pictures of Scotland

Scotland in Brewer’s Dictionary of Phrase & Fable

Links here from Chalmers

Abbot, George
Abercromby, Patrick
Abercromby, Sir Ralph
Abernethy, John
Adair, James Makittrick
Adam Scotus
Adam, Alexander
Adam, Robert
Adamanus
Adamson, Patrick
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