Soudan

Soudan or “The Land of the Blacks,” the cradle of the negro race, a vast tract of territory stretching E. and W. across the African continent from the Atlantic (W.) to the Red Sea and Highlands of Abyssinia (E.), between the Sahara (W.) and the Gulf of Guinea and the central equatorial provinces (S.); divided into (a) Upper Soudan, embracing Senegambia, Sierra Leone, Ashanti, Dahomey, Liberia, and west coast-lands; (6) Lower Soudan, including the Fulah States, Massina, Gando, Sokoto, &c.; (c) Egyptian Soudan, which in 1882 was subdivided into (1) West Soudan, including Dar-Fur, Kordofan, Bahr-el-Ghazal, and Dongola; (2) Central Soudan, comprising Khartoum, Sennaar, Berber, Fashoda, and the Equatorial Province, &c.; (3) Eastern Soudan, bordering on the Red Sea, and embracing Taka, Suakim, and Massowah; (4) Harar, stretching E. of Abyssinia. The extension of Egyptian rule into this territory began in 1819 with the capture of Khartoum, which became the base of military operations, ending in the gradual conquest of the surrounding regions in 1874. A serious revolt, fanned by religious fanaticism, broke out in 1882, and headed by the Mahdi (q.v.) and his lieutenant Osman Digna, ended in the utter rout of the Egyptian forces under Hicks Pasha and Baker Pasha; Gordon, after a vain attempt to relieve him, perished in Khartoum; but Stanley was more successful in relieving Emin Bey in the Equatorial Province. Anarchy and despotism ensued until the victorious campaign of Kitchener (q.v.) again restored the lost provinces to Egypt.

Definition taken from The Nuttall Encyclopædia, edited by the Reverend James Wood (1907)

Soubise, Prince de * Soufflot
Sorel, Agnes
Sorrow, Sanctuary of
Sorrow, Worship of
Sorrows of the Virgin
Sorrows of Werther
Sortes Virgilianæ
Sostratus
Sothern, Edward Askew
Soubise, Duc de
Soubise, Prince de
Soudan
Soufflot
Soul
Soult, Nicolas-Jean de Dieu
Sound, The
South, Robert
South African Company
South African Republic
South Australia
South Sea Bubble
Southampton