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l, and for removing smoke in houses,” London, 1776 12mo. 2. “Free Thoughts on the American Contest,” Edin. 1776, 8vo. 3. “Miscellaneous observations on planting and training

The following is a correct list of his works: 1. “A practical treatise on Chimneys; containing full directions for constructing them in all cases, so as to draw well, and for removing smoke in houses,” London, 1776 12mo. 2. “Free Thoughts on the American Contest,Edin. 1776, 8vo. 3. “Miscellaneous observations on planting and training Timber-trees, by Agricola,” Edinburgh, 1777, 8vo. 4. “Observations on the means of exciting a spirit of National Industry,Edin. 1777, 4to. 5. “An enquiry into the nature of the Corn Laws, with a view to the new Corn Bill proposed for Scotland,1777, 8vo. 6. “Essays relating to Agriculture and rural affairs,1777, 8vo. 7. “An enquiry into the causes that have hitherto retarded the advancement of Agriculture in Europe; with hints for removing the circumstances that have chiefly obstructed its progress,1779, 4to. 8. “The interest of Great Britain, with regard to her American Colonies, considered,1782, 8vp. 9. “The true interest of Great Britain considered; or a proposal for establishing the Northern British Fisheries,” 1783, 12mo. 10. “An account of the present state of the Hebrides and Western Coasts of Scotland; being the substance of a report to the Lords of the Treasury,Edin. 1785, 8vo. 11. “Observations on Slavery; particularly with a view to its efforts on the British Colonies in the West Indies,” Manchester, 1789, 4to. 12. “Papers drawn up by him and sir John Sinclair, in reference to a report of a committee of the Highland Society on Shetland Wool,1790, 8vo. 13. “The Bee; consisting of essays, philosophical, philological, and miscellaneous,” 18vo ls. Edin. 1791—1794, 8vo. 14. “Observations on the effects of the Coal Duty,Edin. 1792, 8vo. 15. “Thoughts on the privileges and power of Juries; with observations on the present state of the country with regard to credit,Edin. 1793, 8vo. 16. “Remarks on the Poor Laws in Scotland,Edin. 1793, 4to. 17. “A practical treatise on Peat Moss, in two essays,1794, 8vo. 18. “A general view of the Agriculture and rural œconomy of the county of Aberdeen; with observations on the means of its improvement. Chiefly drawn up for the Board of Agriculture; in two parts,Edin. 1794, 8vo. 19. “An account of the different kinds of Sheep found in the Russian dominions, &c. By Dr. Pallas; with five appendixes, by Dr. Anderson,” Edinburgh, 1794, 8vo. 20. “On an Universal Character. In two letters to Edward Home, esq.Edin. 1795, 8vo. 21. “A practical treatise on draining Bogs and swampy grounds; with cursory remarks on the originality of Ellungton’s mode of Draining,1797, 8vo. 22. “Recreations in Agriculture, Natural History, and Miscellaneous Literature,” 6 vols. 8vo. 1799—1802. 23. “Selections from his own correspondence with general Washington,” London, 1800, 8vo. 24. “A calm investigation of the circumstances that have led to the present Scarcity of Grain in Britain; suggesting the means of alleviating that evil, and of preventing the recurrence of such a calamity in future,” London, 1801, 8vo. 25. “A description of a Patent Hot-house, which operates chiefly by the heat of the sun; and other subjects,” London, 1803, 8vo.

ying the Trinity, Lond. 1672, 8vo. “Dualitas,” a two-fold subject, on the honour, &c. of Magistracy, Edin. 1674, 4to.

His works are: “Fides Catholica, or the doctrine of the Catholic church, &c.” Loud. 1661—2, 4to. “PanemQ.uoin defence of set forms and of the book of Common-prayer,” 1661, 4to. “Pater Noster,” a treatise on the Lord’s-prayer, Lond. 1670, 8vo. “Mysterium Pietatis,” or the mystery of godliness, &c. Lond. 1672, 8vo. “Doxologia,” or the Doxology reduced to glorifying the Trinity, Lond. 1672, 8vo. “Dualitas,” a two-fold subject, on the honour, &c. of Magistracy, Edin. 1674, 4to.

me date. Mackenzie erroneously divides it into two works, one “A treatise concerning Justification,” Edin. 1550, and the other, “A Catechism or Confession of Faith,”

, one of the promoters of the reformation in Scotland, was born at Kircaldy, in the county of Fife, in the reign of James V. and educated at the university of St. Andrew’s. He afterwards went to France, in order to complete his studies and, returning to Scotland, was admitted into the family of the earl of Arran, who at that time governed the kingdom; but in the year 1542 the earl dismissed him, for having embraced the Protestant religion. In 1546 he joined the murderers of cardinal Beaton, although without having been concerned in that act, yet for this he was declared a traitor, and excommunicated. Whilst that party were besieged in the castle of St. Andrew’s, they sent Balnaves lo England, who returned with a considerable supply of provisions and money but, being at last obliged to surrender to the French, he was sent, with the rest of the garrison, to France. He returned to Scotland about the year 1559, and having joined the congregation, he was appointed one of the commissioners to treat with the duke of Norfolk on the part of queen Elizabeth. In 1563 he was made one of the lords of session, and appointed by the general assembly, with other learned men, to revise the book of discipline. The celebrated reformer Knox, his contemporary, gives him the character of a very learned and pious divine, and we learn from Calderwood’s ms history, and from Sadler’s State Papers, that he raised himself by his talents and probity, from an obscure station to the first honours of the state, and was justly regarded as one of the principal supporters of the reformed cause in Scotland. It is added, that when a boy, he travelled to the continent, and hearing of a free school at Cologne, procured admission to it, and received a liberal education. He died at Edinburgh in 1579. It was during his confinement at Rouen in France that he wrote a treatise on justification, and the works and conversation of a justified man, which was revised hy Knox, who added a recommendatory dedication, and desired it might he printed. The ms. however, was not discovered until after Knox’s death, when it was published in 1584, 8vo, with the title of “Confession of Faith, &c. by Henry Balnaves, of Halhill, one of the lords of council, and lords of session.” According to Irvine, it was printed at Edinburgh, but M'Rie speaks of a London edition of the same date. Mackenzie erroneously divides it into two works, one “A treatise concerning Justification,Edin. 1550, and the other, “A Catechism or Confession of Faith,” ib. 1584, From a poem subscribed Balnaves, having appeared in Ramsay’s collection, he has been ranked among the minor poets of Scotland.

is works,” Lond. 1564, 2 vols. 7. “The Sick man’s salve, or directions in sickness, and how to dye,” Edin. 1613, 8vo. It has been said that he was the first Englishman

I. “Counts Dominica et Missse Papistical comparatio,” Basil, 1559, 8vo. 2. “Various treatises,” fol. printed by Day, 1560. 3. “The Acts of Christe and Antichriste,” Lond. 1577, 12mo. 4. “The reliques of Rome,” by Day, 1563, 16mo. On the opposite side to the title is the head of the author, with the inscription, “Ætatis suae 41, 1553,” which makes the time of his birth 1512; and at the time of his persecution in 1541, he must have been about twenty-nine years of age. 5. “Postills upon the sundry Gospels,” Lond. 4to, 1566. 6. “His works,” Lond. 1564, 2 vols. 7. “The Sick man’s salve, or directions in sickness, and how to dye,Edin. 1613, 8vo. It has been said that he was the first Englishman that wrote against bowing at the name of Jesus, but no such work is enumerated in the list of his writings.

, M. A. F. R. S. Edin. Greek professor in the university of Edinburgh, keeper of the

, M. A. F. R. S. Edin. Greek professor in the university of Edinburgh, keeper of the university library, &c. was born in 1750, in the parish of Ratho5 near Edinburgh, and was educated partly at the parish school, but principally at Edinburgh, where his learning and moral conduct induced the late earl of Lautierdale to appoint him tutor to his eldest son, lord Maitland, the present earl. With this young nobleman, he attended a course of the lectures of the celebrated professor Millar at Glasgow, and afterwards accompanied his lordship to Paris. On his return from the continent, Mr. Dalzcll, at the recommendation of the late earl of Landerdale, was appointed to the professorship of Greek at Edinburgh, an office which he rilled for many years with the highest reputation and advantage to the university. He has thfe credit indeed of reviving a taste for that language, which from various causes, had been disused at Edinburgh, or studied very superficially. To enable his pupils to prosecute this accomplishment with the more effect, and imbibe a taste for what was elegant in the language, he compiled and printed, at a great expence, a series of collections out of the Greek authors, including all those passages which he wished to explain in the course of his teaching. These were printed in several 8vo volumes, under the titles of “Collectanea Minora,” and “Collectanea Majora.” He added to each volume short notes in Latin, explanatory of the difficult places, and the text was printed with great accuracy. The notes, which are in elegant Latin, are admirable for brevity, perspicuity, and judgment. He at the same time composed and read to the students a series of lectures on the language and antiquities, the philosophy and history, the literature, eloquence, poetry, and fine arts of the Greeks. By these means he became eminently successful in disseminating a taste for classical literature in the university, nor was he less happy in the art of engaging the affections and fixing the attention of his pupils on the objects which he considered as the fundamentals of all genuine scholarship.

David Dalrymple lord Hailes, published with notes a correct edition of the fifth book “De Justitia,” Edin. 12mo. Lactantius had before written a book “De Operibus Dei,”

, or Lucius Cælius, or Cæcilius (Firmianus), an eminent father of the church, was, as some say, an African, or, according to others, a native of Fermo, a town in the marche of Ancdna, whence Le is supposed to have taken his surname. Arnobius was his preceptor. He studied rhetoric in Africa, and with so great reputation, that Constantine the Roman emperor appointed him preceptor to his son Crispus. This brought him to court; but he was so far from giving into the pleasures or corruptions incident to that station, that, amidst very great opportunities of amassing riches, he lived so poor as even frequently to want necessaries. He is account^d the most eloquent of all the ecclesiastical Latin authors. He formed himself upon Cicero, and wrote in such a pure, smooth, and natural, style, and so much in the taste and manner of the lloman orator, that he is generally distinguished by the title of “The Christian Cicero.” We have several pieces of his, the principal of which is his “Institutiones Divinae,” in seven books, composed about the year 320, in defence of Christianity, against all its opposers. Of this treatise he made an abridgment, of which we have only a part, and added it to another tract, “De Ira Divina.” In 1777 the late sir David Dalrymple lord Hailes, published with notes a correct edition of the fifth book “De Justitia,Edin. 12mo. Lactantius had before written a book “De Operibus Dei,” in which he proves the creation of man, and the divine providence. St. Jerome mentions other works of our author, as “Two Books to Æsclepiades;” “Eight Books of Letters;” a book entitled “The Festin,” composed before he went to Nicomedia; a poem in hexameter verse, containing a description of his journey thither; a treatise entitled “The Grammarian;” and another, “De Persecutione.” Concerning this last tract, there are various opinions. Dr. Lardner, after stating the evidence on both sides, seems inclined to deny that it was written by LaCtantius. He allows, however, that it is a very valuable work, containing; a short account of the sufferings of Christians under several of the Roman emperors, from the death and resurrection of Christ to Dioclesian; and then a particular history of the persecution excited by that emperor, with the causes and springs of it; as well as the miserable deaths of its chief instruments. The learned judge above mentioned, who published a translation of this work in 1782, Edin. 12mo, has also examined the opinions of those who have treated of its authenticity, with far more acuteness than Lardner, and concludes with Baluze, Mosheim, and other eminent critics, that the treatise “De Mortibus Persecutorum” was written by Lactantius. Lord Hailes’s preface is a master-piece of critical inquiry, nor are his notes and illustrations, which occupy one half of the volume, of less merit or utility.

rote, 1. “A Vindication of Robert, the third king of Scotland, from the imputation of bastardy, &c.” Edin. 1695, 4to. 2. “Synopsis Apocalyptica; or a short and plain

Douglas describes him as a man of singular endowments, great learning, well versed in the laws and antiquities of his country, and an able statesman. Macky, or rather Davis, adds, that “he had a great deal of wit, and was the pleasantest companion in the world; had been very handsome in his person; was tall and fair complexioned; much esteemed by the royal society, a great master in philosophy, and well received as a writer by men of letters.” Bishop Nicolson notices a copy of the continuation of Fordun’s “Scotichronicon” in the hand-writing of this nobleman, whom he terms “a judicious preserver of the antiquities of his country.” He wrote, 1. “A Vindication of Robert, the third king of Scotland, from the imputation of bastardy, &c.Edin. 1695, 4to. 2. “Synopsis Apocalyptica; or a short and plain Explication and Application of Daniel’s Prophecy, and St. John’s Revelation, in consent with it, and consequential to it; by G. E. of C. tracing in the steps of the admirable lord Napier of Merchiston,Edin. 1708. 3. “An historical Account of the Conspiracies, by the earls of Gourie, and Robert Logan of Restalrig, against king James VI. of glorious memory, &c.Edin. 1713, 8vo. Mr. Gough has pointed out three papers on natural curiosities, by lord Cromerty, in the “Philosophical Transactions” and “A Vindication,” by him, of the reformation of the church of Scotland, with some account of the Records, was printed in the Scots’ Magazine, for August 1802, from a ms. in the possession of Mr. Constable, bookseller, of Edinburgh.

Memoirs of the affairs of Scotland from 1577 to 1603, with a discourse on the conspiracy of Cowrie,” Edin. 12mo. It contains many curious particulars, which have not

, a political character, was born at Lanerk, in Scotland, 1573, and, while very young, became one of the pages to king James, and afterwards one of the gentlemen of his privy chamber. In that station he continued many years, and became well acquainted with most of the secrets at court. He was present with king James at Perth, 1600, when the famous conspiracy of the earl of Gowry took place; but the account he has given us of that problematical affair contains nothing either interesting or satisfactory. He accompanied king James into England, where he remained some years; but afterwards returned to Scotland, and spent his days in retirement. He kept a diary of what passed at court, the ms. of which is now in the advocates’ library in Edinburgh; and an edition of it was printed in 1753, under the title of “Memoirs of the affairs of Scotland from 1577 to 1603, with a discourse on the conspiracy of Cowrie,Edin. 12mo. It contains many curious particulars, which have not been taken notice of by general historians. He died at Edinburgh, 1630, aged fifty-seven.

he city, to a minister in the country, on Mr. David Williamson’s sermon before the General Assembly,“Edin. 1703. 7.” A brief examination of some things in Mr. Meldrum’s

Bishop Sage was a man profoundly skilled in all the ancient languages, which gave him an eminent advantage over his adversaries, the most distinguished of whom was Mr. Gilbert Rule, principal of the college of Edinburgh, who, with much zeal, and no mean abilities, was overmatched by the superior learning and historical knowledge of his antagonist. Sage wrote the second and third letters, concerning the persecution of the episcopal clergy in Scotland, which were printed at London, in 1689, the rev. Thomas Morer having written the first, and professor Monro the fourth. 2. “An account of the late establishment of Presbyterian Government by the parliament of Scotland in 1690,” Lond. 1693. 3. “The fundamental charter of Presbytery,' 7 ibid. 1695. 4.” The principles of the Cyprianic age with regard to episcopal power and jurisdiction,“ibid. 1695. 5.” A Vindication“of the preceding, ibid. 1701. 6.” Some remarks on a Letter from a gentleman in the city, to a minister in the country, on Mr. David Williamson’s sermon before the General Assembly,“Edin. 1703. 7.” A brief examination of some things in Mr. Meldrum’s sermon, preached May 16, 1703, against a toleration to those of the episcopal persuasion,“ibid. 1703. 8.” The reasonableness of a toleration of those of the Episcopal persuasion inquired into purely on church principles,“ibid. 1704. 9.” The Life of Gawin Douglas,“bishop of Dunkeld, prefixed to Ruddiman’s edition of” Douglas’s Virgil,“1710. 10.” An Introduction to Drummond’s History of the Five James’s," Edin. 1711, with notes by Ruddiman, who always spoke highly of Sage as a scholar and companion.

folio, concerning Scotland as it was of old, and also in later times. By sir Robert Sibbald, M. D.” Edin. 1739. They were, however, at that time sold separately, or

We have hitherto considered sir Robert as a physician and naturalist, but his reputation is more securely founded on his having been the first who illustrated the antiquities of his native country, in various learned essays, the titles of which it is unnecessary to give, as the whole were printed in “A collection of several treatises in folio, concerning Scotland as it was of old, and also in later times. By sir Robert Sibbald, M. D.Edin. 1739. They were, however, at that time sold separately, or bound together. Of all Mr. Gough gives a particular account, and also of his Mss* now in the Advocates’ library. Sir Robert likewise published a piece entitled “The liberty and independency of the kingdom and church of Scotland asserted, from ancient records in three parts,1701, 4to, now very rarely to be met with and “De Gestis Gul. Valise,Edin. 1705, 8vo. A catalogue of his library was printed at Edinburgh, 1722, in 8vo.

4to. 3. “Hydrostatics,” Eclin. 1672, 4to. 4. “Hydrostatical Experiments, with a Discourse on Coal,” Edin. 1680, 8vo. 5. “Principles of Astronomy and Navigation,” Edin.

He published, 1. “Tyrocinia mathematica,” Glas. 1661, 12nto. 2. “Ars Nova et Magna Gravitatis et Levitatis,” Rotterd. 1669, 4to. 3. “Hydrostatics,” Eclin. 1672, 4to. 4. “Hydrostatical Experiments, with a Discourse on Coal,Edin. 1680, 8vo. 5. “Principles of Astronomy and Navigation,Edin. 1688, 12mo. Mr. Sinclare’s writings, in the opinion of a very able judge, are not destitute of ingenuity and research, though they may contain some erroneous and eccentric views. His work on Hydrostatics, and his “Ars Nova et Magna,” and perhaps also his political principles, provoked the indignation of some persons; on which occasion Mr. James Gregory, then professor of mathematics at St. Andrew’s, animadverted on him rather severely in a treatise entitled, “The great and new art of weighing Vanity,” &c. (See Gregory, vol. XVI. p. 278). Besides the works above mentioned, a publication in defence of witchcraft, entitled “Satan’s Invisible World,” has been ascribed to him: it bears the initials G. S. of his name; and witchcraft was a standard article of belief in Scotland at that time. He also translated and published under the same initials Dickson’s “Truth’s Victory over Error,” suppressing the author’s name (see David Dickson), for which he is censured by Wodrow, the ecclesiastical historian and biographer of professor Dickson, while he allows him the merit of some good intention.