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a French nobleman, was born at Clermont in 1565. His life was

, a French nobleman, was born at Clermont in 1565. His life was a continued series of misfortunes and escapes. He was one of the king’s magistrates in 1590, when he was attacked and dangerously wounded by eleven of those men who were endeavouring to raise the country against Henry IV. and in favour of the league. He had scarcely recovered, when, in company with his father, he was again attacked and wounded by the same men. He determined now to quit Gascony, and pass into Hungary but his servant with whom he set out robbed him and left htm destitute with some difficulty, however, he reached Paris, where he found friends was introduced to court, plunged into all manner of pleasures, and forgot his former losses and his former resolutions. But here he fell sick, and had scarcely recovered, when he wounded a false friend in a duel, and was obliged to make his escape. He wandered for & considerable time from place to place, spent much money, contracted debts, became poor, and lost his friends. Again he surmounted his difficulties, when for some crime he was thrown into prison he vindicated his innocence, plunged again into a set of adventurous troubles, and at last was assassinated in 1630. He was a voluminous writer both in verse and prose, published Romances and books of Devotion translated Cervantes’ novels, and a work entitled “Usage des Duels,1617, 8vo. His works shew some marks of genius, but partook too much of the irregularities of their author to enjoy long reputation.

a French nobleman, and officer of bravery and honour, was a native

, a French nobleman, and officer of bravery and honour, was a native of Auvergne, and a relative of the marquis La Fayette. After having served in the dragoons, he became colonel of the regiment of Vexin infantry. Having attained the rank of majorgeneral, the king appointed him governor-general of the Windward islands. In 1778 he took possession of Dominica, St. Eustatk, and soon after St. Christopher’s, Nevis, and Montserrat. His conduct while in that command was allowed by the English commanders to be honourable and disinterested. On his return, he was made lieutenantgeneral. On the breaking out of the revolution in 1789, finding that he commanded in the three bishoprics, he brought back to its duty the revolted garrison of Metz, and on that occasion saved the life of M. de Pont, intendant of the province. He afterwards caused Francois de Neufchateau, and two other electors, arrested by order of the king’s attorney, to be set at liberty. On the 5th of September the same year, the national assembly was informed by one of its members, Gregoire, that M. de Bouille had not administered the civic oath individually, and a decree was passed obliging him to do so. In 1790, he was commissioned to bring under subjection the garrison of Nancy, which had risen against its chiefs; accordingly he advanced upon the town with four thousand men, and succeeded in this enterprize, in which he shewed much bravery, and which at first gained him great praises from the national assembly, and afterwards as many reproaches. Being chosen by the unfortunate Louis XVI. to facilitate his escape from Paris in June 1791, he marched at the head of a body of troops to protect the passage of the royal family; but this design failed from reasons now well known, and which he has faithfully detailed in his memoirs: and the marquis himself had some difficulty in making his escape. From Luxembourg he wrote his memorable letter to the assembly, threatening, that if a hair of the king’s head were touched, he would not leave one stone upon another in Paris. This served only to irritate the revolutionists, who decreed that he should be tried for contumacy; but he was fortunately out of their reach. From Vienna whither he had at first gone, he passed to the court of Sweden, where he was favourably received by Gustavus III. but after his death, M. de BoniHe“found it necessary to retire to England, where he passed the remainder of his days in security, and much esteemed for his fidelity to his sovereign. He died in London Nov. 14, 1800. In 1797 he published in English,” Memoirs relating to the French Revolution," 8vo; one of those works of which future historians may avail themselves in appreciating the characters and events connected with that important period of French history.

a French nobleman of high character and abilities, was frequently

, a French nobleman of high character and abilities, was frequently employed in the sixteenth century by Charles IX. and Henry III. of France in negociations of great importance; and among other destinations, he was five times ambassador in England, and the first time resided above ten years. The “Memoirs of his Negociations” published by Le Laboreur in 1669, 2 vols. fol. and reprinted at Brussels in 1731, 3 vols. fol. afford much interesting and authentic information respecting the history of his time. He died in 1592. His Memoirs were translated into English by the rev. Mr. Kelly, Lond. 1724, fol.

a French nobleman, born at Paris in 1602, was, like the English

, a French nobleman, born at Paris in 1602, was, like the English lord Rochester, a great wit, a great libertine, and a great penitent. He made a vast progress in his studies under the Jesuits, who, perceiving his genius, endeavoured to get him into their society; but his family would not listen to their proposal, and he soon himself began to treat them with ridicule. While very young, his father procured him the place of a counsellor in the parliament of Paris, where his wit was aumired but he would never report a cause; for he used to say that it was a sordid occupation, and unworthy of a man of parts, to read wrangling papers with attention, and to endeavour to understand them. It is said, indeed, that on one occasion, when his clients were urgent for a decision, he sent for both parties, burnt the papers before them, and paid down the sum that was the cause of the dispute, to the amount of four or five hundred livres. One account says, that he left this place from the following cause. Cardinal Richelieu falling in love with the celebrated beauty Marion de Lorme, whose affections were entirely placed on our Des Barreaux, proposed to him by a third hand, that if he would resign his mistress, he should have whatever he should desire. Des Barreaux answered the proposal in a jesting way, feigning to believe the cardinal incapable of so much weakness. This enraged the minister so highly, that he persecuted Des Barreaux as long as he lived, and forced him not only to quit his place, but even to leave the kingdom. But another account says that his resignation of the bar was voluntary, and with a view to become a man of pleasure, which appears to be more probable. During his career, however, he made a great number of Latin and French verses, and. some pleasing songs; but never pursued any thing seriously, except good cheer and diversions, and being very entertaining in company, he was in high request with men of wit and taste. He had his particular friends in the several provinces of France, whom he frequently visited, and it was his practice to shift his quarters, according to the seasons of the year. In winter, he went to seek the sun on the coasts of Provence; and passed the three worst months in the year at Marseilles. The house which he called his favourite, was that of the count de Clermont de Lodeve, in Languedoc; where, he used to say, good cheer and liberty were on their throne. Sometimes he went to Balzac, on the banks of the Charante but his chief residence was at Chenailles on the Loire. His general view in these ramblings was to search out the best fruits and the best wines in the climates: but sometimes, to do him justice, his object was more intellectual, as, when he went into Holland, on purpose to see Des Cartes, and to improve hr the instructions of that great genius. His friends do not deny that he was a great libertine; but pretend, that fame, according to custom, had said more of him than is true, and that, in the latter part of his life, he was convinced of the reality of religion. They say, that he did not disapprove the truths of Christianity, and wished to be fully convinced of them; but he thought nothing was so dim'cult to a man of wit as to be a true believer. He was born a catholic, but paid little attention either to the worship or doctrines of the Romish religion; and he used to say, that if the Scriptures are to be the rule of our actions and of our belief, there was no better religion than the protestant. Four or five years before his death, we are told that he entirely forsook his vicious courses, paid his debts, and, having never been married, gave up the remainder of his estate to his sisters; reserving to himself for life an annuity of 4000 livres. He then retired to Chalon on the Soane, which he said was the best and purest air in France; hired a small house, and was visited by the better sort of people, particularly by the bishop, who afterwards spoke well of him. He died in that city, May 9. 1673, having made the famous devout sonnet two or three years before his death, which begins, “Grand Dieu, tes jugemens,” &c. But Voltaire has endeavoured to deprive him of the merit of this, by ascribing it to the abbe de Levau. It is, however, the only one of Des Barreaux’s poems, which in general were in the style of Sarazin and Chapelle, that has obtained approbation, Dreux du Radier, in his “Recreations historiques,” asserts that it is an imitation of a sonnet by Desportes, who published it in 1G03; and if so, the imitation must be allowed greatly to surpass the original.

g and furnishing one of his mansion-houses. The current tradition is, that this house was erected by a French nobleman, who was taken prisoner by our famous knight,

The ruins of his house at Castre still remaining, shew it to have been alike capacious and strong. It was moate4 round, but the moat is now for the most part filled up. The grand entrance was on the West. The house formed a rectangled parallelogram the south and north sides longer than east and west the stables in front the best rooms on the right hand of the square, under which side is a noble vault, and over it probably the hall. The embattled brick tower at the north west corner is standing, above one hundred feet high; and over one of the windows were carved his arms in the garter as above described, supported by angels, now removed; on one of the doors a saltire engrailed. To it adjoined a dining-parlour, fifty-nine feet long, and twenty-eight broad. East from the castle stood the college, forming three sides of a square larger than the former, with two round towers; the whole converted into barns and stables. The castle moat is said to have communicated with a navigable creek, and in a farm housa north west of the mansion, called the barge-house, is shewn a large arch, capable of receiving a boat of considerable burthen. Weever says he had licence from Henry VI. to build his house castle-wise as a fortification on that side of Yarmouth, to which perhaps relates the licence granted him 1443, 22 Hen. VI. to employ some of the king’s ships to carry materials for building and furnishing one of his mansion-houses. The current tradition is, that this house was erected by a French nobleman, who was taken prisoner by our famous knight, according to the model and architecture of his own castle in France, as the price of his ransom.

, Count d'Ansembray, a French nobleman, was born at Paris in 1678. During his education

, Count d'Ansembray, a French nobleman, was born at Paris in 1678. During his education he discovered an inclination for mathematical pursuits, and was instructed in the philosophy of Des Cartes. After this he increased his knowledge by an acquaintance with Huygens, Ruysh, Boerhaave, and other eminent men of the time. On his return from his travels he was appointed director-general of the posts in France; but, coming into possession of a country-seat at Bercy, by the death of his father, he collected a museum there furnished with philosophical and mechanical instruments, and machines of every description, which attracted the attention of the learned, and was visited by Peter the Great, the emperor of Germany, and other princes. In the Transactions of the Academy of Sciences, of which he was a member, there are several of his papers; among which is a description of an “Instrument for the Measurement of Liquids” of“An Areometer, or Wind Gage” and of a “Machine for beating regular Time in Music.” He died in 1753, bequeathing his valuable museum to the academy.

, marquis of, a French nobleman, still more distinguished by his talents in

, marquis of, a French nobleman, still more distinguished by his talents in poetry than by his rank, was born at Montauban in 1709. He was educated for the magistracy, and became advocategeneral, and first president of the court of aids at Montauban. His inclination for poetry, however, could not be repressed, and at the age of twenty-five he produced his tragedy of “Dido,” in which he approved himself not only one of the most successful imitators of Racine, but an able and elegant poet. After this success at Paris, he returned to his duties at Montauban, which he fulfilled in the most upright manner; but having suffered a short exile, on account of some step which displeased the court, he became digusted with the office of a magistrate. As he had now also increased his fortune by an advantageous marriage, he determined to remove to Paris, where at first he was received as his virtues and his talents deserved. His sincere attachment to Christianity brought upon him a persecution from the philosophists, which, after a time, drove him back to the country. Voltaire and his associates had nowinundated France with their deistical tracts the materialism of Helvetius in his book de TEsprit, had just been brought forward in the most triumphant manner the enemies of Christianity had filled the Encyclopedic with the poison of their opinions, and had by their intrigues formed a powerful party in the French academy, when the marquis of Pompignan was admitted as an academician, in 1760. He had the courage, at his admission, to pronounce a discourse, the object of which was to prove that the man of virtue and religion is the only true philosopher. From this moment he was the object of perpetual persecution. Voltaire and his associates were indefatigable in pouring out satires against him: his religion was called hypocrisy, and his public declaration in its favour an attempt to gain the patronage of certain leading men. These accusations, as unjust as they were illiberal, mingled with every species of sarcastic wit, had the effect of digusting the worthy marquis with Paris. He retired to his estate of Pompignan, where he passed the remainder of his<laysin the practice of a true philosophy, accompanied by sincere piety and died of an apoplexy in 1784, at the age of seventy-five, most deeply regretted by his neighbours and dependents. The shameful treatment of this excellent man, by the sect which then reigned in the academy, is a strong illustration of that conspiracy against religion, so ably detailed by M. Barruel, in the first volume of his Memoirs of Jacobinism. When once he had declared himself a zealous Christian no merit was allowed him, nor any effort spared to overwhelm him with disgrace and mortification. His compositions nevertheless were, and are, esteemed by impartial judges. His “Sacred Odes,” notwithstanding the sarcasm of Voltaire, “sacred they are, for no one touches them,” abound in poetical spirit, and lyric beauties though it is confessed also that they have their inequalities. His “Discourses imitated from the books of Solomon,” contain important moral truths, delivered with elegance, and frequently with energy. His imitation of the Georgics of Virgil, though inferior to that of the abbe De Lille (whose versification is the richest and most energetic of modern French writers), has yet considerable merit and his “Voyage de Languedoc,” though not equal, in easy and lively negligence to that of Chapelle, is superior in elegance, correctness, and variety. He wrote also some operas which were not acted and a comedy in verse, in one act, called “Les Adieux de Mars,” which was represented with success at the Italian comic theatre in Paris. The marquis of Pompignan was distinguished also as a writer in prose. His “Eulogium on the Duke of Burgundy,” is written with an affecting simplicity. His “Dissertations,” his “Letter to the younger Racine,” and his “Academical Discourses,” all prove a sound judgment, a correct taste, and a genius improved by careful study of the classic models. He produced also a “Translation of some dialogues of Lucian,” and some “Tragedies of Æschylus,” which are very generally esteemed. He was allowed to be a man of vast literature, and almost universal knowledge in the fine arts. Yet such a man was to be ill-treated, and crushed if possible, because he had the virtue to declare himself a partizan of religion. Even his enemies, and the most inflexible of them, Voltaire, were unable to deny the merit of some of his poetical compositions. The following stanza in particular, in “An- Ode on the Death of Rousseau,” obtained a triumph for him in defiance of prejudice. The intention seems to be to illustrate the vanity of those who speak against religion: