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an eminent orientalist, was a native of Paris, where he was educated;

, an eminent orientalist, was a native of Paris, where he was educated; and, applying himself to study the eastern languages, became a great master in the Hebrew and Arabic. He was trained up in the Roman Catholic religion, and taking orders, was made a canon regular of the abbey of St. Genevieve, but becoming dissatisfied with his religion, and marrying after he had left his convent, he was upon that account obliged to quit his native country, came to England, and embraced the faith and doctrine of that church in the beginning of the eighteenth century. He was well received here, and met with many friends, who gave him handsome encouragement, particularly archbishop Sharp, and the lord chancellor' Macclesfield, to which last he dedicated his edition of Abulfeda. He had a master of arts degree conferred upon him at Cambridge; and going thence to Oxford, for the sake of prosecuting his studies in the Bodleian library, he was admitted to the same degree in that university, where he supported himself by teaching Hebrew. He had previously been made chaplain to Dr. William Lloyd, bishop of Worcester, whom he accompanied to Oxford.

an eminent Orientalist of Italy, was born about 1596, at Magliano.

, an eminent Orientalist of Italy, was born about 1596, at Magliano. After going through his studies, he entered among the regular minor clerks, and made his profession at Rome in 1612. His genius prompted him to the study of languages, to which he devoted himself entirely; so that he acquired the Greek, Hebrew, Chaldean, Syriac, Persian, and Arabic languages, but excelled chiefly in the Arabic. He spent the greatest part of his life in translating books from that language, and in writing books in it, to facilitate the learning of it to others. He taught it many years in the college della Sapienza at Rome; and was indeed so perfect a master of it, that he spoke an oration in it before Christina, queen of Sweden, in 1656. The eastern prelates presented a petition to Urban VIII. to have the Bible translated into Arabic; and, the congregation “de propaganda fide” complying with their desires, Guadagnolo was immediately selected as the person best qualified to undertake this great work. He began it in 1622, and finished it in 1649; having, however, assistants under him, and sometimes only acting the part of a corrector. During the time that he was employed in it, he gave an account twice a week of ?vhat progress he had made to a congregation assembled for that purpose. It was published ai Home, 1671, in 3 vols. folio, with this title, “Biblia Sacra Arabica Sacra? Congregationis de propaganda fide jussu edita ad usuia ecclesiarum orientalium. Additis c regione Bibliis Vulgatis Latinis.” In 1631 he published a Latin work entitled “Apologia pro Christiana Religione, qua responde* tur ad objectiones Ahmed filii Zin Alabedin Persoe Asphaensis contetitas in Ifbro inscripto, Politor Speculi,” 4to. The history of this work was as follows: A Spaniard had published a religious book entitled “The true Lookingglass;” which falling into the hands of a learned Persian, he wrote an answer to it in his native tongue, entitled ‘.’ The Polisher of the Looking-glass“and added these words at the end of it” Let the pope answer it.“This book being brought to Rome in 1625, Urban VIII. ordered Guadagnolo to refute it; which he did so effectually, that the Persian, to whom it was sent, renounced the Mahometan faith, and became as zealous a defender of Christianity as he had before been an opposer of it. Guadagnolo published his apology in Arabic, in 1637, 4to. He wrote another work in Arabic and Latin, entitled” Considerations against the Mahometan Religion;“in which he shews, that the Koran is a mere rhapsody of falsehood and imposture. He published also at Rome, in 1642,” Breves Institutiones Linguae Arabicae," folio; a very methodical grammar. He had also compiled a dictionary in that language, but the publication of it was prevented by his death, which happened in 1656. The ms. is preserved in the convent of San Lorenzo in Lucina.

an eminent Orientalist of France, was born at Paris Dec. 14, 1625.

, an eminent Orientalist of France, was born at Paris Dec. 14, 1625. When he had gone through classical literature and philosophy, he applied himself to the Oriental languages; and especially to the Hebrew, for the sake of understanding the original text of the Old Testament. After a continual application for several years, he took a journey to Rome, thinking that conversing with Armenians, and other eastern people who frequented that city, would make him perfect in the knowledge of their languages.

an eminent Orientalist, and professor of Arabic in Cambridge, was

, an eminent Orientalist, and professor of Arabic in Cambridge, was of a gentleman’s family, at Great Ellingham in Norfolk, where his father lived; but was accidentally born at Exeter in 1678. After a proper foundation laid in school-learning, he was sent, in 1693, to Queen’s college in Cambridge, where he soon distinguished himself by great quickness of parts as well as intense application to literature; to the Oriental languages more particularly, for his uncommon skill in which he afterwards became famous. He took, at the usual time, the degrees in arts, and that of bachelor in divinity. Having taken orders also, he was, in 1705, through the interest of Simon Patrick, bishop of Ely, presented by Jesus college, in Cambridge, to the vicarage of Swavesey, in that county; and, in 1711, chosen Arabic professor of the university. These preferments he held to the day of his death, which happened at Swavesey, Aug. 9, 1720, immaturely to himself, but more so to his family.

an eminent orientalist, was born at Ryp, a village in North-Holland,

, an eminent orientalist, was born at Ryp, a village in North-Holland, July 17, 1676. His father was minister of that village, but afterwards removed to Alkmaar, and then to Amsterdam, in which last city Reland was educated with great care; and at eleven years of age, having passed through the usual courses at school, was placed in the college under Surenhusius. During three years of study under this professor, he made a great progress in the Hebrew, Syriac, Chaldee, and Arabic languages; and at his leisure hours applied himself to poetry, in which he was thought to succeed. At fourteen, he was sent to Utrecht; where he studied under Grrevius and Leusden, acquired a more perfect knowledge of the Latin and oriental tongues, and applied himself aiso to philosophy, in which he afterwards took the degree of doctor. At seventeen, he entered upon divinity under the direction of Herman Witsius and others; but did not abandon the oriental languages, which were always his favourite study. After he had resided six years at Utrecht, his father sent him to Leyden, to continue his theological studies under Frederic Spanheim and others; where he soon received the offer of a professorship at Linden, either in philosophy or the oriental languages. This he would have accepted, though only two and twenty; but his father’s ill state of health would not allow him to remove so far from Amsterdam. In 1699, he was elected professor of philosophy at Harderwick, but did not continue there long; for, king William having recommended him to the magistrates of Utrecht, he was offered in 1701 the professorship of oriental languages and ecclesiastical history, which he readily accepted. In 1703, he took a wife, by whom he had three children. In 1713, a society for the advancement of Christian knowledge was established in England, as was that for the propagation of the gospel in foreign parts the year after; of both which Reland became a member. He died of the small-pox, at Utrecht, Feb. 5, 1718, in his forty-second year. He was a man of an excellent disposition, and of great humanity and modesty, of great learning, and had a correspondence with the most eminent scholars of his time.