, of Thessalonica, was one of the Greek refugees who brought learning
, of Thessalonica, was one of the Greek refugees who brought learning into the West in the fifteenth century. He was considered as the ablest professor next to Theodorus Gaza, and, perhaps, he exceeded him in the knowledge of the Greek tongue, for he had read all the authors in that language, and was well skilled in Aristotle’s philosophy. He taught at Rome, and lived with cardinal Bessarion. The stipend which was given him was so small, that he was obliged by poverty to depart from Rome; upon this he went to Florence, where he was a professor a long time, and had a vast number of auditors, but upon the expectation of meeting with more generous encouragement in France, he took a journey thither, where he died in 1478, in a very advanced age.
nted with Greek, and brought with him, at his own expense, from Venice to Florence, Leontius Pilatus of Thessalonica, and entertained him in his house for three years.
Before this time, all his works, and they only works of amusement, were written in Italian, but now he began to compose on the subjects of literature aud history in Latin, and one of these treatises was the first modern work that gave any account of the mythological notions of the antients. We have already noticed that he was well acquainted with Greek, and brought with him, at his own expense, from Venice to Florence, Leontius Pilatus of Thessalonica, and entertained him in his house for three years. During this time he improved his knowledge of Greek, and Leontius went over the Iliad and Odyssey with him, translating it into Latin. Boccaccio wa_s the first who was at the expence of importing from Greece Mss. of both the Iliad and Odyssey, among many other valuable Mss. both Greek and Latin, by which he endeavoured to introduce a taste for these valuable remains of antiquity, and particularly for the Greek authors, in preference to the scholastic studies, which alone were at this time pursued in the schools.
ing of his cause to the bishops of Mecodon, his neighhours, under their metropolitan Anysius, bishop of Thessalonica. The bishops assembled, agreeably to the order
, an ancient prelate of the fourth century, is known in church history as the heretical bishop of Naissus in Dacia, though some authors say of Sardica, the metropolis of that province. In the year 391 he was accused of crimes against the canons of the chnrch and the law of God, and was reported for heresy at the council of Capua, which met the latter end of that year. The particulars of his crimes cannot now be known, but his heresy may be gathered from St. Augustin and St. Ambrose. He had, before, been condemned by Damasus, bishop of Rome, who died A. D. 384. The council of Capua committed the hearing of his cause to the bishops of Mecodon, his neighhours, under their metropolitan Anysius, bishop of Thessalonica. The bishops assembled, agreeably to the order of the council, and Bonosus appeared before them; after examination, they were so well convinced of the truth of the charge, that they immediately suspended him from all episcopal functions; at the same time writing a letter to Syricius bishop of Rome, declaring their abhorrence of the detestable error, that the virgin Mary should have other children than Christ. Bonosus died A. D. 410; but his doctrine did not die with him, being maintained by some 200 years after his death. Pope Gregory makes mention of the Bonosians in the latter end of the sixth century.
, archbishop of Thessalonica in the fourteenth century, under the empire of
, archbishop of Thessalonica in
the fourteenth century, under the empire of the Andronicus’s, wrgainst the Latins; the first to prove
that the division between the Greek and Latin churches
is owing in a great measure to the conduct of the Pope, who
wishes to act independently of an œcumenical council, contrary to the usage of the church the second is a 'more
direct attack on the infallibility of the Pope, and reduces
his primacy to merely a primacy of honour; and he urges
many arguments against the assumed power of the pope
which are perfectly consistent with the opinions on which
the reformers afterwards proceeded. These treatises, Du
Pin says, are written with method, perspicuity, and learning. They were at first printed at London in Greek, without date, according to Du Pin, but we have not been able
to discover this edition. They were, however, published in
English at London, in 1560; or at least the latter of them,
under the title “
A Treatise containing a declaration of the
Pope’s usurped primacie; written in Greek above seven
hundred yeares since by Nilus archbishop of Thessalonica.
Translated by Thomas Gressop, student in Oxford,” 8vo.
There are also editions in Greek and Latin at Basil, 1544,
Francfort, 1555, and with Salmasius’s notes, 1608. Our
author also wrote a large work on the procession of the
Holy Ghost, in opposition to the Latins.
, nephew of the preceding, and successor in the archbishopric of Thessalonica, flourished under the reign of Cantacuzenus, and
, nephew of the preceding,
and successor in the archbishopric of Thessalonica, flourished under the reign of Cantacuzenus, and had all his
uncle’s prejudices against the Latins. He also wrote “
the procession of the Holy Ghost; and an exposition of the
Liturgy,” in which he delivers the doctrine of the Greek
church concerning the mass; and which was printed in
Latin at Venice, in 1545, and at Antwerp in 1560; and
in Greek and Latin in the “
Bibliotheca Patrum,” Paris,
Bibliotheca,” is also included his
Life of Jesus Christ,” translated into Latin, and separately printed at Ingolstadt, in 160*. A translation of his
against Usury,” is also contained in the “
Bibliotheca.” In the sciences of mathematics and astronomy,
he is said to have surpassed all his contemporaries.
e emperor Emanuel Comnenus sent a cong6 d'eLre to the synod, enjoining them to choose him archbishop of Thessalonica. In this he displayed great prudence, knowledge
, a learned critic of the twelfth century, was born at Constantinople. He was at first master of the rhetoricians (rhetorum magister), and afterwards deacon of the great church, under the patriarchate of Lucas Chrysobergus, who arrived at that dignity in 1155, and appears to have conferred many favours on Eustatius. Having been, elected bishop of Myra in Lycia, he had accepted the office, and was about to be consecrated, when the emperor Emanuel Comnenus sent a cong6 d'eLre to the synod, enjoining them to choose him archbishop of Thessalonica. In this he displayed great prudence, knowledge of business, and extensive learning, as appears by his works. In 1180 he was one of the prelates who remonstrated against the order of Emanuel Comnenus to erase from the Greek catechism, a censure of what is said of God by Mahomet in the Alcoran. Five years after, we find Eusebius displaying his spirit and regard for his flock in a remarkable manner. Andronicus Comnenus, cousin-german of the emperor Emanuel, had usurped the throne, fey causing Alexis, the son and successor of Emanuel, to be strangled in 1183. This act of barbarity procured Andronicus many enemies, and among the rest Alexis Comnenus, the nephew of Emanuel, to whom he had been cup-bearer, and who was afterwards banished to Scythia by him. Alexis went then to Sicily, to the court of William II. surnamed the Good, and excited him to declare war against the empire of Constantinople. The king of Sicily, who appears to have wanted little persuasion on this occasion, raised an army, passed the straights, and took the city of Duras. He then went by sea to Thessalonica, which he besieged both by sea and land. Eustatkius would not for a moment quit his flock amidst so many dangers, but shut himself up in the city, endured the hardships ofthe siege, with the greatest fortitude, and exhorted his people to bear with Christian patience the chastisements of the Almighty. The city was at last taken by the cowardice of the governor, and was pillaged, the churches themselves not being spared, and the inhabitants were treated with the utmost cruelty by the conquerors. Eustathius, not fearing their power, addressed himself with so much spirit and eloquence to the Sicilian commanders, as to obtain a considerable alleviation of the sufferings of the inhabitants, from which they were entirely delivered the following year. Nicetas attributes this in a great measure to the prayers of their archbishop. The time of his death is unknown, but he appears to have been alive in 1194.
by the learned Heyne, 1802, 8 vols. 8vo. The most elaborate commentary is that by Eustathius, bishop of Thessalonica, and the best English translation is that by Pope:
The editions of Homer are numerous beyond those of any other classic, and there are many excellent ones; perhaps the best are, that by Dr. Barnes with the Greek scholia, in two vols. 4to; that by Dr. Clarke published in 1729, 4to and that by the learned Heyne, 1802, 8 vols. 8vo. The most elaborate commentary is that by Eustathius, bishop of Thessalonica, and the best English translation is that by Pope: though Cowper’s, in blank verse, is thought to come nearer to the original. The French, and almost every nation, has its translation of Homer.
ristophero Landino’s instructions in the Latin language. His preceptors in the Greek were Andronicus of Thessalonica and John Argyropylus. His abilities, at a very
, a most ingenious and learned Italian, was born July 14, 1454, at Monte Pulciano in Tuscany and from the name of this town, in Latin Mons Politianus, he derived the surname of Politian. His father was a doctor of the civil law. His name, according to M. Baillet, was Benedictus de Cinis, or, de Ambroginis, for he considers the former as a corruption of the latter. Politian, who gave early proofs of an extraordinary genius; had the advantage of Christophero Landino’s instructions in the Latin language. His preceptors in the Greek were Andronicus of Thessalonica and John Argyropylus. His abilities, at a very early period of his life, attracted the notice of Lorenzo and Julius de Medici. An Italian poem, the production of his juvenile pen, in which he celebrated an equestrian spectacle, or Giostra, wherein the latter bore away the prize, greatly contributed to establish his reputation. He was thence honoured with the peculiar patronage of the Medicean family; and, among other persons remarkable for genius and learning, whom the munificence of Lorenzo attracted to Florence, Politian was seen to shinq as a star of the first magnitude. Lorenzo confided to him the education of his own children and in this honourable employment he passed a great part of his life, favoured with the peculiar friendship of his patron, and the society and correspondence of men of letters. Among the more intimate associates of Poiitian, was Picus of Mi ran dula, and between these eminent scholars there was a strict attachment, and a friendly communication of studies. The Platonic philosopher, Marsilius Ficinus, completed this literary triumvirate.