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was born Feb. 15, 1716, at Roanne, in Forez. He entered into the

, was born Feb. 15, 1716, at Roanne, in Forez. He entered into the order of Benedictines, and devoted himself to study, and the composition of numerous works, some of which are correct and useful, and others deformed by absurd hypotheses, and that affectation of novelty which gained many French writers in his day the title of philosophers. These whims are principally found in his “Fables Egyptiennes et Greques devoilees,1786, 2 vols. 8vo, and in his “Dictionnairer mythohermetique.” His more useful publications were, his “Dictionnaire de Peinture, Sculpture, et Gravure,1757; “Discours sur la Physionomie;” “Journal Historique d'un Voyage faite aux iles Malouines, en 1763 et 1764,1769, 2 vols. 8vo. This account of a voyage made by himself was translated into English, and read with some interest at the time of the dispute with Spain, relative to these islands, which are the same with the Falkland islands. “Dissertation sur TAmerique et les Americains:” in this work and in his “Examen des Recherches Philosophiques de Pauvv sur les Americains,” he controverts the opinions of Pauw. He was author of many other works, and communicated several memoirs to the academy of Berlin, of which he was a member, and in which capital he resided a long time as librarian to Frederic II. He at length returned to Valence, in the department of La Drome, where he died about the close of the century.

was born Feb. 15, 1749, at Herborn (where his father was at that

, was born Feb. 15, 1749, at Herborn (where his father was at that time divinityprofessor), and was educated at the university at Leyden, where he applied himself with great diligence to the Arabic, under his father’s instructions, and those of Scheidius, who then lodged in his house. By his father’s advice, he commenced his study of the eastern languages by learning the Arabic, to which he applied during two years, before he began the Hebrew. This, among other reasons, may account for the preference which he always gave to the Arabic literature, and which was so great that he was often heard to wish that the duties of his station would allow him to devote the whole of his time to it. He, however, studied the Greek and Latin classics with the utmost diligence under Hemsterhuis, Rhunkenius, and Valkenaar. He also cultivated an acquaintance with the best modem writers, among whom he in general gave the preference to the English; he was remarkably fond of Pope; and of Shakspeare he was an enthusiastic admirer.