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Councils

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Œcumenical Councils. There are twenty-one recognised, nine Eastern and twelve Western.

The Nine Eastern: (1) Jerusalem; (2 and 8) Nice, 325, 787; (3, 6, 7, 9) Constantinople, 381, 553, 680, 869; (4) Ephesus, 431; (5) Chalcēdon, 451.

The Twelve Western: (10, 11, 12, 13, 19) Latʹeran, 1123, 1139, 1179, 1215, 1517; (14, 15) Synod of Lyon, 1245, 1274; (16) Synod of Vienne, in Dauphine, 1311; (17) Constance, 1414; (18) Basil, 1431–1443; (20) Trent, 1545–1563; (21) Vatican, 1869.

⁂ Of these, the Church of England recognises only the first six, viz.:

325 of Nice, against the Arians.

381 of Constantinople, against “heretics.”

431 of Ephesus, against the Nestorians and Pelagians.

451 of Chalceʹdon, when Athanasius was restored.

553 of Constantinople, against Origen.

680 of Constantinople, against the Menothĕlites (4 syl.).

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Entry taken from Dictionary of Phrase and Fable, edited by the Rev. E. Cobham Brewer, LL.D. and revised in 1895.

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