# GRADUATION

, is used for the act of Graduating, or dividing any thing into degrees.

For an account of the various methods of Graduating
mathematical and astronomical instruments, by straight
and circular diagonals, and by concentric arcs, &c; see
*Plain* Scale, *Nonius,* and *Vernier.* And for an account
of Mr. Bird's improved method of dividing
astronomical instruments, see Mural *Arch.*

Mr. Ramsden, an ingenious mathematical instrumentmaker
of London, has lately published, by encouragement
of the commissioners of longitude, an explanation|
and description of an engine contrived by him for
dividing mathematical instruments, accompanied with
proper drawings; in consideration of which, the said
commissioners have granted to him the sum of 615*l.*
See his book, 4to, 1777.

On the subject of dividing a foot into many thousand parts, for mathematical purposes, see Philos. Trans. vol. 2, p. 457, 459, 541, or Abr. vol. 1, pa. 218, 220, &c. And for an account of various other methods and Graduations, see a paper of Mr. Smeaton's in the Philos. Trans. vol. 76, for the year 1786, p. 1; being “Observations on the Graduation of astronomical instruments; with an explanation of the method invented by the late Mr. Henry Hindley, of York, clockmaker, to divide circles into any given number of parts.”