, or Neck, in Architecture, is the narrowest part of the Tuscan or Doric capitals, lying above the shaft of the pillar, between the astragal and the annulets.

It is also a kind of concave moulding, serving for compartments &c, larger than a scotia, but not so deep.


, in Fortification, is the entrance into a bastion, or a ravelin, or other out-work.

The Gorge of a Bastion, is what remains of the sides of the polygon of a place, after cutting off the curtains; in which case it makes an angle in the centre of the bastion, viz, the angle made by two adjacent curtains produced to meet within the bastion.

In flat bastions, the Gorge is a right line on the curtain, reaching between the two flanks.

Gorge of a Half-moon, or of a Ravelin, is the space between the two ends of their faces next the place.

Gorge of the other out-works, is the interval between their sides next the great ditch.

All the Gorges are to be made without parapets: otherwise the besiegers, having taken possession of a work, might make use of them to defend themselves from the shot of the place. So that they are only fortified with pallisadoes, to prevent a surprize.

The Demi-Gorge, or Half the Gorge, is that part of the polygon between the flank and the centre of the bastion.

GOTHIC Architecture, is that which deviates from the manner, character, proportions, &c, of the antique; having its ornaments wild and chimerical, and its profiles incorrect. This manner of building came originally from the North, whence it was brought, in the 5th century, by the Goths into Germany, and has since been introduced into other countries. The first or most ancient style of Gothic building was very solid, heavy, massive and simple, with semicircular arches, &c: but the more modern style of the Gothic is exceedingly rich, light, and delicate; having an abundance of little whimsical ornaments, with sharp-pointed arches formed by the intersections of different circular segments; also lofty and light spires and steeples, large ramisied windows, clustered pillars, &c. Of this kind are our English cathedrals, and many other old buildings.

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Entry taken from A Mathematical and Philosophical Dictionary, by Charles Hutton, 1796.

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GRAHAM (George)
GRAVESANDE (William James)