, a tye, or complication of a rope, cord, or string, or of the ends of two together. There are divers sorts of knots used for different purposes, which may be explained by shewing the figures of them open, or undrawn, thus. 1. Fig. 1, plate xiii. is a Thumb knot. This is the simplest of all. It is used to tye at the end of a rope, to prevent its opening out: it is also used by taylors &c. at the end of their thread.

Fig. 2, a Loop knot. Used to join pieces of rope &c. together.

Fig. 3, a Draw knot, which is the same as the last; only one end or both return the same way back, as| a b c d. By drawing at a, the part b c d comes through, and the knot is loosed.

Fig. 4, a Ring knot. This serves also to join pieces of cord &c together.

Fig. 5 is another knot for tying cords together. This is used when any cord is often to be loosed.

Fig. 6, a Running knot, to draw any thing close. By pulling at the end a; the cord is drawn through the loop b, and the part c d is drawn close about a beam, &c.

Fig. 7 is another knot, to tye any thing to a post. And here the end may be put through as often as you please.

Fig. 8, a Very small knot. A thumb knot is sirst made at the end of each piece, and then the end of the other is passed through it. Thus, the cord a c runs through the loop d, and b d through c; and then drawn close by pulling at a and b. If the ends e and f be drawn, the knot will be loosed again.

Fig. 9, a Fisher's knot, or Water knot. This is the same as the 4th, only the ends are to be put twice through the ring, which in the former was but once; and then drawn close.

Fig. 10, a Meshing knot, for nets; and is to be drawn close.

Fig. 11, a Barber's knot, or a knot for cawls of wigs; and is to be drawn close.

Fig. 12, a Bowline knot. When this is drawn close, it makes a loop that will not slip, as fig. 7; and serves to hitch over any thing.

Fig. 13, a Wale knot, which is made with the three strands of a rope, so that it cannot slip. When the rope is put through a hole, this knot keeps it from slipping through. When the three strands are wrought round once or twice more, after the same manner, it is called crowning. By this means the knot is made larger and stronger. A thumb knot, N<*>. 1, may be applied to the same use as this.

Knots mean also the divisions of the log line, used at sea. These are usually 7 fathom, or 42 feet asunder; but should be 8 1/3 fathom, or 50 feet. And then, as many knots as the log line runs out in half a minute, so many miles does the ship sail in an hour; supposing her to keep going at an equal rate, and allowing for yaws, leeway, &c.

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Entry taken from A Mathematical and Philosophical Dictionary, by Charles Hutton, 1796.

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KIRCH (Christian Frederic)
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