Scholasticism, the name given to the philosophy that prevailed in Europe during the Middle Ages, particularly in the second half of them, and has been generally characterised as an attempt at conciliation between dogma and thought, between faith and reason, an attempt to form a scientific system on that basis, founded on the pre-supposition that the creed of the Church was absolutely true, and capable of rationalisation.

Definition taken from The Nuttall Encyclopædia, edited by the Reverend James Wood (1907)

Schnitzer, Eduard * Scholiasts
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Schiller, Friedrich
Schlegel, August Wilhelm von
Schlegel, Friedrich von
Schleicher, August
Schleiermacher, Friedrich Ernest Daniel
Schlemihl, Peter
Schliemann, Heinrich
Schlossner, Friedrich Christoph
Schmalkaldic League
Schnitzer, Eduard
Scholten, Hendrik
Schomberg, Duke of
Schoolcraft, Henry Rowe
Schopenhauer, Arthur
Schouvaloff, Count Peter
Schreiner, Olive