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Certain theologians of the Middle Ages; so called because they lectured in the cloisters or cathedral schools founded by Charlemagne and his immediate successors. They followed the fathers, from whom they differed in reducing every subject to a system, and may be grouped under three periods—

First Period. Platonists (from ninth to twelfth century).

(1) Pierre Abélard (1079–1142).

(2) Flacius Albinus Alcuin (735–804).

(3) John Scotus Erigĕna.

(4) Anselm. Doctor Scholasticus. (1050–1117.)

(5) Berengaʹrius of Tours (1000–1088).

(6) Gerbert of Aurillac, afterwards Pope Sylvester II. (930–1003).

(7) John of Salisbury (1110–1180).

(8) Lanfranc, Archbishop of Canterbury. (1005–1089.)

(9) Pierre Lombard. Master of the Sentences, sometimes called the founder of school divinity. (1100–1164.)

(10) John Roscelinus (eleventh century).

Second Period, or Golden Age of Scholasticism. Aristotelians (thirteenth and fourteenth centuries).

(1) Alain de Lille. Universal Doctor. (1114–1203.)

(2) Albertus Magnus, of Padua. (1193–1280.)

(3) Thomas Aquinas. The Angelic Doctor. (1224–1274.)

(4) Augustine Triumphans, Archbishop of Aix. The Eloquent Doctor.

(5) John, Fidanza Bonaventure. The Seraphic Doctor. (1221–1274.)

(6) Alexander of Hales. Irrefrangible Doctor. (Died 1245.)

(7) John Duns Scotus. The Subtle Doctor. (1265–1308.)

Third Period. Nominalism Revived. (To the seventeenth century.)

(1) Thomas de Bradwardine. The Profound Doctor (1290–1348.)

(2) John Burman (1295–1360).

(3) William Durandus de Pourcain. The Most Resolving or Resolute Doctor. (Died 1332.)

(4) Giles, Archbishop of Bourges. The Doctor with Good Foundation.

(5) Gregory of Rimʹini. The Authentic Doctor. (Died 1357.)

(6) Robert Holkot. An English divine.

(7) Raymond Lully. The Illuminated Doctor. (1234–1315.)

(8) Francis Mairon, of Digne, in Provence.

(9) William Occam. The Singular or Invincible Doctor. (Died 1347.)

(10) François Suarez, the last of the schoolmen. (1548–1617.)

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Entry taken from Dictionary of Phrase and Fable, edited by the Rev. E. Cobham Brewer, LL.D. and revised in 1895.

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