James IV. (14721513)

James IV., king of Scotland from 1488 to 1513, participated in the rebellion which overthrew his father, James III., and succeeded him; but in remorse for his unfilial conduct wore an iron belt all his life; during his youth his supporters carried on the government in their own interests, and despoiled the nobles who had been loyal to the late king; but when he came of age he showed his independence in choosing good advisers, among them Sir Andrew Wood; his reign was marked by resistance to the claims of the Roman pontiff, by the firm and wise administration of law, the fostering of agriculture, of shipbuilding, and other industries; in 1503 James married Margaret, daughter of Henry VII.; after that king's death relations between the two countries became strained; two English men-of-war captured Andrew Barton's privateers; the jewels which the queen inherited from her father were retained by Henry VIII., and James maintained an alliance with Henry's enemy, France; at the solicitation of the French queen, against the advice of his own queen and nobles, he invaded England in 1513, but the invasion ended in disaster at Flodden, where he and the flower of his army perished; he was an able but a headstrong, a pleasure-loving, and an extravagant man (14721513).

Definition taken from The Nuttall Encyclopædia, edited by the Reverend James Wood (1907)

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