, an eminent historian, who wrote the Roman history in the Greek language, flourished under the reigns of Trajan and Adrian about the year 123 A. D. and speaks of the destruction of Jerusalem, as of an event that happened in his time. He was born of a good family in Alexandria, from whence he went to Rome, and there distinguished himself so much at the bar, that he was chosen one of the procurators of the emperor, and the government of a province was committed to him. He wrote the Roman history in a very peculiar method; not compiling it in a continued series, after the manner of Livy, but giving distinct histories of all the nations that had been conquered by the Romans, and placing every thing relative to those nations in one connected and uninterrupted narrative. It was divided into three volumes, which contained twenty-four books, or twenty-two according to Charles Stephens, Volaterranus, and Sigonius. Photius tells us, there were nine books concerning the civil wars, though there are but five now extant. This performance has been charged with many errors and imperfections; but Photius is of opinion, he wrote with the utmost regard to truth, and has shewn greater knowledge of military affairs than any of the historians, and depicts battles and other great events with the skill of an artist. But his chief | talent (continues that author) is displayed in his orations, in which he produces a strong effect on the passions, either in animating the resolution of the slow, or repressing the impetuosity of the precipitate. In the preface he gives a general description of the Roman empire.

He tells usj this empire was bounded on the east by the river Euphrates, mount Caucasus, the Greater Armenia, and Colchis, and on the north by the Danube; beyond which, however, the Romans possessed Dacia, as well as several other nations beyond the Rhine. They were masters of above half of Britain; but neglected the rest, as he informs us, because it was of no use to them, and they received but little advantage from what they possessed. There were several other countries, which cost more than they gained by them, but they thought it dishonourable to abandon them. This occasioned them to neglect the opportunities of making themselves masters of many other nations, and to satisfy themselves with giving them kings, as they did to the Greater Armenia. He assures us likewise, that he saw at Rome, ambassadors from several countries of the barbarians, who desired to submit to the Roman empire, but were rejected by the emperor because they were poor, and no advantages could be expected from them.

Of all this voluminous work there remains only what treats of the Punic, Syrian, Parthian, Mithridatic, and Spanish wars, with those against Hannibal, the civil wars, and the wars in Illyricum, and some fragments of the Celtic or Gallic wars. Appian was published by Henry Stephens with a Latin version, at Geneva, 1592, in folio; but the best editions are those of Tollius, Gr. and Lat. 2 vols. 8vo, Amst. 1670, and of Schweigheuser, Lips. 1784, 3 vols. 8vo, of which last the editor of the Bibliographical Dictionary has given a very particular account. 1


Gen. Dict.—Saxii Onomast.—Bibliographical Dict.—and Dibdin’s Classics.