, a celebrated historian and philosopher, lived under the emperor Adrian and the two Antonines, in the second century. He was born at Nicomedia in Bithynia, was styled the second Xenophorj, and raised to the most | considerable dignities of Rome. Tillemont takes him to be the same person with that Flaccus Arrianus, who, being governor of Cappadocia, stopped the incursions of the Alani, and sent an account of his voyage round the Euxine to Adrian. He is also said to have been preceptor to the philosopher and emperor Marcus Antoninus. There are extant four books of his Diatribas, or Dissertations upon Epictetus, whose disciple he had been; and Photius tells us that he composed likewise twelve books of that philosopher’s discourses. We are told by another author, that he wrote the Life and death of Epictetus. The most celebrated of his works is his History, in Greek, of Alexander the Great, in seven books, a performance much esteemed for more aocuracy and fidelity than that of Q,uintus Curtius. Photius mentions also his History of Bithynia, another of the Alani, and a third of the Parthians, in seventeen books, which he brought down to the war carried on by Trajan against them. He gives us likewise an abridgement of Arrian’s ten books of the History of the successors of Alexander the Great and adds, that he wrote an account of the Indies in one book, which is still extant. The work which he first entered upon was his History of Bithynia; but wanting the proper ipemoirs and materials for it, he suspended the execution of this design till he had published some other things. This history consisted of eight books, and was carried down till the time when Nicomedes resigned Bithynia to the Romans; but there is nothing of it remaining except what is quoted in Photius and Stephanus Byzantmus. Arrian is said to have written several other works: Lucian tells us, that he wrote the Ijfe of a robber, whose name was Tiliborus, and when Lucian endeavours to excuse himself for writing the life of Alexander the impostor, he adds, “Let no person accuse me of having employed my labour upon too low and mean a subject, since Arrian, the worthy disciple of Epictetus, who is one of the greatest men amongst the Romans, and who has passed his whole life amongst the muses, condescended to write the Life of Tiliborus.” There is likewise, under the name of Arrian, a Periplus of the Red- sea, that is, of the eastern coasts of Africa and Asia,as far as the Indies; but Dr. Vincent thinks it was not his. There is likewise a book of Tactics under his name, the beginning of which is lost; to these is added the order which he gave for the marching of the Roman army against the Alani, | and giving them battle, which may very properly be ascribed to our author, who was engaged in a war against that people.

The best editions of Arrian are, that of Gronovius, Gr. & Lat. Leyden, 1704, fol; of Raphelius, Gr. & Lat. Amsterdam, 1757, 8vo; and of Schmeider, Leipsic, 1798, 8vo. Schmeider also published the “Indica cum Bonav. Vulcanii interpret. Lat.” 8vo. ibid. 1798. DodwelPs “Dissertatio de Arriani Nearcho,” in which the authenticity of the voyage of Nearchus is contested, is affixed to this edition of the Indica, in connexion with Dr. Vincent’s able refutation of that attack. The expedition was translated into English by Mr. Rook, Lond. 1729, 2 vols. 8vo. illustrated with historical, geographical, and critical notes, with Le Clerc’s criticism on Quintus Curtius, and some remarks on Perizonius’s vindication of that author. Rook also added the Indica, the division of the empire after Alexander’s death, Raderus’s tables, and other useful documents. 1


Gen. Dict. Fabr. Bibl. Grace. Voss. de Hist. Graec. —Moreri. Clark’s Bibliog. Dict. —Saxii Onomasticon.