**Fermat, Pierre de**, a French mathematician, born near Montauban; made
important discoveries in the properties of numbers, and with his friend
Pascal invented a calculus of probabilities; was held in high esteem by
Hallam, who ranks him next to Descartes (1601‒1665).

Definition taken from
*The Nuttall Encyclopædia*,
edited by the Reverend James Wood (1907)