Doria, Andrew

, a noble Genoese, the greatest mariner of his age, was born in 1468, at Oneille, a small town on the coast of Genoa, of which Ceva Doria, his father, was joint lord. He adopted the military profession, and distinguished himself for several years in the service of different princes of Italy. On his return to his native country, he was twice employed in Corsica, where he fought against the rebels with so much success, that the whole island was reduced to the obedience of the republic. In consequence of the reputation for valour and prudence which Doria had acquired, he was appointed, about 1513, captain-general of the gallies of Genoa; and it is to be remarked, that he was upwards of forty-four years of age when he took up the profession of a maritime warrior. The African pirates, who at that time infested | the Mediterranean, gave him the first opportunities for acquiring fame. He pursued them with unremitted ardour, and in a short time enriched himself with so many captures, that the produce, joined to the assistance of his friends, enabled him to purchase four gallics. The revolutions that soon happened in the government of Genoa, determined Doria to enter into the service of Francis I.; but after that prince was taken prisoner at Pavia, he became dissatisfied with the ministry of France, and yielding to the solicitations of Clement VII. he attached himself to that pontiff, who made him his admiral. Rome being taken by the constable of Bourbon, in 1527, the pope was no longer able to continue Doria in his pay, and persuaded him to go back into the service of France, the sovereign of which, Francis I. received him with open arms, and appointed him general of his gallies, with a salary of 36,000 crowns, to which he afterwards added the title of admiral of the seas of the Levant. Doria was then proprietor of eight well-armed gallies. It was to him that the French were indebted for the reduction of Genoa, from whence the Adorni were expelled that same year, 1527. The year following, Philippino Doria, his nephew and his lieutenant, whom he had dispatched with eight gallies to the coasts of the kingdom of Naples, in order to favour the operations of the French army there, commanded by Lautrec, gained a complete victory over the naval armament of the emperor at Capo-d’Orso, near the gulf of Salerno. The imperial fleet being now destroyed, Naples, besieged by Lautrec, could no longer receive succours by sea, and was on the point of surrendering, which would infallibly have brought on the conquest of the whole kingdom, when suddenly Doria abandoned France to serve the emperor. This defection frustrated the enterprise against Naples, and effected the total failure of the French affairs in Italy. As to the motives that led him to this sudden change, it should seem as if the ministers of Francis I. jealous of the influence of this foreigner, who besides treated them with the haughtiness of a republican, and the bluntness of a sailor, had endeavoured to ruin him in the king’s opinion, and had partly succeeded in their attempt. Doria, soured and angry, only waited for a pretext to give vent to his indignation, which his enemies soon gave him. They persuaded the king to appropriate to himself the town of Savona, belonging to the Genoese; to enlarge the port, | and make it a rival of the metropolis. In vain did Doria make remonstrances to him in behalf of the republic, to turn him from his purpose; they were not only ill received, but were misinterpreted; and he was represented to the king as a man that openly resisted his will. Nor did they stop here; they persuaded the king to arrest him; and twelve gallies, under the command of Barbezieux, received orders to go first to Genoa to take possession of his person, and then to proceed to Naples to seize upon his gallies, commanded by Philippino his nephew. But Doria, having foreseen the blow, had retired to Lerica, in the gulph of La Spezia, whence he dispatched a brigantine to his nephew, with orders to join him without delay, and thought himself authorised to act in this manner, because the term of his engagement to the king was just expired. From this moment Doria made it his chief business to conclude his agreement with the emperor, who had been soliciting it for a long time. It will not appear surprizing that Francis T. now sought by all means in his power to regain Doria; but neither the most magnificent promises, nor even the mediation of pope Clement VII. could induce him to alter his resolution. What must, however, reflect still greater honour on the memory of Doria, was his refusal, on this occasion, of the sovereignty of Genoa, which was offered him by the emperor. Preferring the title of restorer to that of master, he stipulated that Genoa should remain free under the imperial protection, provided she should succeed in throwing off the yoke of the French. He thought nothing now was wanting to his glory, but to be the deliverer of his country; and the failure of the expedition against Naples emboldened him the same year, 1528, to hazard the attempt. Accordingly, presenting himself before Genoa with 13 gallies, and about 500 men, he made himself master of it in one night, without shedding a drop of blood. This expedition procured him the

title of Father And Deliverer Of His Country, which W3S

adjudged him by a decree of the senate. The same decree contained an order for a statue to be erected to him, and a palace to be bought for him out of the public money. A new government was then formed at Genoa, by his advice, which is the government that subsisted until the late revolutions in Europe; so that he was not only the deliverer, but likewise the legislator of his country. Doria met with all the advantages he could desire from his attachment to | the emperor, who gave him his entire confidence, and created him general of the sea, with a plenary and absolute authority. He was then owner of twelve gallies, which by his treaty were to be engaged in the service of the emperor; and that number was now augmented to twenty-two. Doria continued to signalize himself by several maritime expeditions, and rendered the most important services to the emperor. He took from the Turks, in 1532, the towns of Coron and of Patras, on the coast of Greece. The conquest of Tunis, and of the fort of Goulette, where Charles V. resolved to act in person, in 1535, was principally owing to the valour and good conduct of Doria; but it was against his advice and reiterated remonstrances, that the emperor in 1541 set on foot the unfortunate expedition to Algiers, where he lost a part of his fleet, and a great number of soldiers, and cost Doria eleven of his gallies. Nor was he more favoured by fortune in the affair of Prevezzo, in 1539. Being, with the imperial fleet, in conjunction with that of the Venetians and the gallies of the pope, in presence of the Turkish army, commanded by Barbarossa, and far inferior to his, he avoided the engagement under various pretences, and let slip the opportunity of a certain victory. For this he has been blamed by several historians. Some have even pretended (and, at that time, says Brantome, it was the common report), that there was a secret agreement between Barbarossa and him, by which it was settled, that decisive opportunities should be mutually avoided, in order to prolong the war which rendered their services necessary, and furnished them the means of enriching themselves. The African corsairs had never a more formidable enemy to contend with than Doria; the amount of the prizes taken from them, by himself or his lieutenants, was immense. The famous Dragut, among others, was captured by Jeaniietino Doria, with nine of his vessels. The zeal and the services of this great man were rewarded by Charles V. with the order of the golden fleece, the investiture of the principality of Melphes, and the marquisate of Tursi, in the kingdom of Naples, to him and his heirs for ever; together with the dignity of grand chancellor of that kingdom. It was not till about 1556, at the age of near ninety, that he relinquished the care of his gallies, and the command of them in person. Then, sinking under the weight of years, Philip II. king of Spain permittee] him to | coustitute John Andrew Doria, his nephew, his lieutenant. He terminated his long and glorious career on the 25th of November, 1560, at the age of ninety-three, without offspring, though he had been married. He was very far from leaving so much property as might have been presumed, from the great and frequent opportunities he had of amassing wealth, which is accounted for by the excess of his magnificence, and the little attention be paid to affairs of ceconomy. Few men, without leaving a private station, have ever played so great a part on the stage of the world, as Doria: at home in Genoa, honoured by his fellow citizens as the deliverer and the tutelar genius of his country; abroad, with his gallies alone, holding, as it were, the rank of a maritime power. Few men have, even in the course of a long life, enjoyed a more uninterrupted course of prosperity. Twice was his ruin plotted; once in 1547, by the conspiracy of John Lewis de Fiesco, aimed principally at him; but the enterprise failed by the death of its leader, at the very moment of its execution; the second time, not long after, by that of Julius Cibo, which was detected, and cost the author of it his head. These two conspiracies had no other effect than to give still greater accessions of authority and fame to this great man, in Genoa, and through all Italy. He is accused by some authors of having been too cruel at times, in support of which they cite this instance: the marquis de Marignan, who took Porto Hercole in 1555, having taken prisoner Ottoboni de Fiesco, brother of Lewis, and an accomplice in his conspiracy, delivered him over to Doria, to revenge on him as he pleased the death of Jeannetino Doria, who had been slain in that conspiracy. Andrew, fired with rage, ordered Fiesco to be sewn up in a sack, and thrown into the sea. Those who have written on the side of Doria, have prudently passed over in silence this action, as unworthy of him. Another anecdote is told, more favourable, and characteristic. One of his pilots, who was frequently importuning him, coming up to him one day, told him he had three words to say to him. “I grant it,” returned Doria; “but remember, that if thou speak more, I will have thee hanged.” The pilot, without being disconcerted, replied: “money or dismission.Andrew Doria, being satisfied with this reply, ordered him to be paid his arrears, and retained him in his service. 1


Universal Hist. Robertson’s Charles V.-Life of Doria, by Richer.-—Dict. Hist.