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, younger brother of the preceding, was born at Bologna in 1466, where he died in 1558. He was learned

, younger brother of the preceding, was born at Bologna in 1466, where he died in 1558. He was learned in the Greek and Latio languages, in theology, philosophy, and music, and the study of law and antiquities, but is most celebrated as a poet, although his works are not free from the faults peculiar to his age. Yet he gave even these a turn so peculiarly original, that they appear to have been rather his own than acquired by imitation. He published, among many other works: 1. A scientific and moral poem, written in the ottava rima, entitled “II Viridario,” Bologna, 4to, which contains eulogiums on many of his learned contemporaries. 2. “II Fedele,” also in heroics. These are both scarce, as they never were reprinted. 3. “Annotazioni della lingua volgare,” Bologna, 1.536, 8vo. This was intended as an answer to those who complained of the provincialisms in his style. 4. He also published a collection of poems pu the death of Seraphin dall' Aquila, mentioned in the preceding article, Bologna, 1504, 4to. He has more stretch of mind than most of his contemporaries.

, grandson of the preceding, and son of. Clearchus Achillini and Poly xena Buoi, was born at Bologna in 1574. After studying grammar, the belles

, grandson of the preceding, and son of. Clearchus Achillini and Poly xena Buoi, was born at Bologna in 1574. After studying grammar, the belles lettres, and philosophy, he entered on the study of the law, and prosecuted it with so much success, that he was honoured with a doctor’s degree at the age of twenty, Dec. 16, 1594, and became a professor of that science at Bologna, Ferrara, and Parma, where he acquired great reputation. His learning was so much admired that an inscription to his honour was put up in the public schools, and both popes and cardinals gave him hopes, which were never realized, of making his fortune. Towards the end of his life he lived principally in a country house called Il Sasso, and died there Oct. 1, 1640. His body was carried to Bologna, and interred in the tomb of his ancestors in the church of St. Martin. He is principally known now by his poetry, in which he was an imitator of Marino, and with much of the bad taste of his age. It has been asserted that he received a gold chain worth a thousand crowns from the court of France, for a poem on the conquests of Louis XIII.; but this reward was sent him by the Cardinal Richelieu, in consequence of some verses he wrote on the birth of the dauphin. His poems were printed at Bologna, 1632, 4to, and were reprinted with some prose pieces, under the title “Rime e Prose,” Venice, 1651, 12mo, He published also in Latin “Decas Epistolarum ad Jacobum Gaufridum,” Parma, 1635, 4to.

, archbishop of Amasia m Natolia, was born at Bologna, Nov. 20, 1570. He had the advantage of being

, archbishop of Amasia m Natolia, was born at Bologna, Nov. 20, 1570. He had the advantage of being educated under tfee care of Philip Sega, his uncle, who was raised on account of his distinguished merits to the rank of cardinal, by pope Innocent IX; and of Jerom Agucchio, his brother, who was made cardinal by pope Clement VIII. in 1604. His application to study mis early, rapid, and assiduous, but particularly in. the study of polite literature. This recommended him so much to cardinal Sega, that he carried him with him te France, when he went thither as legate from the pope. After the death of Sega, Agucchio was appointed secretary to cardinal Aldobrandini, nephew to pope Clement VIII. and attended him when he went legate to Henry IV. of France, of which journey he wrote a very elegant account. The cardinal, after his return, committed the management of his house to Agucchio, which province he executed till the death of pope Clement VIII. and of his brother the cardinal Agucchio, when want of health obliged him to retire from the court. But after he had recovered, and had passed some time at Rome in learned retirement, cardinal Aldobrandini brought him again into his former employment, in which he continued till the cardinal’s death. He then became secretary to Gregory XV. which place he held until the death of that pontiff. In 1624, Urban VIII. sent him as nuncio to Venice, where he became generally esteemed, although he maintained the rights of the see of Rome with the utmost rigour. The contagious distemper which ravaged Italy in 1630, obliged him to retire to Friuli, where he died in 1632. He was a man of very extensive learning, but appears in his private character to have been somewhat austere and narrow. His works are: “A treatise upon Comets and Meteors,” “The Life of Cardinal Sega, and that of Jerom Agucchio his brother,” and a letter to the canon Barthelemi Dolcini on the origin of the city of Bologna, “L'Antica fondazione e dominio della citta di Bologna,” Bologna, 1638, 4to. He left also various letters and moral treatises, not published.

, adominican and provincial of his order, was born at Bologna in 1479, and died in 1552. He wrote in Italian,

, adominican and provincial of his order, was born at Bologna in 1479, and died in 1552. He wrote in Italian, 1. “Historic di Bologna, deca e libro primo deca secunda sino all' anno 1253,” Bologna, 1541, 4to. The second and third books were not published until long after his death, by F. Lucio Caccianemici, who added two supplements, 1590 and 1591, 4to. 2. “Cronica delle principali Famiglie Bolognesi, &c.” Vincenza, 1592, 4to. 3. “Descrizione di tutta l'Italia,” printed at Bologna in his life-time, fol. 1550, and reprinted, Venice, 1551 and 1553, 1561, 1581, and 1588. This work, so often published, is replete with curious facts, but the author has shewn less judgment in adopting the fables of Annius of Viterbo. 4. In Latin, “De Viris illustribus ordinis praedicatorum, libri sex in unum congesti,” Bologna, 1517, fol. 5. “Dialriba de increments Domini Venetæ,” and “De claris viris reipublicse Venetæ,” which are printed in Contarini’s VenetianRepublic, ed. 2, Leiden, 1628.

o competition with him; and the Italian writers place him in the same rank of merit with Vandvck. He was born at Bologna in 1578, and died in 1638.

, called Galanino, an eminent painter of history and portraits, received his education in the school of the Caracci, and in all his compositions retained the admirable style of his master. He had naturally a melancholy turn of mind, and was of a retired and solitary disposition: this induced him to avoid the conversation of his friends, and devote himself to the study of his art; but by this plan he became so necessitous, that he was compelled to paint portraits to procure a subsistence. In this branch, however, his success was astonishing; and he grew into the highest esteem, not only for the resemblance visible at first sight, and the beauty of his colouring, but also for a new and unusual boldness of manner, by which his portraits seemed absolutely to breathe. None of his contemporaries could enter into competition with him; and the Italian writers place him in the same rank of merit with Vandvck. He was born at Bologna in 1578, and died in 1638.

, an eminent civilian of the fourteenth century, was born at Bologna in Italy, and descended from the illustrious

, an eminent civilian of the fourteenth century, was born at Bologna in Italy, and descended from the illustrious family of the Farneses. Besides his uncommon knowledge in the civil law, he was a philosopher and politician and an eloquent speaker. These qualifications raised his reputation, and gave him a great authority among his countrymen. He was likewise in high esteem with the princes of Italy, and applied to by many cities and universities. He studied chiefly under Baldus, whose intimate friendship he gained, and who instructed him in the most abstruse parts of the civil law. He read public lectures upon the law at first in Padua, and afterwards at Bologna, in conjunction with Bartholomew Salicetus, with the greatest applause of his auditors. He flourished about 1380, and the following years; for in May, 1382, Salicetus, who was his contemporary, began his commentaries in IX Libros Codic. at Bologna. Our author died there about the year 1410, and was buried in the church of St. Benedict; though some writers pretend, that he lived till 1497, which they infer from his epitaph, which was only repaired in that year. But the manuscript of his lecture upon the Clementines and Rescripts, which is preserved in the library at Augsburg, appears to have been written in 1397; and another manuscript of his lecture upon the second book of the Decretals, which is likewise in that library, shews that it was finished at Venice in 1392. He wrote, 1. “Commentaria in sex Libros Decretalium;” with the Scholia of Codecha and John de Monteferrato, at Bononia, 1581, fol. 2. “Lectura super Clementinas,” with the additions of Cathar. Panel and others, Lyons, 1549 and 1553, fol. 3. “Seleetae Quaestiones omnium praestantissimorum Jurisconsultorum in tres tomos digestae,” Francfort, 1581, fol. 4. “Consilia sive Responsa Juris,” with the additions of Jerom Z'anchius, Venice, 1568, 1585, 1589, 1599, folio. 5. “Repetitiones in C. Canonum Statuta, de Constit.” Venice, 1587.

only called Michael of Bologna, a Romish divine of distinguished learning in the fourteenth century, was born at Bologna in Italy, where he entered of the order of the

, commonly called Michael of Bologna, a Romish divine of distinguished learning in the fourteenth century, was born at Bologna in Italy, where he entered of the order of the Carmelites; but studied afterwards in the university of Paris, and there received the degree of doctor. In the general chapter of his order, which was held at Ferrara in 1354, in that of Bourdeaux in 1358, and in that of Treves in 1362, he was named regent of the convent at Paris. After arriving at other honours in the Romish church, he fell under the displeasure of the pope Urban VI. and retired to the convent of Bologna, where he wrote a great many books, and where he died Nov. 16, 1400, according to father Lewis de Sainte Terese; or Dec. 1, 1416, according to Trithemius and Du Pin. The editors of the General Dictionary incline to the former date. Of his works, there were published, “Super Sententias libri IV.” Milan, 1510; and Venice, 1632, fol. “Commentaria in Psalmos,” which was first published at Alcala in 1524, under the name of Igr.otus, as the author was not then known; and republished in the same manner at Lyons in 1588 and 1603. These and commentaries by him on other parts of the holy scriptures were afterwards published with his name, first at Venice, in 3 vols. 4to; and at Paris in 1626, in two vols. folio; and at Lyons in 1652 and 1673, in the same form. The manuscripts he left besides are very numerous, and were preserved with great care. One of them was a dictionary of the words occurring in the Bible, which was unfinished.

, a celebrated Italian anatomist, was born at Bologna, about the year 1530. He studied under Vesalius

, a celebrated Italian anatomist, was born at Bologna, about the year 1530. He studied under Vesalius and his uncle Bartholomew Maggius, took his doctor’s degree at Bologna, and was soon after appointed professor of surgery and anatomy, which office he held for thirty-two years, and until his death, April 7, 1589. He studied with most attention the anatomy of the muscles, and arrived at some knowledge of the doctrine of the circulation of the blood. He wrote, 1. “De humano foetu liber,” Venice, 1571, 8vo, Basil, 1579, and Leyden, 1664. In this work he explains at great length the structure of the uterus, the placenta, &c. The Venice editions of 1587 and 1595, 4to, have the addition of some anatomical observations, and an essay on tumours by Arantius. 2. “In Hippocratis librum de vulneribus capitis commentarius brevis, ex ejus lectionibus collectus,” Lyons, 1580, Leyden, 1639, 1641, 12mo.

, an Italian printer, and one of the most learned and laborious editors of his time, was born at Bologna about the end of the year 1685. His family,

, an Italian printer, and one of the most learned and laborious editors of his time, was born at Bologna about the end of the year 1685. His family, then one of the most ancient in that city, was originally of Florence. After having begun his studies at Bologna, he went to Florence, and became acquainted with many of the literati of that city, particularly the celebrated Magliabechi. From Florence he went to Lucca, and then to Leghorn, where he meant to embark for France, but the death of one of his uncles rendered it necessary for him to return to his own country. He first projected an edition of the works, already in print, or in manuscript, of Ulysses Aldrovandi, with additions, notes, and corrections, and engaged several learned persons to assist him, but death having removed the greater part of them in a few years, he was obliged to give up the undertaking. He then published a collection of the poems of Carlantonio Bedori, a Bolognese gentleman, at Bologna, 1715, 4to. Two years after, having been elected one of the magistrates of that city, known by the title of the tribunes of the people, when he came to resign his office, he made an eloquent address on the duties of the office, which his successors ordered to be registered among their acts. His next and most important undertaking was an edition of that immense historical collection, entitled “Scriptores Rerum Italicarum.” The learned Muratori having imparted to him the design he had conceived of collecting and publishing the ancient Italian historians, acknowledged at the same time that he had been obliged to abandon the plan from the impossibility of finding a press adequate to such an extensive undertaking, the art of printing, once so highly cultivated in Italy, having now greatly degenerated. Argellati being of opinion that Milan was the only place where a trial might be made with effect, to revive useful printing, immediately went thither, and communicated Muratori’s plan to count Charles Archinto, the patron of letters, and his own particular patron. Archinto formed a society of noblemen of Milan, called the Palatine Society, who undertook to defray the expence of the edition, sixteen of the members subscribing four thousand crowns each. Argellati then took every necessary step to establish a printing-office suited to this liberal patronage, and the “Scriptores Rerum Italicarum” was the first work printed, in which Argellati bore a considerable part, collecting and furnishing Muratori with most of the manuscripts, notices, and dedications of the first volumes. He superintended at the same time, the printing of other works, particularly an edition of Sigonius, 1738/6 vols. fol. The emperor Charles VI. to whom it was dedicated, and who had repaid him for the dedication of the first volume of the Italian historians, by the title of imperial secretary, and a pension of three hundred crowns, now doubled this pension. Argellati continued to publish, with incredible labour and dispatch, various editions of works of importance, as “Opere inedite di Ludovico Castelvetro,1727, 4to. “Grazioli, De antiquis Mediolani aedificiis,1736, fol. “Thesaurus novus veterum Inscriptionum,” by Muratori, 1739, fol. But we are more particularly indebted to him for, 1. “Bibliotheca scriptorum Mediolanensium,” Milan, 1745, 2 vols. fol. 2. “Biblioteca de' Volgarizzatori Italiani,” Milan, 5 vols. 4to, 1767, besides which he contributed a great number of essays and letters to various collections. He died at Milan Jan. 5, 1755, after having had the misfortune to lose his son, the subject of the following article.

, son of the preceding, was born at Bologna, May 8, 1712. He studied philosophy and law,

, son of the preceding, was born at Bologna, May 8, 1712. He studied philosophy and law, and took his doctor’s degree in the latter faculty at Padua in 1736, but having afterwards applied himself to mathematics, he was, in 1740, appointed royal engineer, To all this he added a taste for the classics and Italian literature, which he cultivated in his father’s house, where he principally resided, either at Milan or Bologna, at which last he died in 1754. He published, 1. “Practica del fora Veneto,” Venice, 1737, 4to. 2. An Italian translation of Huet, on the situation of Paradise,“1737., 8vo. 3.” Saggio d'una nuova filosofia,“Venice, 1740, 8vo. 4.” Storia della nascita delle scienze e belle lettere,“&c. Florence, 1743, 8vo. This was to have extended to twelve volumes, but one only appeared. 5.” De praeclaris Jurisconsultis Bononiensibus Oratio,“&c. 1749, 4to, to which is added a letter by his father, dated Milan, where probably this work was published. 6,” II Decamerone,“Bologna, 1751, 2 vols. 8vo, an imitation of Boccaccio, the subjects taken from some curious facts in the English Philosophical Transactions, accounts of travellers, &c. and other remarkable events, and adventures, but more pure in point of morality than the work of his predecessor. 7.” Novissima sisteina di filosofia, &c." Modena, 1753, 8vo. He left also in manuscript, a life of John Gaston, grand duke of Tuscany, and of a female saint of the order of St. Francis.

was born at Bologna in 1502, of a noble family. Having gone through

, was born at Bologna in 1502, of a noble family. Having gone through a course of study at Padua, he applied himself to business, without however entirely quitting literature. He attachedhimself to cardinal Pole, whom he followed in the legation to Spain, and was soon appointed himself to those of Venice and Augsburg, after having assisted at the council of Trent, and the archbishopric of Ragusa was the reward of his labours. Cosmo I. grand duke of Tuscany, having entrusted him in 1563 with the education of his son, prince Ferdinand, he gave up his archbishopric, in the hope that was held out to him of obtaining that of Pisa; but, being deceived in his expectations, he was obliged to content himself with the provostship of the cathedral of Prato, where he ended his days in 1572. His principal works are: “The life of cardinal Pole,” in Italian, translated by Duditius into Latin, and thence by Maucroix into French; and that of Petrarch, in Italian, more exact than any that had appeared before. This prelate was in correspondence with almost all the learned, his contemporaries, Sadolet, Bembo, the Manuciuses, Varchi, &c. It remains to be noticed that his life of cardinal Pole was published in 1766, in English, by the Rev. Benjamin Pye, LL. B. Of this, and other lives of that celebrated cardinal, notice will be taken in his article.

, one of the best Italian poets of the sixteenth century, was born at Bologna in 1506, of one of the most illustrious families

, one of the best Italian poets of the sixteenth century, was born at Bologna in 1506, of one of the most illustrious families of that city and of all Italy. His father, Hannibal II. being obliged, by pope Julius II. to leave his country, of which his ancestors had been masters from the commencement of the fifteenth century, and to go to Milan, he took his son with him, then an infant. Seven years after, he settled with his whole family at Ferrara, under the protection of the princes of the house of Este, to whom he was nearly related. His son here made rapid progress in his studies, and became distinguished at the court of duke Alphonso I. He was accomplished in music, singing, and the sports and exercises of manly youth; and to all this he added a solidity of judgment which procured him to be employed by the dukes of Ferrara in state-affairs of importance. He was employed on one of these negociations when he died, Nov. 6, 1573. His works, which were printed at first separately, and inserted in many of the collections, were published together under the title of “Opere poetiche del sig. Ercole Bentivoglio,” Paris, 1719, 12mo. They consist of sonnets, stanzas, eclogues, satires, which for easy elegance of style are inferior only to those of Ariosto; five epistles or capitoli, in the manner of Berni, and two comedies of great merit. Of these last there was a French translation by Fabre, printed at Oxford, 1731, 8vo.

, the younger, a noble Bolognese, was born at Bologna, Oct. 1, 1472. He was the nephew and pupil of

, the younger, a noble Bolognese, was born at Bologna, Oct. 1, 1472. He was the nephew and pupil of the elder Beroaldo, the subject of the preceding article, under whose instructions he made such early proficiency in the Greek and Latin languages, that in 1496, when he was only twenty-four years of age, he was appointed public professor of polite literature at Bologna. Having afterwards chosen the city of Rome as his residence, he there attracted the notice of Leo X. then cardinal de Medici, who received him into his service, as his private secretary and when Leo arrived at the pontificate, Beroaldo was nominated president of the Roman academy, but probably relinquished this office on being appointed librarian of the Vatican. Bembo, Bibiena, Molza, Flaminio, and other learned men of the time, were his particular friends at Rome. He appeared also among the admirers of the celebrated Roman courtesan Imperiali, and is said to have been jealous of the superior pretensions of Sadoleti (afterwards cardinal) to her favour. The warmth of his temperature, indeed, sufficiently appears in some of his poems, but such was the taste of that age, and particularly of the licentious court of LeoX. His death, which happened in 1518, is said to have been occasioned by some vexations which he experienced from that pontiff, as librarian, but this seems doubtful.

, a learned Italian Jesuit, was born at Bologna, Feb. 6, 1582. He entered the order in 1595,

, a learned Italian Jesuit, was born at Bologna, Feb. 6, 1582. He entered the order in 1595, and was afterwards moral, mathematical, and philosophical professor in the college of Parma. He died at Bologna, Nov. 7, 1637. To the study of the more abstruse sciences, he united a taste for the belles lettres, and especially Latin poetry. He has left, 1. “Rubenus hilarotragoedia satyra pastoralis,” Parma, 1614, 4to. This singular composition, we are informed, was often reprinted in Italy, translated into several languages, and illustrated by the comments of Denis Ronsfert. 2. “Clodoveus, sive Lodovicus, tragicum silviludium,” Parma, 1622, 16mo. 3. “Lycaeum morale, politicum, et poeticum,” Venice, 1626, 4to, a work divided into two parts, the first of which is in prose, and the second in verse, entitled “Urbanitates poeticae,” a collection of lyric poetry, which was reprinted the same year, under the title “Eutrapeliarum, seu Urbanitatum Libri IV.” Venice, 1626, 4to. It was again reprinted with the addition of the above two dramas, with the title of “Florilegium variorum poematum et dramaturn pastoralium Libri IV.” Lyons, 1633, 12mo, the ninth edition. There is a copy in the British museum, probably of the eighth edition, dated 1632, 8vo. 4. “Apiaria universae philosophise, mathematics, &c.” Bologna, 1641 1656, 3 vols. fol. At the end is an explanation of Euclid, “Euclides explicatus,” which was printed separately, Bologna, 1642, and 1645, fol. 5. “Ærarium philosophise mathematicae,” ibid. 1648, 8vo. 6. “Recreationum Mathematicarum Apiaria XII. novissima,” ibid. 1660, folio, which is a reprint of the third volume of the “Apiaria.

, a celebrated Italian philosopher and physician, was born at Bologna, Sept. 30, 1717. After having studied physic

, a celebrated Italian philosopher and physician, was born at Bologna, Sept. 30, 1717. After having studied physic with great diligence and success, he was in his nineteenth year appointed medical assistant in one of the hospitals, and after four years, was, in 1742, admitted to the degree of doctor. In 1743 and 1744 he published a valuable translation into Italian of Winslow’s Anatomy, 6 vols. 8vo. In the last mentioned year, his reputation induced the landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt, prince and bishop of Augsburgh, to give him an invitation to reside with him, which Bianconi accepted, and remained there for six years. During this time he published “Due lettere di Fisica,” &c. Venice, 1746, 4to, addressed to the celebrated marquis MafFei, and wrote in French an “Essay on Electricity,” addressed to another learned friend, count Algarotti. He also began, in French, “Journal des nouveautes litteraires d' Italic,” printed at Leipsie, but with Amsterdam on the title, 1748, 1749, 8vo, which he continued to the end of a third volume. In 1730, he went to the court of Dresden, with a strong recommendation from pope Benedict XIV. to Augustus III. king of Poland, who received him into his confidence, and appointed him his aulic counsellor, and in 1760 sent him to France on a political affair of considerable delicacy, which he transacted with skill and satisfaction to his employer. In 1764, his majesty appointed him his resident minister at the court of Rome, where he felt his literary taste revive with its usual keenness, and was a contributor to various literary Journals. That of the “Effemeridi letterarie di Roma” owed its rise principally to him, and for sometime, its fame to his contributions. It was in this he wrote his eloges on Lupacchini, Piranesi, and Mengs, which last was published separately, with additions, in 1780. In his twelve Italian letters on the history of Cornelius Celsus, printed at Rome in 1779, he restores that celebrated physician to the age of Augustus, contrary to the common opinion, and to that of Tirasboschi (to whom they were addressed), who places him in what is called the silver age. He was projecting a magnificent edition of Celsus, a life of Petrarch, and some other literary undertakings, when he died suddenly at Perugia, Jan. 1, 1781, universally regretted. He left ready for the press, a work in Italian and French, on the circus of Caracalla, which was magnificently printed at Rome in 1790, with nineteen beautiful engravings.

, an eminent Italian scholar, was born at Bologna in 1488, of a noble family. In his studies he

, an eminent Italian scholar, was born at Bologna in 1488, of a noble family. In his studies he made uncommon proficiency, and had distinguished himself at the early age of twenty by his very learned work on Plautus. According to the custom of the age, he attached himself to various princes, but at first to the celebrated Albert Pio, count of Carpi. Having become imperial orator at the court of Rome, he obtained by his talents and knowledge of business, the titles of chevalier and count Palatine, and was intrusted with some important functions, such as that of bestowing the degree of doctor, of creating notaries, and even legitimizing natural children. At Bologna he was professor of Greek and Latin, rhetoric and poetry, and was chosen one of the Auziani in 1522. Having acquired a handsome fortune, he built a palace, and in 1546 founded an academy in it, named from himself Academia Bocchiana, or Bocchiale. It was also called Ermatena, agreeable to its device, on which was engraven the two figures of Mercury and Minerva. He also established a printing-office in his house, and he and his academicians employed themselves in correcting the many beautiful editions which they printed. Bocchi was a good Hebrew scholar, and well versed in antiquities and history, particularly that of his own country. The senate of Bologna employed him on writing the history of that city, and bestowed on him the title of Historiographer. Cardinal Sadolet, the two Flaminio’s, John Phil. Achillini, and Lcl. Greg. Giraldi, were among his particular friends, who have all spoken very favourably of him in their works. This last was much attached to him, and it is supposed that he meant to express this attachment by giving him the name of Phileros (loving friend), or Philerote, which is on the title of some of his works. Bocchi died at Bologna, Nov. 6, 1562. He wrote, 1. “Apologia in Plautum, cui accedit vita Ciceronis authore Plutarcho,” Bologn.

, an eminent artist, was born at Bologna (some say at Rome) in 1628, and was taught his

, an eminent artist, was born at Bologna (some say at Rome) in 1628, and was taught his ait by Giovanni Battista Cairo Casalasco; and afterwards became the disciple of Albano, in whose school he appeared with promising and superior talents, but although these, while he studied with Albano, were exceedingly admired, yet, to improve himself still farther in correctness of design, and also in the force and relief of his figures, he studied Raphael, Annibale Caracci, Caravaggio, Correggio, and Guido; and combined something of each in a manner of his own. He is accounted very happy in his taste of composition, and excellent in the disposition of his figures; but a judicious writer says, that he was censured for bestowing too much labour on the finishing of his pictures, which considerably diminished their spirit; and also for affecting too great a strength of colouring, so as to give his figures too much relief, and make them appear as if not united with their grounds. However well or ill-founded these observations may be, yet through all Europe he is deservedly admired for the force and delicacy of his pencil, for the great correctness of his design, for a distinguished elegance in his compositions, and also for the mellowness which he gave to his colours. The draperies of his figures are in general easy and free; his expression of the passions is judicious and natural; and there appears a remarkable grace in every one of his figures.

, or, as he called himself, de Crescentiis, was born at Bologna about 1233, and after studying philosophy, medicine,

, or, as he called himself, de Crescentiis, was born at Bologna about 1233, and after studying philosophy, medicine, and natural history, engaged in a course of law, but did not take his doctor’s degree; by which means, although he might plead causes, he was not at liberty to give lectures, a privilege which belonged only to doctors. For thirty years he was employed as assessor, or judge to the civil and military governors of various cities in Italy, an office of which he discharged the duties with impartiality, and witb the happiest effect in preserving peace in those places. In the mean time having contracted a taste for agriculture, wherever he removed, he collected such observations as might improve his knowledge of that branch, and on his return to Bologna, which he had left during the political dissentions there, he wrote in 1304 a treatise on agriculture, with the title of “Ruralia Commoda,” dedicated to Charles II. king of Naples. The first edition appeared in 147 1 at Augsburgh, fol. under the title of “Petri de Crescentiis rurahum commodorum, libri duodecim.” It was translated into Italian, Florence, 1478, fol. but the two best editions are that of Cosmo Giunta, ] 605, and that of Naples, 1724, 2,vols. 8vo. It is a book of considerable value, and gives a very correct display of the modes of agriculture in Italy at that time, which are said to approximate nearer to the modern than could have been expected. Crescentius died in 1320, nearly eighty-seven years old.

, sometimes called La Spagnuolo, from the style in which he affected to dress, was born at Bologna, in 1665, and received his earliest instruction

, sometimes called La Spagnuolo, from the style in which he affected to dress, was born at Bologna, in 1665, and received his earliest instruction in design from Angelo Toni, a very moderate artist; but in a short time he quitted that school, and successively studied under Domenico Cainuti, Carlo Cignani, and Giovanni Antonio Burrini. From them he applied himself to study the works of Baroccio, and afterwards the principles of colouring at Venice, from the paintings of Titian, Tintoretto, and Paul Veronese. Thus qualified to appear with credit in his profession, his merit was made known to the grand duke Ferdinand, who immediately engaged him in several noble compositions, which he executed with success. In portrait he was particularly excellent; and to those subjects he gave elegant attitudes, with a strong and graceful resemblance.

, or Domenico Zampieri,a very much admired artist, was born at Bologna in 1581, and received his first instruction

, or Domenico Zampieri,a very much admired artist, was born at Bologna in 1581, and received his first instruction in the art of painting, from Denis Calvart; but afterwards he became a disciple of the Caracci, and continued in that school for a long time. The great talents of Domenichino did not unfold themselves as early in him, as talents much inferior to his have disclosed themselves in other painters; he was studious, thoughtful, and circumspect; which by some writers, as well as by his companions, was misunderstood, and miscalled dullness. But the intelligent Annibal Caracci, who observed his faculties with more attention, and knew his abilities better, testified of Domenichino, that his apparent slowness of parts at present, would in time produce what would be an honour to the art of painting. He persevered in the study of his art with incredible application and attention, and daily made rapid advances. Some writers contend that his thoughts were judicious from the beginning, and they were afterwards elevated, wanting but little of reaching the sublime; and that whoever will consider the composition, the design, and the expression, in his Adam and Eve, his Communion of St. Jerom, and in that admirable picture of the Death of St. Agnes at Bologna, will readily perceive that they must have been the result of genius, as well as of just reflections; but Mr. De Piles says he is in doubt whether Domenichino had any genius or not. That ingenious writer seems willing to attribute every degree of excellence in Domenichino’s performances, to labour, or fatigue, or good sense, or any thing but genius; yet, says Pilkington, how any artist could (according to his own estimate in the balance of painters) be on an equality with the Caracci, Nicolo Poussin, and Lionardo da Vinci, in composition and design, and superior to them all by several degrees in expression, and also approach near to the sublime, without having a genius, or even without having an extraordinary good one, seems to me not easily reconcileable. If the productions of an artist must always be the best evidence of his having or wanting a genius, the compositions of Domenichino must ever afford sufficient proofs in his favour. The same biographer says, that as to correctness of design, expression of the passions, and also the simplicity and variety, in the airs of his heads, he is allowed to be little inferior to Raphael; yet his attitudes are but moderate, his draperies rather stiff, and his pencil heavy. However, as he advanced in years and experience, he advanced proportionably in, merit, and the latest of his compositions are his best. There is undoubtedly in the works of this eminent master, what will always claim attention and applause, what will for ever maintain his reputation, and place him among the number of the most excellent in the art of painting. One of the chief excellences of Domenichino consisted in his painting landscapes; and in that style, the beauty arising from the natural and simple elegance of his scenery, his trees, his well- broken grounds, and in particular the character and expression of his figures, gained him as much public admiration as any of his other performances.

, a painter of history, Was born at Bologna in 1560. He began to paint when already grown

, a painter of history, Was born at Bologna in 1560. He began to paint when already grown up to manhood, at the advice of An. Caracci, who, on seeing a whimsical design of his in charcoal, concluded he would be an acquisition to his school. Of this advice he had reason to repent, not only because Facini roused his jealousy by the rapidity of his progress, but because he saw him leave his school, become his rival in the instruction of youth, and even lay snares for his life. Facini had two characteristics of excellence, a vivacity in the attitudes and heads of his figures, that resembled the style of Tintoretto, and a truth of carnation which made Annibal himself declare that his colours seemed to be mixed with human flesh Beyond this he has little to surprise; his design is weak, his bodies vast and undefined, his heads and hands ill set on, nor had he time to correct these faults, as he died young, in 1602. At St. Francesco, in Bologna, is an altar-piece of his, the marriage of St. Catherine, attended by the four tutelary saints of the city, and a number of infant angels, which shews the best of his powers. His children carolling, or at play, in the gallery Matvezzi, and elsewhere at Bologna, are equally admired; they are in the manner of Albani, but with grander proportions.

, inventor of the first method of resolving biquadratic equations, was born at Bologna about 1520. He studied mathematics under the

, inventor of the first method of resolving biquadratic equations, was born at Bologna about 1520. He studied mathematics under the celebrated Cardan, who, having had a problem given him lor solution, gave it his pupil as an exercise of his ingenuity; and this led to the discovery of a new method of analysis, which is precisely that of biquadratics. Cardan published this method, and assigned the invention to its real author, who, had it not been for this liberal conduct of the master, would have been unknown to posterity. At the age of eighteen he was appointed a tutor in arithmetic, and was equal to the task of disputing with the most distinguished mathematicians of his own age. He was afterwards appointed professor of mathematics at Bologna, where he died in 1565. Ferrari, although, like many other learned men of his age, addicted to astrology, was an excellent classical scholar, a good geographer, and well versed in the principles of architecture.

, an historical painter, whose real name was Raibolini, was born at Bologna in 1450, and wa bred to the profession of a

, an historical painter, whose real name was Raibolini, was born at Bologna in 1450, and wa bred to the profession of a goldsmith, which he exercised for some time with very considerable celebrity, having the coinage of the city of Bologna under his care. His desire of reputation, and his acquaintance with Andrea Mantegna and other painters, led him to the study of painting-, but from whom he received the first elements of instruction is not known. In 1490 he produced a picture of the Virgin seated, and surrounded by several figures; among whom is the portrait of M. Bart. Felisini, for whom the picture was painted. In this he still calls himself “Frauciscus Francis, aurifex,” and it, with another picture of a similar subject, painted for the chapel Bentivoglio a St. Jacopo, gained him great reputation. He painted many pictures for churches, &c. in Bologna, Modena, Parma, and other cities; but they were in the early, Gothic, dry manner, called “stila antico moderuo,” which he greatly improved upon in his latter productions. On Pietro Perugino he formed his characters of heads, and his choice of tone and colour; on Gian. Bellino, fullness of outline and breadth of drapery; and if the best evidence of his merit, the authority of Raphael, be of weight, in process of time he excelled them both. In a letter dated 1508, edited by Malvasia, Raphael declares that the Madonnas of Francia were inferior, in his opinion, to none for beauty, devoutness, and form. His idea of Francia’s talents exhibited itself still stronger in his entrusting his picture of St. Cecilia, destined for the church of St Gio da Monte at Bologna, to his care, by letter soliciting him as a friend to See it put in its place, and if he found any defect in it, that he would kindly correct it. Vasari says that Francia died with grief in 1518, upon seeing by this picture that he was as nothing in the art, compared with the superior genius of Raphael; but Malvasia proves that he lived some years afterwards, and in an improved style produced his celebrated St. Sebastian, which Caracci describes as the general model of proportion and form for the students at Bologna. A copy of this figure still exists in the church della Misericordia.

, a learned cardinal, was born at Bologna Sept. 5, 1664. He was the son of James Gotti,

, a learned cardinal, was born at Bologna Sept. 5, 1664. He was the son of James Gotti, a doctor of laws, and professor in the university of Bologna. In 1680 he became of the Dominican order, and having completed his course of philosophy at Bologna, was sent to study theology for four years at Salamanca in Spain. Upon his return in 1688, he was appointed professor of philosophy in the university of Bologna, and was also made prior and provincial of his order, and inquisitor of Milan. In 1728, pope Benedict XIII. created him a cardinal, and three years afterwards appointed him member of the congregation for examining bishops; and such was his reputation, that in the last conclave, held during his time, a considerable number of the cardinals were for his being raised to the papal throne. Soon after this he died at Rome in 1742. His works are much valued by the catholics in Italy, and display considerable erudition. Of these the principal are, 1. “De vera Christi Ecclesia,” Rome, 1719, 3 vols, and reprinted with additions at Milan in 1734. 2. “Theologia Scholastico-dogmatica, juxta mentem divi Thornse Aquinatis, &c.” 6 vols. 4to. 3. “Colloquia Theologica-polemica, in tres classes distributa, &c.” Bologna, 4to. 4. “De Eligenda inter Dissidentes Christianos Sententia,” written in answer to a piece with the same title, by Le Clerc; and an elaborate work in defence of the truth of the Christian religion against atheists, idolaters, Mahometans, Jews, &c. 1735 1740, in 12 vols. He was employed at the time of his death in writing “A Commentary on the Book of Genesis.” A long life of him, “De vita et studiis, &c.” 4to, was published at Rome in 1742.

, the principal event in whose life is the reformation he introduced in the Roman calendar, was born at Bologna in 1502. His name before his promotion was Hugh

, the principal event in whose life is the reformation he introduced in the Roman calendar, was born at Bologna in 1502. His name before his promotion was Hugh Buoncompagno. He was brought up to the study of the civil and canon law, which he taught in his native city with uncommon reputation. He was afterwards appointed judge of the court of commerce at Bologna. From this city he removed to Rome, where, after various preferments, he was on the death of Pius V. in 1572, unanimously elected his successor, and at his consecration he took the name of Gregory XIII. His reformation of the calendar, was according to a method suggested by Lewis Lilio, a Calabrian astronomer, which after his death was presented to the pope by his brother. This method, which was immediately adopted in all catholic countries, but was rejected by the protestants and by the Greeks, was intended to reform the old or Julian year, established by Julius Caesar, which consisted of'365 days 6 hours, or 365 difys and a quarter, that is three years of 365 days each, and the fourth year of 366 days. But as the mean tropical year consists only of 365 days 5 hours 48 minutes 57 seconds, the former lost 11 minutes 3 seconds every year, which in the time of pope Gregory had amounted to 10 <lays, and who, by adding these 10 days, brought the account of time to its proper day again, and at the same time appointed that every century after, a day more should be added, thereby making the years of the complete centuries, viz. 1600, 1700, 1800, &c. to be common years of 365 days each, instead of leap-years of 366 days, which makes the mean Gregorian year equal to 365 days 5 hours 45 minutes 36 seconds. This computation was not introduced into the account of time in England, till 1752, when the Julian account had lost 11 days, and therefore the 3d of September, was in that year by act of parliament accounted the 14th, thereby restoring the 11 days which had thus been omitted.

, called Bolognese, was born at Bologna in 1606, and studied under A. Caracci, to whom

, called Bolognese, was born at Bologna in 1606, and studied under A. Caracci, to whom he was related. He was a good designer of figures, but became chiefly distinguished for his landscapes. When he arrived at Rome, Innocent X. did justice to his merit, employed him to paint in the Vatican and the Q,uirinal, and even in churches. This pope used to visit him when at work, and talk familiarly with him. His reputation reached cardinal Mazarine at Paris, who sent for him, settled a large pension on him, and employed him for three years in embellishing hi? palace and the Louvre, by the order of Lewis XIII. The troubles of the state, and the clamours raised against the cardinal, whose party he warmly espoused, put him so much in danger, that his friends advised him to retire among the Jesuits, for whom he painted a decoration for the exposition of the sacrament during the holy days, according to the custom of Rome. This piece was much relished at Paris: the king honoured it with two visits, and commanded him to paint a similar piece for his chapel at the Louvre. Grimaldi after that returned to Italy, and at his arrival at Rome found his great patron Innocent X. dead; but his two successors Alexander VII, and Clement IX. honoured him equally with their friendship, and found him variety of employment. His chief power lay in landscape, though he designed figures well, and his pencil equalled his design, light, and flowing with great depth of colour, bolder in the masses and the dash of bushy foliage than Caracci’s, but perhaps tc-o green. The gallery Colon n a, at Rome, has many of his views, which remained chiefly in Italy, less known on this side of the Alps than those of Poussin and Claude. He understood architecture, and has engraved in aqita fortis forty-two landscapes in an excellent manner, five of which are after Titian. Grimaldi was amiable in his manners, as well as skilful in his profession: he was generous without profusion, respectful to the great without meanness, and charitable to the poor. The following instance of his benevolence may serve to characterise the man. A Sicilian gentleman, who had retired from Messina with his daughter, during the troubles of that country, was reduced to the misery of wanting bread. As he lived over-against him, Grimaldi was soon informed of it; and in the dusk of the evening, knocking at the Sicilian’s door, without making himself known, tossed in money and retired. The thing happening more than once, raised the Sicilian’s curiosity to know his benefactor; who, finding him out, by hiding himself behind the door, fell down on his knees to thank the hand that had relieved him: Grimaldi remained confused, offered him his house, and continued his friend till his death. He died of a dropsy at Rome in 1G60, and left a considerable fortune among six children; of which the youngest, named Alexander, was a pretty good painter.

, an eminent Italian mathematician, was born at Bologna, September 27, 1655. The great progress which

, an eminent Italian mathematician, was born at Bologna, September 27, 1655. The great progress which he had made in mathematics, was evinced by his publications at the age of twenty-one years, immediately after which he was admitted doctor of medicine, and was permitted to teach the mathematics, although he did not obtain the title of professor until 1694. In 1696 he was elected a member of the principal learned societies of Europe; and in 1702 the university of Padua offered him the professorship of the theory of medicine, an office which he filled with great reputation. He died July 12, 1710. His numerous publications were collected and edited by Morgagni, under the title of “Opera omnia Mathematica, Hydraulica, Medica, et Physica. Accessit vita auctoris a J. B. Morgagni,” Geneva, 1719, 2 vols. 4to. They principally consist of a Treatise on Hydrostatics, in Latin a large work entitled “Delia Natura de Fiumi,” which is esteemed his master-piece a dissertation “de Sanguinis Natura et Constitutione” a treatise on comets, written on the appearance of the comet in 1681, and two Letters on Hydrostatics, occasioned by a dispute which he had with M. Papin, respecting his work on that subject.

, a very celebrated artist, was born at Bologna in 1574, and early in life became the pupil

, a very celebrated artist, was born at Bologna in 1574, and early in life became the pupil of Denis Calvert, a Fleming; but he afterwards entered the school of the Carracci at Bologna, and is by many considered as their principal pupil, and none but Domenichino would have been entitled to dispute that praise with him, if his astonishing work of the communion of St. Jerome had been equally supported by his other labours, The Carracci, however, were too jealous to rejoice in the extraordinary progress of Guido, who threatened to rival at least, if not surpass, their own claims to public applause, and Ludovico disgracefully attempted to depreciate his pupil by opposing Guercino to him, while Annihal himself js said to have censured Albani for having conducted Guido. thither, alarmed at his aspiring talents, his graceful man-, ner, and ambitious desire to excel.

, called also Wernerus, or Guarnerus, a celebrated German lawyer, was born at Bologna, about the middle of the eleventh century. After

, called also Wernerus, or Guarnerus, a celebrated German lawyer, was born at Bologna, about the middle of the eleventh century. After studying the law at Constantinople, he taught it at Ravenna, where a dispute arising between him and his colleagues about the word “al,” he sought for the meaning of it in the Roman law; and thence took a liking to it, applied to the study of it, and at last taught it publicly at Bologna in 1128. He had a great number of disciples, became the father of the Glossators, and had the title of “Lucerna Juris.” Thus he was the restorer of the Roman law, which had been destroyed by the invasion of the barbarians. He had great credit in Italy with the princess Matilda; and, having engaged the emperor Lotharius to order, by an edict, that Justinian’s law should resume its ancient authority at the bar, and that the code and digest should be read in the schools, he was the first who exercised that profession in Italy: his method was to reconcile the “responsa jurisprudentum” with the “leges,” when they seemed to clash.

, a celebrated astronomer and mathematician, was born at Bologna in 1674, and soon displayed a genius above his

, a celebrated astronomer and mathematician, was born at Bologna in 1674, and soon displayed a genius above his age. He wrote ingenious verses while he was but a child, and while very young formed in his father’s house an academy of youth of his own age, which in time became the Academy of Sciences, or the Institute, there. He was appointed professor of mathematics at Bologna in 1698, and superintendant of the waters there in 1704. The same year he was placed at the head of the college of Montalto, founded at Bologna for young men intended for the church. In 1711 he obtained the office of astronomer to the institute of Bologna. He became member of the Academy of Sciences of Paris in 1726, and of the Royal Society of London in 1729; and died on the 15th of February 1739. His works are: 1. “Ephemerides Motuum Coelestium ab anno 17 15 ad annum 1750;” 4 vols. 4to. The first volume is an excellent introduction to astronomy; and the other three contain numerous calculations. His two sisters were greatly assisting to him in composing this work. 2. “De Transitu Mercurii per Solem, anno 1723,” Bologna, 1724, 4to. 3. “De annuls Inerrantium Stellarum aberrationibus,” Bologna, 1729, in 4to; besides a number of papers in the Memoirs of the Academy of Sciences, and in other places, which are enumerated by Fabroni. The best edition of his Poems, which are still in repute, is that by Bodoni, in 1793, 8vo, with a life of the author.

, brother to the preceding, was born at Bologna, March 25, 1681, and having devoted himself

, brother to the preceding, was born at Bologna, March 25, 1681, and having devoted himself to mathematical studies acquired the reputation of the best algebraist in Italy. At the age of twenty he composed a work on the equations of the first degree, which obtained the praises of the learned world. In 1708, the senate of Bologna appointed him one of their secretaries; and in 1720 he was made professor of mathematics in the university of that city, of which, in 1726, he became chancellor. He was much employed in hydrostatic labours, and with great success: nor did he shew less skill in the science of geography. He died in 1761. He published “De constructione aequationum differentialium primi gradus,” Bonon. 1707. This procured him a letter of congratulation from the celebrated Leibnitz. His other works are principally among the memoirs of the institute of Bologna.

, an eminent Italian poet, was born at Bologna in 1665, and was educated at the Jesuits’ school,

, an eminent Italian poet, was born at Bologna in 1665, and was educated at the Jesuits’ school, and at the university of his native city, after which he devqted himself to the study of classical literature, and having obtained the post of one of the secretaries to the senate of B*ologna, was enabled to follow his studies without much interruption. After publishing a serious poem, entitled “Gli Ocche di Gesu,” The Eyes of Jesus, he produced a tragedy called “La Morte di Nerone,” which with several of liis other pieces was acted with great^ applause. In 1707 he was appointed professor of the belles lettres in the university of Bologna, and soon after was made private secretary to Aldrovandi, who had been nominated delegate to pope Clement XI. At Rome, where he contracted an intimacy with many men of high literary reputation, he published a whimsical dialogue, “Del Volo,” On Flying, in which he endeavoured to prove that men and heavy bodies might be supported in the air, and also wrote several discourses in verse concerning the art of poetry. When he accompanied Aldrovandi, who was appointed the pope’s legate at the courts of France and Spain, he wrote at Paris his opinions “On” ancient and modern Tragedy,“in the form of dialogues; and on his return to Rome, he published his tragedies in three volumes, and was reckoned to have conferred a great benefit on Italian literature, although his style is often too turgid and florid for a model. He also began a poem” On the Arrival of Charlemagne in Italy, and his Accession to the Western Empire,“which he never finished. He died in 1727, at the age of sixty-two, leaving the character of a man of amiable manners and social qualities. His principal works,” Versi et Prose," were printed at Bologna in 1729, 7 vols. 8vo.

, known all over Europe by the name of Padre Martini, was born at Bologna in 1706, and entered into the order of the friars

, known all over Europe by the name of Padre Martini, was born at Bologna in 1706, and entered into the order of the friars minor, as offering him the best opportunities for indulging his taste for music, which he cultivated with so much success as to be regarded, during the last fifty years of his life, as the most profound harmonist, and the best acquainted with the history and progress of the art and science of music in Italy. All the great masters of his time were ambitious of becoming his disciples, and proud of his approbation; and young professors within his reach never thought themselves, or were thought by others, sufficiently skilled in counterpoint, till they had received lessons from this deep theorist, and most intelligent and communicative instructor.

, a learned Italian cardinal, descended from an illustrious family, was born at Bologna, Oct. 4, 1524. He was intended for the profession

, a learned Italian cardinal, descended from an illustrious family, was born at Bologna, Oct. 4, 1524. He was intended for the profession of the civil and canon law, in which some of his family had acquired fame, and he made great progress in that and other studies. His talents very early procured him a canonry of Bologna; after which he was appointed professor of civil law, and obtained the title of the new Alciatus from his emulating the judgment and taste of that learned writer. Some business requiring his presence at Rome, he was appointed by ca'rdinal Alexander Farnese, who had been his fellow-student at Bologna, and who was then perpetual legate of Avignon, governor of Vaisson, in the county of Venaissin, but hearing of the death of his mother, he made that a pretence for declining the office, and therefore returned to his professorship at Bologna. The Farnese family were, however, determined to serve him in spite of his modesty, and in 1557 obtained for him the post of auditor of the rota. When Pope Pius IV. opened the council of Trent, Paleotti was made proctor and counsellor to his legates, who, in truth, did nothing of importance without his advice. Of this council Paleotti wrote a history, which still remains in ms. and of which Pallavicini is said to have availed himself in his history. After this council broke up he resumed his functions at Rome, where in 1565 he was raised to the dignity of the purple by Pius IV. and by Pius V. he was created bishop of Bologna, but the see upon this occasion was erected into an archbishopric to do honour both to Paleotti and his native country. Being a conscientious man, he was always so assiduous in the duties of his diocese, that it was with the greatest reluctance the popes summoned him to attend the consistories and other business at Rome. He died at Rome, July 23, 1597, aged seventy-three. He was author of several works of considerable merit, on subjects in antiquities, jurisprudence, and morals. Of these the most considerable are the following: “Archiepiscopale Bonnoniense” “De imagiriibus Sacris, et Profanis,1582, 4to, in Italian; and in Latin, 1594; “De Sacri Consistorii Consultationibus” “De Nothis, Spuriisque Filiis,” Francfort, 1573, 8vo; “De Bono Senectutis” Pastoral Letters, &c.

, the most celebrated of the old masters in the art of engraving, was born at Bologna, as is generally supposed, about the year 1487

, the most celebrated of the old masters in the art of engraving, was born at Bologna, as is generally supposed, about the year 1487 or 1488. His first master was Francesco Francia, or Raibolini, (See Francia,) a painter and engraver, from whom he learned the principles of drawing, and succeeded so well, that the name of Francia was added to his own. It does not appear from whom he learned engraving; but it must have been early, as the print of “Pyramus and Thisbe” is dated 1502, and this, as well as several of his first works from the designs of Francia, were probably executed before his departure from Bologna.

, a landscape painter, was born at Bologna, in 1597, and was a disciple of Albano; but

, a landscape painter, was born at Bologna, in 1597, and was a disciple of Albano; but he principally applied to landscape-painting, and in that branch rendered himself deservedly eminent. His situations were always beautifully chosen, his distances are pleasing, the perspective receding of his objects is conducted with great skill and judgment, and his colouring is bold and lively. It was remarked of him that he painted, and also constantly wrote, with his left hand, and had full as much command of it as others have of their right; hence he was denominated II manchino da paesi. He died in 1677, aged eighty.

, an eminent Italian mathematician, was born at Bologna in January 1692, and was educated among the

, an eminent Italian mathematician, was born at Bologna in January 1692, and was educated among the Jesuits. His first pursuit was the law, which he soon exchanged for philosophy, and particularly mathematics. In philosophy he was at first a Cartesian, but when sir Isaac Newtbn’s discoveries were divulged, he was among the first to acknowledge his great superiority, particularly in optics and astronomy. He was made librarian and secretary to the academy of Bologna, and wrote a Latin history of its transactions continued down to 1766, and he also contributed many mathematical papers of great importance. But his talents were not confined to philosophy and mathematics: he was also a distinguished poet both in the Tuscan and Latin languages, and in the latter, was thought a successful imitator of Catullus, Tibullus, Ovid, and Virgil. After a life honourably spent in those various pursuits, which procured him great fame, he died Dec. 25, 1777. He published a great many works, both in Italian and Latin, which are enumerated by Fabroni.