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, another bibliographer, and a lawyer, was born at Leipsic in 1665, and died in 1714. He was the first,

, another bibliographer, and a lawyer, was born at Leipsic in 1665, and died in 1714. He was the first, according to Camus, who gave a course of lectures on legal bibliography, at Wittemberg, in 1698. This produced, 1. “Notitiae auctorum juridicorum et juris arti inservientium, tria specimina,” Leipsic, 1698 1705, 8vo, Of this a new and enlarged edition was published in 1726, 8vo, and Jenichen added a continuation in 1738. Four other improved editions, one by Hommelius, in 1749, two in 1750, and a fourth by Frank, in 1758, all in 8vo, shew the value in which this work was held. 2. “Declinatio juris divini naturalis et positivi universalis,” Wittemberg, 1712, 4to; Leipsic, 1716, 1726, 4to.

, a physician of considerable reputation in the seventeenth century, was born at Leipsic in 1640, and began his studies there, and at

, a physician of considerable reputation in the seventeenth century, was born at Leipsic in 1640, and began his studies there, and at Jena. In 1663 he travelled in Denmark, Holland, England, and France, and returned by the way of Swisserland in 1665. The following year he took his degree of M. D. and in 1668 was promoted to the anatomical chair at Leipsic. In 1691 he was appointed city-physician, and in 1691 professor of therapeutics. In 1700 he was dean of the faculty, and after a prosperous career, both as a physician and writer, died in 1718. His principal works are, 1. “De Alkali et Acidi insuificientia pro principiorum corporum naturalium. munere gerendo,” Leipsic, 1675, 8vo. 2. “Dissertations chemico-physicic,” ibid. 1685, 4to, 1696, 8vo. 3. “Meditationes physico-cheuiicte de aerisin sublunaria infiuxu,” ibid. 1678, 8vo; 1685, 4to. 4. “De duumviratu hypocliondrioium,” ibid. 1689, 4to. 5. “Observatio atque experimenta circa usum spiritns vini externum in hainorragiis” sistendis,“Leipsic, loS.'i, 4to. 6.” Exercitatioues physiologicæ, ibid. 1680, 1686, 1697 and 1710, 4to. 7. “De officio medici duplici, clinini nimirum ac forensis,” Leipsic, 1689, 1704, 4 vols. 4to, a work of great merit. 8. “De renunciatione vulnerum lethalium examen,” ibid. 1689, 8vo, often reprinted. Bonn, although not arriving at the conclusions of more modern and scientific physicians, frequently approaches them through the medium of sound and experimental knowledge. These last mentioned works on medicine, as connected with legal evidence, are particularly valuable.

, an eminent philologer and historian, was born at Leipsic, June 17, 1626, and succeeded so rapidly in

, an eminent philologer and historian, was born at Leipsic, June 17, 1626, and succeeded so rapidly in his first studies, that he was admitted to his bachelor’s degree in the college of his native city when he had scarcely attained his fifteenth year; and afterwards wrote and defended some theses, as is the custom at Leipsic. In 1643 he went to study at Wittemberg, lodging first with Balthasar Cellarius, and afterwards with J. C. Seldius, two learned men, by whose assistance he was enabled to improve what he heard from the public lecturers. In 1645 he returned to Leipsic, and again attended some of the able professors under whom he was first educated, particularly Muller and Rivinus; and the following year, after a public disputation, in which he acquitted himself with great applause, he was admitted to his master’s degree. In 1647 he went to Strasburgh, and studied divinity and ecclesiastical history, and the modern languages, until he was recalled to Leipsic, where, after two disputations on the solar spots, he was, in 1655, admitted assessor of philosophy. The following year he was invited to be professor of history at Jena, and acquired the greatest reputation as a teacher, while he employed his leisure ho-.irs in composing his own works, or editing some of those of the ancients, making considerable progress in an edition of Josephus, and some of the Byzantine historians. For five years he was dean, and, in 1661, rector of the college, and in 1672 he founded the society of inquirers, “Societas disquirentium,” at Jena. He died of repeated attacks of the gout, which had undermined his constitution, on April 29, 1674. Bosius was the particular friend of Heinsius and Graevius, both of whom speak highly of his talents. Among his works may be enumerated, 1. “Dissertatio de veterum adoratione,” Leipsic, 1646, 4to. 2. His edition of “Cornelius Nepos,1657, and again at Jena, 1675, 8vo, which gave such general satisfaction to the learned men of his day, that few subsequent editors ventured to depart from his text. 3. “Dissertatio de Pontificatu Maximo Imperatorum præcipue Christianorum,” Jena, 1657, 4to, reprinted by Grævius in the fifth vol. of his Thesaurus. 4. “De ara ignoti Dei ad Act. 17,” Jena, 1659, 4to. 5. “De Tiberio,” ibid. 1661. 6. “Exercitatio historica de Clinicis Ecclesiae Teteris,” ibid. 1664, 4to. 7. An edition of Tacitus, “De Vita Agricolae, Jena, 1664, 8vo. 8.” Schediasma de comparanda notitia Scriptorum Ecclesiasticorum,“ibid, 1673, 4to, reprinted by Crenius in his” Tractatus de eruditibne comparanda,“Leyden, 1699, 4to, and by J. G. Walch, Jena, 1723, 8vo. After his death were published, 9.” Introductio in notitiam rerum publicarum,“with his Essay on the stale of Europe, Jena, 1676, 4to. 10.” Dissertatio Isagogica de comparanda prudentia civili, deque scriptoribus et libris ad earn rem maxime aptis,“ibid. 1679, 4to, and reprinted by Crenius. 11.” Ejusdem et Reinesii Epistolae mutuse,“ibid. 1700, 12mo. 12.” Petronii Satyriconpuritatedonatum cum fragmento Traguriensi et Albas Graecas, &c.“ibid. 1701, 8vo. 13.” Hispaniæ, Ducatus Mediolanensis, et Regni Neapolitani Notitia," Helmstadt, 1702, 4to.

, one of the contributors to the reformation in Germany, was born at Leipsic, Jan. 1, 1504. In his youth he was of a retired

, one of the contributors to the reformation in Germany, was born at Leipsic, Jan. 1, 1504. In his youth he was of a retired melancholy cast, but made great progress in classical learning, and afterwards in divinity, which he studied at Wittemberg under Mosellanus and Richard Croke (See Croke), and had for his fellow student the learned Camerarius, who says, that although he appeared to his companions of a didl capacity, he laid in a greater stock of learning than any of them. In 1524 he went to Magdeburgb, and taught school for two years; and on his return to Wittemberg he was appointed to expound the scriptures, and to preach in the church near the castle, and was admitted to his doctor’s degree. Here he also applied his mind to the study of medicine, pharmacy, and botany, and laid out two gardens with a great variety of curious and useful plants. Having contracted an intimacy with Luther, he joined him in his efforts to promote the reformation, and assisted him in the translation of the Bible. In 1,540, in the dispute at Worms with Eckius, &c. he was chosen secretary; and Glanvil, who represented the emperor in this assembly, said of him that he had more learning than all the Pontificians, or Romanists. In disputing he aimed at great perspicuity, and disliked new and ambiguous expressions. To his other studies he joined a very intimate acquaintance with mathematics, was a master of Euclid, anil himself invented or improved various astronomical instruments. In 1546 he was chosen rector of the college of Wittemberg, and sustained almost alone the whole weight of managing its concerns, by which, added to his unremitting studies, his health became injured, and his strength so much impaired, that he died of a decline Nov. 16, 1548, in the forty-fourth year of his age. During his sickness, he employed himself in reading, and exhorting his family and friends, who came to see him, to adhere to the principles he had professed and taught. He published some commentaries on the gospel of St. John, the epistle to Timothy, and the Psalms in German “Ermrrationes in duns articltlos Symboll Niceni;” and “Oratio cle ordine discendi.” Some of these are to be found among Mclanchton’s works.

, a physician, was born at Leipsic, May 26, 1644, and studied there and at Wittemberg.

, a physician, was born at Leipsic, May 26, 1644, and studied there and at Wittemberg. He took his master’s degree at Leipsic in 1662, travelled for two years in Italy, France, England, and Holland; on his return was admitted M. D. at Leipsic in 1666, where he assiduously read and disputed, was appointed in 1676 assessor of the faculty, and afterwards, in 1681, ordinary professor of botany, and extraordinary professor of surgery and anatomy. He wrote, 1. “Synopsis collegii institutionum medicarum.” 2. “Institutiones medicae.” 3. “Collegium chymicum.” 4. “Collegium pharmaceutiCum.” 5. “De pracscribendis formulis.” 6. “Collegium practicum doctrinale.” 7. “Tract, de morborum curationibus.” 8. “Fundamenta medicinae vera.” 9. Chymia rationalis & experimentalis curiosa which last was published by John Ephraim Aussfeldt, Leyden, 1684, 4to. 10. “Dissertationes de corpulentia nimia,” and many other topics, which were published together in 1708, at Francfort on the Mayne, by his son Dr. Michael Ernest Ettmuller, and also in 1729 at Naples by professor Cyrillo, in 5 vols. folio, with annotations, and are highly esteemed not only in Germany but over all Europe. He fell ill, after an unsuccessful chemical operation, and died in the prime of life, March 9, 1683.

, a physician, son of the preceding, was born at Leipsic, Aug. 26, 1673. In 1692 he entered of the academy

, a physician, son of the preceding, was born at Leipsic, Aug. 26, 1673. In 1692 he entered of the academy at Wittemberg, and in 1694 removed to Leipsic, where he took his master’s degree, after which he set out on a tour through England, Holland, and Germany, and took the degree of M. D. at Leipsic, in 1697. In 1702, he was made professor extraordinary of medicine, and member of the imperial academy Naturae Curiosorum; in 1706 extraordinary professor of anatomy and surgery, and physician to the Lazaretto at Leipsic in 1710 assessor of the medicinal faculty; in 1719 professor of physiology in ordinary; in 1724 professor of pathology of the academy decemvir, and collegiate of the grand ducal college; and in 1730, director of the imperial academy of Naturae Curiosorum. He died Sept. 25th, 1733. He published his father’s works, with a preface, and wrote various dissertations on medical subjects, and contributed various papers to the “Acta Eruditorum,” and to the collections of the “Naturae Curiosorum.

gedorff, and the descendant of a series of protestant clergymen from the time of the reformation. He was born at Leipsic Nov. 11, 1668. His mother died in 1674, and

, one of the most eminenjt and laborious scholars of his time in Europe, was descended both by the father’s and mother’s side from a family originally of Holstein. His father, Werner Fabricius, a native of Itzhoa, in Holstein, was director of the music at St.Paul'p in Leipsic, organist of the church of St. Nicholas in that city, and a poet and a man of letters, as appears by a work be published in 1657, entitled “Delicias Harmonicas.” His mother was Martha Corthum, the daughter of John Corthum, a clergyman of Bergedorff, and the descendant of a series of protestant clergymen from the time of the reformation. He was born at Leipsic Nov. 11, 1668. His mother died in 1674, and his father in 1679; but the latter, while he lived, had begun to instruct him, and on hig death-bed recommended him to the care of Valentine Albert, an eminent divine and philosopher, who employed, as his first master, Wenceslau* Buhl, whom Mayer calls the common Msecenas of orphans; and he appears to have been taught by him for about five years. He also received instructions at the same time under Jo. Goth. Herrichius, rector of the Nicolaitan school at Leipsic, an able Greek and Latin scholar, whose services Fabricius amply acknowledges in the preface to Herrichius’s “Poemata Graeca et Latina,” which he published in 1718, out of regard to the memory of this tutor. In 1684, Valentine Albert sent him to Quedlinburgh to a very celebrated school, of which the learned Samuel Schmidt was at that time rector. It was here that he met with, in the library, a copy of Barthius’s “Adversaria,” and the first edition of Morhoff’s “Polyhistor,” which he himself informs us, gave the first direction to his mind as to that species of literary history and research which he afterwards carried beyond all his predecessors, and in which, if we regard the extent and accuracy of his labours, he has never had an equal. Schmidt had accidentally shown him Barthius^, and requested him to look into it; but it seemed to open to him such a wide field of instruction and pleasure, that he requested to take it to his room and study it at leisure, and from this he conceived the first thought, although, perhaps, at that timfe, indistinct, of his celebrated Bibliothecas. After his return, to Leipsic in 1686, he met with Morhoff, who, he says, gave his new-formed inclination an additional spur. He now was matriculated in the college of Leipsic, and was entirely under the care of his guardian Valentine Albert, one of the professors, with whom he lodged for seven years. During this time he attended the lectures of Carpzovius, Olearius, Feller, Rechenberg, Ittigius, Menckenius, &c. and other learned professors, and acknowledges hisobligations in particular to Ittigius, who introduced him to a knowledge of the Christian fathers, and of ecclesiastical history. It is perhaps unnecessary to add of one who has given such striking proofs of the fact, that his application to his various studies was incessant and successful. His reading was various and extensive, and, like most scholars of his class, he read with a pen in his hand.

, the son of the preceding, was born at Leipsic, Dec. 26, 1673, and imbibed a similar taste

, the son of the preceding, was born at Leipsic, Dec. 26, 1673, and imbibed a similar taste with his father for the belles lettres, bibliography, and general literature. In 1688 he received his degree of doctor in philosophy, and two years after set out on what may be called his literary travels. He remained some time with Kirchmaier at Wittemberg, and with Bayer at Fribourg, whose library he carefully inspected. Going thence to Zwickau, the senate of that city appointed him to make a catalogue of the library of Daumius, which had come into their possession by the death of that scholar. Feller was very agreeably employed on this task, when the news of the death of his father obliged him to pay a visit to Leipsic, but as soon as he had settled his family affairs, he returned to Zwickau, and completed the catalogue. He then went again to Leipsic, and studied law, but in 1696 set out a second time on his travels, and at Wolfenbuttel, became acquainted with Leibnitz, who conceiving a friendship for him, detained him here for three years, and assisted him in all his literary undertakings, especially his history of the house of Brunswick, for which Feller was enabled to collect a number of very curious documents of the middle ages. At Francfort, we find him assisting Ludolf in his historical works, but Ludolf is thought to have availed himself too little of this assistance. After extending his acquaintance among learned men in various parts, in 1706 the duke of Weimar appointed him his secretary, and he appears to have died in his service Feb. 15, 1726. His principal works were, 1. “Monumenta varia inedita, variisque linguis conscripta, nunc singulis trimestribus prodeuntia; e museo Joach. F. Felleri secretarii Wimariensis,” Jena, 1714, 1715, 4to. This literary journal, for such it is, is divided into twelve parts. 2. A Genealogical history of the house of Brunswick and Lunenburgh, in German, Leipsic, 1717, 8vo. 3. c< Otium Hanoveranum, sive Miscellanea ex ore et schedis G. G. Leibnitii quondam notata et descripta," ibid. 1718, 8vo. He also enlarged and corrected, in 1713, an edition of Birken’s History of the Saxon heroes.

, a learned and zealous Lutheran, was born at Leipsic in 1668, studied at Wirtemberg and Jena, and

, a learned and zealous Lutheran, was born at Leipsic in 1668, studied at Wirtemberg and Jena, and exercised his functions as a minister in various parts of Germany. He was the author of many very singular works in Latin and German, of which Moreri gives a list of 152, but the greater part of these are dissertations, or theses, on various subjects of divinity, sacred criticism, and ecclesiastical history. He was lastly superintendant of the churches at Lubec, and died in that city, March 25, 1729. The most distinguished among hU Latin works are, “Selecta ex Historia Litteraria,” Lubecce, 1709, 4to; “Meletemata Annebergensia,” Lubecae, 1709, 3 vols. 12mo, containing several dissertations, which have appeared separately.

, an eminent mathematician, and professor of mathematics at Gottingen, was born at Leipsic, Sept. 27, 1719. He had part of his education

, an eminent mathematician, and professor of mathematics at Gottingen, was born at Leipsic, Sept. 27, 1719. He had part of his education at home, under his father and uncle, both of whom were lecturers on jurisprudence, and men of general literature. In 1731 he attended the philosophical lectures of the celebrated Winkler, and next year studied mathematics under G. F. Richter, and afterwards under Hausen; but practical astronomy being at that period very little encouraged at Leipsic, he laboured for some years under great difficulties for want of instruments, and does not appear to have made any great progress until, in 1742, he formed an acquaintance with J. C. Baumann, and by degrees acquired such helps as enabled him to make several observations. Heinsius was his first preceptor in algebra; and, in 1756, he was invited to Gottingen, to be professor of mathematics and moral philosophy, and afterwards became secretary of the royal society, and had the care of the observatory on the resignation of Lowitz in 1763; but, notwithstanding his talents in astronomy and geography, the services he rendered to the mathematical sciences in general are more likely to convey his name to posterity. He exerted himself with the most celebrated geometers of Germany, Segner, and Karsten, to restore to geometry its ancient rights, and to introduce more precision and accuracy of demonstration into the whole of mathematical analysis. The doctrine of binomials that of the higher equations the laws of the equilibrium of two forces on the lever, and their composition are some of the most important points in the doctrine of mathematical analysis and mathematics, which Kastner illustrated and explained in such a manner as to excel all his predecessors. Germany is in particular indebted to him for his classical works on every part of the pure and practical mathematics. They unite that solidity peculiar to the old Grecian geometry with great brevity and clearness, and a fund of erudition, by which Kastner has greatly contributed to promote the study and knowledge of the mathematics. Kiistner’s talents, however, were not confined to mathematics: his poetical and humorous works, as well as his epigrams, are a proof of the extent of his genius; especially as these talents seldom fall to the lot of a mathematician. How Kastner acquired a taste for these pursuits, we are told by himself in one of his letters. In the early part of his life he resided at Leipsic, among friends who were neither mathematicians nor acquainted with the sciences; he then, as he tells us, contracted “the bad habit of laughing at others;”' but he used always to say, Hanc veniam damns petimusque vicissim.

, a very eminent mathematician and philosopher, was born at Leipsic, July 4, 1646. His father, Frederic Leibnitz,

, a very eminent mathematician and philosopher, was born at Leipsic, July 4, 1646. His father, Frederic Leibnitz, was professor of moral philosophy, and secretary to that university; but did not survive the birth of his son above six years. His mother put him under messieurs Homschucius and Bachuchius, to teach him Greek and Latin; and he made so quick a progress as to surpass the expectations of his master; and not content with their tasks, when at home, where there was a well-chosen library left by his father, he read with attention the ancient authors, and “especially Livy. The poets also had a share in his studies, particularly Virgil, many of whose verses he could repeat in his old age, with fluency and accuracy. He had himself also a talent for versifying, and is said to have composed in one day’s time, a poem of three hundred lines, without an elision. This early and assiduous attention to classical learning laid the foundation of that correct and elegant taste which appears in all his writings. At the age of fifteen, he became a student in the university of Leipsic, and to polite literature joining philosophy and the mathematics, he studied the former under James Thomasius, and the latter under John Kuhnius, at Leipsic. He afterwards went to Jena, where he heard the lectures of professor Bohnius upon polite learning and history, and those of Falcknerius in the law. At his return to Leipsic, in 1663, he maintained, under Thomasius, a thesis,” De Principiis Individuationis.“In 1664, he was admitted M. A.; and observing how useful philosophy might be in illustrating the law, he maintained several philosophical questions taken out of the” Corpus Juris." At the same time he applied himself particularly to the study of the Greek philosophers, and engaged in the task of reconciling Plato with Aristotle; as he afterwards attempted a like reconciliation between Aristotle and Des Cartes. He was so intent on these studies, that he spent whole days in meditating upon them, in a forest near Leipsic.

, a Lutheran divine, was born at Leipsic in 1650. He was deeply skilled in the Hebrew,

, a Lutheran divine, was born at Leipsic in 1650. He was deeply skilled in the Hebrew, Greek, and Latin languages, and was a professor, first at Wittemburg, then at Hamburgh, and afterwards at Stetin in Pomerania, where he became the general superintendant of the churches of that province. Fabricius dedicated the first edition of his “Bibliotheca Latina” to him at Hamburgh in 1696; which Saxius says is the only thing he knows to his honour; but why Saxius speaks thus slightingly of him does not appear. He himself published, 1. in 1697, “De fide Baronii et Bellarmini, ipsis Pontificiis ambigua,” “on the faith of Baronius and Bellarmin, which is suspicious even to the Papists,” printed at Amsterdam, in 8vo. 2. A “Bibliotheca Biblica,” in which he examines the characters of the various authors, Jewish, Roman Catholic, and Protestant, who have commented upon the Bible. The best edition of this work was printed at Rostock, in 1713, 4to. 3. A treatise on the manner of studying the Scripture, 4to. 4. A treatise “de Osculo pedum Pontificis Romani;”" on kissing the Pope’s foot, now become scarce, Leipsic, 1714, 4to. 5. Many dissertations on important passages in the Bible. Mayer died in 1712. His learning was undoubtedly great, but is not thought to be set off to advantage by his style, which is dry and harsh.

, the son of the preceding, was born at Leipsic, April 8, 1674, and was admitted master of arts

, the son of the preceding, was born at Leipsic, April 8, 1674, and was admitted master of arts in that university in 1694. He spent some time there in the study of divinity, and then travelled into Holland and England. The reputation of his father, and his own great merit, procured him access to all the men of learning in the places through which he passed. He spent one year in his travels; and immediately upon his return to Leipsic in 1699, was appointed professor of history. His first intention was to have fixed himself to divinity; but he quitted it soon after for the law, in which he succeeded so well that he received the degree of doctor in that faculty at Halle, in 1701. After this he returned to Leipsic, to continue his lectures in history, by which he gained great reputation as well as by his writings. Frederic Augustus, king of Poland, and elector of Saxony, conceived so high an esteem for him, that in 1708 he appointed him his historiographer. In 1709 he became counsellor to that king; and, in 1723, aulic counsellor. His health began to decline early in life, and he died April 1, 1732, aged fifty-eight. He had been chosen, in 1700, fellow of the royal society of London, and some time after of that of Berlin.

, Pritius, or Pritzius, a protestant divine, was born at Leipsic in 1662. He was chosen in 1707, at Gripswalde,

, Pritius, or Pritzius, a protestant divine, was born at Leipsic in 1662. He was chosen in 1707, at Gripswalde, professor of divinity, ecclesiastical counsellor, and minister; which offices he there held till 1711, when he was called to preside over the ministry at Francfort on the Maine. At that place he died, much beloved and esteemed, on the 24th of August, 1732. Besides the works that were published by this learned author, he was, from 1687 to 1698, one of the writers of the Leipsic Journal. He was the author of many compilations of various kinds, and wrote, 1. “A learned Introduction to the reading of the New Testament,” 8vo; the best edition is 1724. 2. “De Immortalitate Animac,” a controversial book, against an English writer. 3. An edition of the works of St. Macarius. 4. An edition of the Greek Testament, with various readings, and maps. 5. An edition of the letters of Milton and some other works.

s the son of a learned physician and critic, Andrew Bachmann, whose name in Latin became Rivinus. He was born at Leipsic in 1652. After a successful course of study

, an eminent botanist and physician, was the son of a learned physician and critic, Andrew Bachmann, whose name in Latin became Rivinus. He was born at Leipsic in 1652. After a successful course of study he became professor of physiology and botany in his native university. He was also a member of various learned societies, and died in 1723 r aged seventyone.

, a modern philosopher, was born at Leipsic, in 1655, and was well educated, first under

, a modern philosopher, was born at Leipsic, in 1655, and was well educated, first under his father, and afterwards in the Leipsic university. At first, he acquiesced in the established doctrines of the schools; but, upon reading PuffendorPs “Apology for rejecting the Scholastic Principles of Morals and Law,” he determined to renounce all implicit deference to ancient dogmas. He read lectures upon the subject of natural law, first from the text of Grotius, and afterwards from that of Puffendorf, freely exercising his own judgment, and boldly advancing new opinions. Whilst his father was living, paternal prudence and moderation restrained the natural vehemence and acrimony of the young man’s temper, which was too apt to break out, even in his public lectures. But when he was left to himself, the boldness with which he advanced unpopular tenets, and the severity with which he dealt out his satirical censures, soon brought upon him the violent resentment of theologians and professors.