Frederick I. (11231190)

Frederick I., surnamed Barbarossa (Red-beard), of the house of Swabia, emperor of the Holy Roman Empire (q.v.) from 1152 till 1190; “a magnificent, magnanimous man, the greatest of all the Kaisers”; his reign is the most brilliant in the annals of the empire, and he himself among the most honoured of German heroes; his vast empire he ruled with iron rigour, quelling its rival factions and extending his sovereign rights to Poland, Hungary, Denmark, and Burgundy; the great struggle of his reign, however, was with Pope Alexander III. and the Lombard cities, whose right to independence he acknowledged by the treaty of Constanz (1183); he “died some unknown sudden death” at 70 in the crusade against Saladin and the Moslem power; his lifelong ambition was to secure the independence of the empire, and to subdue the States of Italy to the imperial sway (11231190).

Definition taken from The Nuttall Encyclopædia, edited by the Reverend James Wood (1907)

Fredegonda * Frederick II.
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Franz, Robert
Franz-Josef Land
Fraser, Alexander Campbell
Fraser, James
Fraser River
Fraunhofer, Joseph von
Frederick I.
Frederick II.
Frederick III.
Frederick V.
Frederick III.
Frederick V.
Frederick VI.
Frederick I.
Frederick II.
Frederick Charles, Prince
Frederick-William I.


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Boonen, Arnold
Eller, John Theodore, De Brockhusen
Gyllenborg, Charles Count
Neumann, Caspar