Fabricius, Jerome

, more generally known by the name of Hieronymus Fabricius Ab Aquapendente, was | born at Aquapendente, in the territory of Orvieto, in Italy, in 1537. His parents, although poor, found the means of procuring him a good education at Padua, where he acquired a knowledge of the Latin and Greek languages, and, after having gone through the usual course of philosophy, he began the study of anatomy and surgery under Gabriel Fallopius, one of the most intelligent professors of his time. His progress under this excellent tutor was such as to acquire for him a character not less distinguished than that of his master, whom he afterwards succeeded in the professor’s chair, in which he taught the same sciences for nearly half a century, in the university of Padua. During the whole of this long period he maintained an uniform character for eloquence and sound knowledge, and continued to excite great interest in his lectures. He died universally regretted in 1619, at the age of eighty-two years.

The kindness and disinterested generosity of Fabricius gained him the esteem of the principal families of Padua, and the republic of Venice built a spacious anatomical amphitheatre, on the front of which his name was inscribed; they also decreed him an annual stipend of a thousand crowns, and the honour of a statue, and created him a knight of St. Mark. But the celebrity which he obtained for the university of Padua by his talents, afforded him a gratification above that which accrued from all those flattering favours.

His attention was chiefly directed to anatomy and surgery, both of which his researches materially contributed to elucidate. He is said to have been the first to notice the valves of the veins, having demonstrated their structure in 1574. The honour of this discovery has also been given to Paul Sarpi; but Albinus and Morgagni are of opinion that he was anticipated by Fabricius. These anatomists, however, were ignorant of the use of this valvular apparatus; but Fabrieius has given excellent views of its structure in his engravings. He was exceedingly methodical in his writings, first describing the structure of each part of the body, and then its uses. Valuable as his anatomical writings were, however, his surgical works obtained for him a still higher reputation. The improvements which he introduced into the practice of his art, in consequence of his accurate anatomical knowledge, and the consistent form which he gave to it, have, in fact, gained him the appellation of the father of mo*dern surgery. His works are | numerous: the first, entitled “Pentateuchus Chirurgicus,” publishedat Francfort in 1592, contains five dissertations on tumours, wounds, ulcers, fractures, and luxations. 2. “De Visione, Voce, et Auditu,Venice, 1600. 3. “Tractatus de Oculo, visusque Orgauo,Padua, 1601. 4. “DC Venarum Ostiolrs,” ibid. 1603. 5. “De Locutione, et ejus Instru mentis,” ibid. 1603. It is said that, in one day, all the Germans deserted the school of Fabricius, because, in explaining the mechanism of the muscles of speech, h had ridiculed their mode of pronunciation. 6. “Opeca Anatomica, quan continent de formato Fretu, de formation* Ovi et Pulli, de Locutione et ejus Instruments, de Brutorum loquela,Padua, 1604. The essay on the language of brute animals, in this work, is curious, and worthy the attention of naturalists. 7. “De Musculi Artificio, et Osium Articulationibus,” Vicentia, 1614. 8. “De Respira/­tione et ejus Instrumentis, libri duo,Padua, 1615. 9. “De Motu locali Animalium,Padua, 1618. 10. “De Gula, Ventriculo, et Intestinis, Tractatus,” ibid. 1618. 11. “De Jntegumentis Corporis,” ibid. 1618. 12. “Opera Chinnvgica in duas Partes divisa,” ibid. 1617. This work, in which all the diseases of the body, which are curable by manual operation, are treated, passed through seventeen editions, In different languages. 13. “Opera omnia Physiologica et Anatomica,” Leipsic, 1687. 14. The whole of his works were also published at Leyden in 1723, and in 1737, in folio. 1