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a learned German grammarian, and miscellaneous writer, was born

, a learned German grammarian, and miscellaneous writer, was born Aug. 30, 1734, at Spantekow, in Pomerania; and after studying some time at Anclam and Closterbergen, finished his education at the university of Halle. In 1759 he was appointed professor of the academy of Erfurt, which he relinquished about two years after, and settled at Leipsic, where, in, 1787, he was made librarian to the elector of Dresden; and here he died of a hemorrhoidal complaint, Sept. 10, 1806, aged 72, aocording to our authority; but the Diet. Hist, fixes his birth in 1732, which makes him two years older. Adelung performed for the German language what the French academy, and that of De la Crusca, have done for the French and Italian. His “Grammatical and Critical Dictionary,” Leipsic, 1774 1786, 5 vols. 4to, a work of acknowledged merit and vast labour, has been alternately praised and censured by men of learning in Germany; some say that it excels Dr. Johnson’s dictionary of the English language in its definitions and etymologies, but falls short of it in the value of his authorities. This latter defect has been attributed either to the want of good authors in the language at the time he was preparing his work, or to his predilection for the writers of Upper Saxony. He considered the dialect of the margraviate of Misnia as the standard of good German, and rejected every thing that was contrury to the language of the better classes of society, and the authors of that district. It was also his opinion that languages are the work of nations, and not of individuals, however distinguished; forgetting that the language of books must be that of men of learning. Voss and Campe in particular reproached him for the omissions in his work, and his partiality in the choice of authorities. In 1793—1801, a new edition appeared in 4 vols. 4to, Leipsic, with additions, but which bore no proportion to the improvements that had been made in the language during the interval that elapsed from the publication of the first.

a learned German physician and botanist, was born at Breslaw in

, a learned German physician and botanist, was born at Breslaw in 1634. After studying in various German universities, he travelled to Holland and England, received his doctor’s degree at Leipsic, and was admitted a member of the society of natural history (l'academie de curieux de la nature) under the 1 name of Dryander. In 1674, an extraordinary professorship was established for him, from which he-was promoted to that of botany, and in 1682, to that of physiology. Amman was a man of a lively and somewhat turbulent cast, and although all his writings discover great learning and talents in his profession, yet he is often harsh in his remarks on others, fond of paradox, and affects a jocular humour not very well suited to the nature of the subjects on which he treats. His first work was a critical extract from the different decisions in the registers of the faculty of Leipsic, Erfurt, 1670, 4to; on which they thought proper to pass a public censure, in their answer published in the same year, under the title “Facultatis medicse Lipsiensis excusatio, &c.” His other productions were, 1. “Paraenesis ad docentes occupata circa institutionum medicarum emendationem,” Rudulstadt, 1673, 12mo, a vehement invective against medical systems, especially the Galenic, in which he certainly points out errors and abuses; but, as Haller observes, without pointing out any thing better. Leichner and others wrote against this work, whom he answered, in 2. “Archaeas syncopticus, Eccardi Leichneri, &c. oppositus,1674, 12mo. 3. “Irenicum Numae Pompilii cum Hippocrate, quo veterum medicorum et philosophorum hypotheses, &c. a prseconceptis opinionibus vindicantur,” Francfort, 1689, 8vo, a work of a satirical cast, and much in the spirit of the former. 4, “Praxis vulnerurn lethalium,” Francfort, 1690, 8vo. As a botanist, he published a description of the garden at Leipsic, and “Character naturalis plantarum,1676, a work which, entitles him to rank among those who have most ably contributed to the advancement of the science of botany as we now have it. Nebel published an improved edition of this work in 1700. Amman, whom, we may add, Haller characterises as a man of a caustic turn, and somewhat conceited, died in 1691, in his fifty-fifth year.

a learned German, and a member of the Imperial Academy, was born

, a learned German, and a member of the Imperial Academy, was born at Hamburgh, March 14, 1674. His father was a rich merchant, who spared no expence in cultivating his talents, which were particularly directed to the study of the canon law, languages, and natural history, which he studied at Halle, Leipsic, and Leyden. Soon after his father’s death, in 1708, he was appointed syndic of the republic of Hamburgh, was employed in various negociations with the princ-ipal courts of Europe, and was always eager to make himself acquainted with whatever was interesting in the countries he visited. On his return in 1725 he was made burgomaster, and chief of the city and territory of Hamburgh; a situation which, however, did not interrupt his studies, nor his correspondence with the learned of Germany and France. He studied especially the history of the northern nations, not contenting himself with what had been published, but visited them; and not only acquired more knowledge than books contained, but was enabled to separate fabulous reports and traditions from genuine authorities. His principal publication was printed in 1746, and translated into French at Paris, in 1753, 2 vols. “Histoire naturelle de Islamic du Groenland, du detroit de Devis, et d‘autres pays situe’s sous le nord, tracluit de l’Amemand de M. Anderson.” He wrote also, “Glossarium Teutonicum et Alemanicum” “Observations philological and physical on the Bible,” in German and “Observationes juris Germanici,” which last remains in manuscript. He died May 3, 1743.

a learned German divine, principally known in this country for

, a learned German divine, principally known in this country for his excellent edition of the Greek Testament, was born June 24, 1687, at Winneden in the duchy of Wirtemberg. He was, says the writer of the meagre account in the Diet. Hist, the first of the Lutheran divines who published a learned, profound, and complete criticism on the New Testament, or rather an accurate edition. He became a critic from motives purely conscientious. The various and anxious doubts which he entertained, from the deviations exhibited in preceding editions, induced him to examine the sacred text with great care and attention, and the result of his labours was, 1. his “Novi Testarmenti Graeci recte cauteque adornandi prodromus,” Stutgard, 1725, 8vo. 2. “Notitia Nov. Test. Grrcc. recte cauteque adornati,” ibid. 1731, 8vo, and 3. his edition entitled “Novum Test. Grace, cum introdnctione in Crisin N. T. Apparatu Critico, et Epilogo,” ibid. 1734, 4to. He afterwards published, 4. “Gnomon Nov. Test, in quo ex nativa verborum vi simplicitas, profunditas, concinnitas sensuum ccelestium indicatur,” ibid. 1742, and 1759, and lastly in 1763, at Ulm, in which same year, a new edition of his “Apparatus Criticus” was published, with many additions, by Phil. D, Burkius, 4to. Bengal’s most formidable enemies were Ernesti and Wet stein, neither of whom treated him with the courtesy that becomes men of letters. His edition of the New Testament is unquestionably a lasting monument of the author’s profound learning and solid piety, and has often been reprinted to gratify the public demand. In 1745, Bengel published “Cyclus, sive de anno magno solis, luna?, stellarum consideratio, ad incrementum doctrinse propheticre atque astronomies accommodata,” Ulm, 8vo, and after his death, which took place in 1752, appeared his “Ordo temporifm, a principio per periodos ceconomise divinoe historicas atque propheticas, at finem usque ita deductus, ut tota series et quarumvis partium analogia sempiternae virtutis ac sapientiae cultoribus ex script. Vet. et Nov. Test, tanquam uno revera documento proponatur,” Stutgard, 1753. Bengel maintained the doctrine of the millenium, or second appearance of Christ upon earth to reign with his saints a thousand years. His “Introduction to his Exposition to the Apocalypse,” was translated and published by John Robertson, M. D. London, 1757.

a learned German writer, was born at Carlostadt, Oct. 18, 1522,

, a learned German writer, was born at Carlostadt, Oct. 18, 1522, and studied at Marpurg, and afterwards at Wittemberg, where, being introduced by Melancthon, to Luther, the latter received him into his house, and both superintended his studies. In 1542, when the contest took place between John Frederic, the elector, and prince Maurice, he served under the former, but the war being over, he returned to Wittemberg. In 1546 he was appointed professor of history, poetry, and mathematics at Grieswald; and in 1549 he visited Paris, and some other celebrated academies, studied civil law, and published his “Ephemeris Historica,” Paris, 1550. In 1.552 he had a considerable hand in the treaty of Passaw, by which the exercise of the Protestant religion throughout Germany was secured. In 1553 we find him at Padua, where, by Melancthon’s advice, he studied me.dicine, and became acquainted with the celebrated Fallopius he next visited Rome, and some of the Italian schools, and at Ferrara was created LL. D. About the year 1555 he appears to have excited some enemies, on account of his religious principles; but in 1559, the elector Palatine, Otto Henry, appointed him his ecclesiastical counsellor and librarian. On the death, however, of this patron, he removed to Oppenheim, and took his final leave of public affairs. In 1563 he visited the principal cities and academies of Saxony, for the purpose of inquiring into their origin, history, and antiquities, and two years after was appointed historical professor at Strasburgh. He died of a decline, Oct. 27, 1S87. He was accounted a man of great learning in divinity, law, and physic, and eminently skilled in Hebrew, Greek, Latin, French, Italian, Spanish, and English. He published several works, among which are: 1. “Animadversiones historic et chronographicae.” 2. “Opus fastorum antiquitatis Romanae,” Spire, 1600, 4to. 3. “Fasti Hebraeorum, Atheniensium, et Romanorum.” 4. “Animadversiones in Taciti Germaniam.” 5. “Commentarii in Livium, Sallustium, Velleium Paterculum, &c.

a learned German chronologist, the son of a Lutheran peasant,

, a learned German chronologist, the son of a Lutheran peasant, was born at Gorschleben, a village of Thuringia, in 1556. Being very poor in his youth, he got his livelihood by his skill in music, which he learned very early, and was so liberally encouraged at Magdeburgh, that he was enabled to study for some time at the university of Helmstadt, where he made great progress in the learned languages, and in chronology and astronomy. He died at Leipsic, where he held the office of chantor, in 1615. His “Opus Chronologicum” appeared first in 1605, on the principles of Joseph Scaliger, for which he was not a little commended by Scaliger. Isaac Casaubon, also, a better judge in this case than Scaliger, as being under less temptation to be partial, has bestowed high praises on Calvisius. In 1611, Calvisius published a work against the Gregorian calendar, under the title of “Elenchus calendarii a papa Gregorio XIII. comprobati;” or, a “Confutation of the calendar, approved and established by pope Gregory XI 11.” Vossius tells us, that he not only attempts in this work to shew the errors of the Gregorian calendar, but offers also a new and more concise, as well as truer method of reforming the calendar. He was the author also of “Enodatio duarum questionum, viz. circa annum Nativitatis et Tempus Ministerii Christi,” Ertbrd, 1610, 4to. His “Chronology” was often reprinted. Of his musical talents, he has left ample proofs to posterity in his short treatise called “Μελοποια, sive Melodiæ condendæ ratio, quam vulgò musicam poeticam vocant, ex veris fundamentis extracta et explicata,” 1592. This ingenious tract contains, though but a small duodecimo volume, all that was known at the time concerning harmonics and practical music; as he has compressed into his little book the science of most of the best writers on the subject; to which he has added short compositions of his own, to illustrate their doctrines and precepts. With respect to composition, he not only gives examples of concords and discords, and their use in combination, but little canons and fugues of almost every kind then known. He composed, in 1615, the 150th psalm in twelve parts, for three choirs, as an Epithalamium on the nuptials of his friend Casper Ankelman, a merchant of Hamburgh, and published it in folio at Leipsic the same year. Several of his hymns and motets appear in a collection of Lutheran church music, published at Leipsic, 1618, in eight volumes 4to, under the following title: “Florilegium portens CXV. selectissimas Cantiones, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, voc. prsBstantissimorum Auctorum.” Some of these which Dr. Burney had the curiosity to score, have the laws of harmony and fugue preserved inviolate.

a learned German scholar and antiquary, was born at Grebern, in

, a learned German scholar and antiquary, was born at Grebern, in the bishopric of Bamberg, Sept. 19, 1526, and after some elementary instruction from his father, a minister of the Lutheran church, was sent to Dim, where he studied Greek and Latin under Gregory Leonard, and by his diligence and progress obtained a pension from the senators of UJm, which enabled him to pursue his studies without expense to his father. In 1545 he went to Strasburgh, where, after applying for some time to polite literature, he learned Hebrew, and went through a course of divinity, Still liberally maintained by the city of Ulm; and in 1547 was appointed tutor to a person of rank. Some years after, he presided over the school at Memmingen, and raised its reputation very considerably. In 1559 he was chosen professor of moral philosophy and Greek at Tubingen; but in 1566 was obliged to leave it on account of the plague, and did not return, along with the other professors, until 1568. At the age of eighty -one, perceiving that he was near his end, he assembled the whole university, with the rector at its head, and after entertaining them sumptuously, gave them a goblet worth an hundred florins. He died Feb. 25, 1607, leaving a library which was valued at 2000 florins. Besides the learned languages, he was a good French scholar, but was most distinguished for his acquairt nee with the modern Greek, and was the first who taught it in Germany. Of his numerous works, the following are the most important: 1. “Turco-Graecias libri octo, utraque lingua edita. Quibus Graecorum status sub imperio Turcico, in politia et ecclesia, ceconomia et scholis, jam hide ab amissa Constantinopoli, ad haec usque tempora, luculenter describitur,” Basil, 1584, folio. 2. “Acta et Scripta Theologorum Wirtembergensium, et Patriarchs Constantinopolitani D. Hieremiae quas utrique ab anno 1576 usque ad annum 1581 de Augustana Confessione inter se miserunt,” Gr. & Lat. 1584, fol. 3. “ Germano-Graeciae libri sex > in quorum prioribus tribus, Orationes, in reliquis Carmina, Gr. & Lat. continentur,” fol. without date, but from the dedication, probably 1585. 4. “Annales Suevici, sive Chronica rerum gestarum antiquissimae et inclytae Suevicas Gentis quibus quicquid fere de ea haberi potuit, ex Lat. & Graec. aliarumque linguarum auctoribus, scriptisque plurimis, non editis, comprehenditur, &c.1595 and 1596, 2 vols. fol. These works, which are now rare, are highly esteemed, and throw much light on history, and particularly on the history of the modern Greeks. One other work of Martin Crusius may be mentioned as a curiosity: “Corona Anni, hoc est, explicatio Evangeliorum et Epistolarum quae diebus dominicis et festis in ecclesia proponuntur; e Tubingeiisium, et aliorum Theologorum eonckmibus, conscripta,” Wittemberg, 1602, 4 vols. 4to. From 1563 he had been accustomed to write in the church the sermons of the preachers of Tubingen, which he did first in Latin, but when professor of Greek, he thought it his duty to use that language, and with such indefatigable perseverance, that, "between 1563 and 1601, he had made a collection of those discourses, amounting to 6174, and published some of them in other volumes, and would have published more, if he could have found any persons who would defray the expence. The work before us he had in vain offered to the booksellers at different times for seven years, and at length the court of Saxony bore the expence of printing. It contains 516 sermons in Greek and Latin, in double columns. This singular undertaking had not, as may be supposed, much success; and the few copies which exist are considered rather as objects of curiosity than utility.

th them a book, in which they desire such persons to write their names, with some sentence or other. A learned German paid a visit to madame Dacier, and requested

Madame Dacier was a lady of great virtue as well as learning. She was remarkable for firmness, generosity, good nature, and piety. The causes of her change of religion are not well explained, but she appears to have been at least sincere. Her modesty was so great, that she never spoke of subjects of literature; and it was with some difficulty that she could at any time be led to do it. There is an anecdote related of her, which her countrymen say sets this modesty in a very strong light, although others may think the pi oof equivocal. It is customary with the scholars in the northern parts of Europe, who visit, when they travel, the learned in other countries, to carry with them a book, in which they desire such persons to write their names, with some sentence or other. A learned German paid a visit to madame Dacier, and requested her to write her name and sentence in his book. She seeing in it the names of the greatest scholars in Europe, told him, that she should he ashamed to put her name among those of so many illustrious persons; and that such presumption would by no means become her. The gentleman insisting upon it, she was at last prevailed upon and taking her pen, wrote her name with this verse of Sophocles, Γυναιξὶν ὴ πιγὴ φέρει χόσμον, that is, “Silence is the ornament of the female sex.” When likewise she was solicited to publish a translation of some books of scripture, with remarks upon them, she always answered, that “a woman ought to read, and meditate upon the scriptures, and regulate her conduct by them, and to keep silence, agreeably to the command of St. Haul.” Among her other literary honours, the academy of Iticovrati at Padua chose her one of their body in 1684.

a learned German divine of the Lutheran church, and whose talents

, a learned German divine of the Lutheran church, and whose talents contributed greatly to raise the reputation of the university of Jena, was born Feb. 1, 1654, at Sandhusen, a village near Gotha. He appears to have obtained the patronage of the duke Frederick, who defrayed the expence of his education, both at school, and at the university of Wittemberg, where he took his master’s degree in 1676. Having devoted much of his attention to the Hebrew language and antiquities, he went to Hamburgh, where he profited by the assistance of Esdras Edzardi and other learned Jews, and was enabled to read the rabbinical writings with facility. From Hamburgh he went to Leipsic, and thence to Jena, from which in 1683 he visited Holland and England, acquiring in both countries the acquaintance of men of learning. On his return, having determined to settle at Jena, he was appointed professor extraordinary of the oriental languages, and on the death of the learned Frischmuth, was advanced to be professorordinary. In these offices he acquired great reputation, and attracted a number of foreign students. Some time after, he was appointed professor of divinity, in which he was no less popular. He died of a stroke of apoplexy, Dec. 20, 1727. He wrote, among many other works, “Sinceritas sacrae Scripturae veteris testamenti triumphans, cujus prodromus Sinceritas Scriptuvae Vet. Test, prevalente Keri vacillans,” Jena, 1713, 4to; and various dissertations in Latin, in controversy with the Jews, or on topics of Jewish antiquities, particularly “Divina Elohim inter coaequales de primo homine condendo deliberatio,1712Inauguratio Christi haud obscurior Mosaica, decem dissert, asserta,” Jena, 1717, 4to and a very ingenious tract entitled “Davidis in Ammonitas devictos mitigata crudelitas,1713.

a learned German mineralogist, was born at Wallhanson in Thuringia

, a learned German mineralogist, was born at Wallhanson in Thuringia in 1728, and died at Florence, Jan. 21, 1779, during a visit he paid to the waters of Pisa. He originally served in the army, but applying himself to the sci< nces, particularly mineralogy, he was appointed professor of the academy of the mines at Chemnitz, and was afterwards employed at Vienna in the department of the mines and mint. Bis principal work was entitled “Enleitung zur BergBaukurst, &c.” Vienna, 1773, 4to, embellished with plates, which was afterwards translated and published by the order and at the expence of the French king, under the title “Traité sur la science de l'exploitation des Mines,” Paris, 177, 4to. He wrote also a work on mountains and their contents.

a learned German, was born at Erlbrt, the capital of Thuringia,

, a learned German, was born at Erlbrt, the capital of Thuringia, in 1536. The first academical lectures which he heard, were those of Luther and Melancthon, at Wittemberg; but the air of that country not agreeing with his constitution, he was obliged to return to Erfort, where he studied Greek. When he had taken the degree of M. A. in 1559, he read lectures in rhetoric at home; and afterwards taught polite literature and the Greek tongue, in the college of Erfort. Having thus passed sixteen years in his own country, he was invited to Jena, to supply the place of Lipsius, as professor of history and eloquence. He pronounced his inaugural oration in 1574, which was afterwards printed with other of his orations. Some time after, he went to Meissen, to be head of the college there; where having continued six years, he obtained, in 1581, the professorship of polite learning in the university of Leipsic; and a particular pension was settled on him to continue the *' History of Saxony." Upon his coming to Leipsic, he found warm disputes among the doctors. Some endeavoured to introduce the subtleties of Ramus, rejecting the doctrine of Aristotle, while others opposed it; aad some were desirous of advancing towards Calvinism, while others would suffer no innovations in Lutheranism. Dresserus desired to avoid both extremes; and because the dispute concerning the novelties of Ramus greatly disturbed the philosophical community, he was very solicitous to keep clear of it. But the electoral commissary diverted him from this pacific design; and it happened to him, as it happens to many persons who engage late in disputes of this kind, that they are more zealous than the first promoters of them. Ilamism now appeared to Dresserus a horrible monster; and he became the most zealous opposer of it that ever was known in that country.

kingdom from 1226 to 1325, is written in Latin, und tinued by an anonymous hand, to 1426. Hartknock, a learned German, published an edition of it in 4to, in 1679,

Chronicle of Prussia” contains the history of that kingdom from 1226 to 1325, is written in Latin, und tinued by an anonymous hand, to 1426. Hartknock, a learned German, published an edition of it in 4to, in 1679, with nineteen dissertations, which throw considerable light on the early history of Prussia. About 1340, Nicolas Jeroschin, a chaplain of the Teutonic order, translated this Chronicle into German verse, which was continued in the same by Wigand of Marpur^, as far as 1394. Duisbourg himself was a priest of the Teutonic order in Prussia, but we have no farther account of his life.

a learned German, and celebrated for a talent at Latin poetry,

, a learned German, and celebrated for a talent at Latin poetry, was born at Chemnitz in Misnia, a province of Upper Saxony, 1516. After a liberal education, he went to Italy and Rome, in quality of tutor to a nobleman; where he spent his time in a manner suitable to his parts and learning. He did not content himself with barely looking on, and blindly admiring; but he examined with great accuracy and minuteness, all the remains of antiquity, and compared them with the descriptions which the Latin writers have given of them. The result of these observations was his work entitled “Roma,” published in 1550, containing a description of that city. From Rome he returned to his native country, and was appointed master of the great school at Meissen, over which he presided twenty-six years, and died in that station, in 1571. He was the author of numerous Latin poems, and had the strongest passion for verse that can be conceived. His poems appeared at Bale in 1567, in two volumes 8vo; and, besides this collection, there are also hymns, odes against the Turks, the Art of Poetry, Comparisons of the Latin Poets, &c. He is said to have received the laurel from the emperor Maximilian, a short time before his. death.

a learned German, was born at Elburg in Guelderland, in the sixteenth

, a learned German, was born at Elburg in Guelderland, in the sixteenth century. He studied philosophy for some time, and afterwards applied himself entirely to polite literature, in which he made a considerable progress. He was a master of the Greek tongue, and even of the Hebrew; of which the professors of the protestant university of Bern gave him an ample testimonial. Being returned to his own country, from which he had been long absent, he was under great consternation, on account of the expedition of the Spaniards commanded by Spinola. This determined him to leave his native country; and he went to settle in France, where he taught the Greek language, and was honoured with the friendship of Casaubon, of M. Du Puy, and of the president Thuanus. When he was walking one day at Rochelle, attended by a servant, he was desired to enter into the house of a citizen: and after that day it could never be discovered what became of him, notwithstanding all thf strictest inquiries of the magistrates. He was but young at the time of this most mysterious disappearing, “which,” says Bayle, “is to be lamented; for if he had lived to grow old, he would have wonderfully explained most of the subjects relating to polite letters.” This judgement is grounded upon his manuscript works, one of which was published at Leyden in 1677, by Henry Brunaan, principal of the college at Swol, and the author’s grand nephew, entitled “Antiqnitatum Homericarum libri quatuor,” 12mo. It is very learned, and abounds with curious and instructive observations. An edition of it was published in 1743, with notes, by Elias Stoeber, 8vo, at Strasburgh. There are other works of his in being, as, “De Atheniensium republica, De antiquitatibus Atticis,” &c. which the editor promised to collect and publish; but we do not know that it was done.

a learned German divine and historian, was born at Nimeguen, in

, a learned German divine and historian, was born at Nimeguen, in 1482. He studied classical learning at Deventer, and went through his course of philosophy at Louvain with such success, that he was chosen to teach that science; and in that university he contracted a strict friendship with several learned men, particularly Erasmus. He made some stay at Antwerp, whence he was invited to the court of Charles of Austria, to be reader and historian to that prince; but, not liking to attend him into Spain, he entered into the service of Philip of Burgundy, bishop of Utrecht. He was his reader and secretary twelve years, that is, to 1524; after which, he executed the same functions at the court of Maximilian of Burgundy. Being sent to Wittemburg in 1526, in order to inquire into the state of the schools and of the church at that place, he faithfully reported what he had observed, and confessed he could not disapprove of a doctrine so conformable to the Scriptures, as that which he heard there; and upon this he forsook the popish religion, and retired towards the Upper Rhine. He married at Worms, and taught youth there for some time. Afterwards he was invited to Augsburg, to undertake the same employment; and at length, in 1534, he went thence to Marpurg, where he taught history for two years, and then divinity to his death. He died of the plague, Jan. 10, 1542. The story of his being assassinated by robbers is amply dispfoved by Bayle. He was a man well skilled in poetry, rhetoric, and history.

a learned German, was born of a good family at Prague, about 1498.

, a learned German, was born of a good family at Prague, about 1498. He began very early to travel through Germany, France, and Italy; and acquired a familiar knowledge of the languages of those countries. In Italy he confirmed himself in the Latin tongue, and learned the Greek under Marcus Musurus. In his return to Germany, he went through Basil, and became acquainted with Erasmus, who conceived an esteem for him, and recommended him to John Frobenius, as corrector of his printing-house, who employed him in superintending many Hebrew, Greek, and Latin works then in the press; and this employment he continued till his death, at Basil, about 1555. He had married in that city, and left behind him two sons and a daughter. Bayle describes him as tall, and very corpulent-, of an excellent memory, and a ready wit. He was wonderfully mild and good-natured, so that he could scarce ever be put into a passion; but never retained ill-will against any man. He was not curious to pry into other people’s affairs, nor at all mistrustful; but endowed with primitive, yet not weak simplicity.

a learned German, was born at Marcdorf about 1561, and entered

, a learned German, was born at Marcdorf about 1561, and entered among the society of Jesuits at the age of seventeen. When he had finished his studies, he was appointed a professor at Ingolstad, where he spent twenty-four years, teaching philosophy, morality, and school-divinity, employments which did not hinder him from, composing an unusual number of books. The catalogue of them, as given by Niceron, consists of near 153 articles; which, he tells us, were copied by him from the proposals, published in 1753, for priming an edition of all Gretser’s works at Ratisbon, in 17 vols. folio. His great erudition was equalled by his modesty, and we are told he could not bear to be commended. The inhabitants of Marcdorf were desirous of having his picture; but when informed of the earnest application they had made to his superiors for that purpose, he expressed his chagrin, and told them, that if they wanted his picture, they need but draw that of an ass. Still, however, to shew their regard, and in a way more acceptable to him, they purchased all his works, and devoted them to the use of the public. He died at Ingolstad, in 1635. He spent his whole life in writing against foreign and English protestant authors (See Thomas James), and in defending the order to which he belonged. Some authors have bestowed very great encomiums upon him, but others think his works only compilations of materials that may be useful to writers of more judgment. They were printed according to the proposals above-mentioned, at Ratisbon, 1739, 17 vols. folio.

a learned German professor, was born February 16, 1633, at Breslaw.

, a learned German professor, was born February 16, 1633, at Breslaw. Some theses which he maintained did him so much honour, that he was invited to Gotha, where he was made professor of morality, politics, and history; and appointed afterwards professor of history, politics, and rhetoric, at Breslaw, 1661 librarian of the Elizabeth library, in the same city, 1670 - y patron of the college of Elizabeth, 1631 and in 1688, teacher and inspector of all the schools of the Augsburg confession in that country. He died at Breslaw, April 24, 1709. He wrote many works which established his reputation among his countrymen as an acute critic and profound scholar. His principal performance, and that for which he is most esteemed among scholars, is his book “De Romanarum rerum Scriptoribus,” 2 vols. 4to, 1669, 1675, to which was added another, “De By z an tin arum rerum Scriptoribus Grsecis,1677, 4to. His other publications, also on history and antiquities, are in considerable repute.

a learned German, was born at Augsburg in 1556; and spent his

, a learned German, was born at Augsburg in 1556; and spent his life in teaching the youth in the college of St. Anne, of which he was made principal by the magistrates of Augsburg, in 1593. They made him their library keeper also, and he acquitted himself with true literary zeal in this post: for he collected a great number of Mss. and printed books, especially Greek, and also of the best authors and the best editions, with which he enriched their library; and also published the most scarce and curious of the Mss. with his own notes. His publications were very numerous, among which were editions of the following authors, or at least of some part of their works; Origen, Philo Judseus, Basil, Gregory of Nyssen, Gregory of Nazianzen, Chrysostom, Hori Apollinis Hieroglyphica, Appian, Photius, Procopius, Anna Comnena, &c. To some of these he added Latin translations, but published others in Greek only, with notes. Huetius has commended him, not only for the pains he took to discover old manuscripts, but also for his skill and ability in translating them. He composed, and published in 1595, “A Catalogue of the Greek Mss. in the Augsburg library,” which, for the judgment and order with which it is drawn up, is reckoned a masterpiece in its kind. He may justly be ranked among those who contributed to the revival of good learning in Europe: for, besides these labours for the public, he attended his college closely; and not only produced very good scholars, but is said to have furnished the bar with one thousand, and the church with two thousand, young men of talents. He died at Augsburg in 1617, much lamented, being a man of good as well as great qualities, and not less beloved than admired.

a learned German, was born in 1584 at Vienna. He entered the Jesuits’

, a learned German, was born in 1584 at Vienna. He entered the Jesuits’ society at Rome 1607, and taught philosophy, mathematics, and theology, at Messina, where he published a Latin treatise in 1629, fol. which made much noise, and shows no little ercdulity. It was reprinted at Viterbo, 1632, fol. In this work he says that the pretended “Letter from the Blessed Virgin Mary to the people of Messina” is genuine; and he was therefore obliged to go to Rome and clear himself from the accusation brought against him in consequence of this work; but it ended in his being only compelled to change the title of his book, and to make some small alterations in it. He spent several years at Rome, and died at Milan, September 28, 1648, leaving a “Treatise on the Motion of the Earth and Sun,1633, 4to; “De sacra Latinitate,1635, 4to; < Historia trium Magorum,“1639, 4to;” Annalium Ecclesiasticorum Regni Hungariae,“torn. 1. fol. This is a valuable work, but has not been finished. He wrote also the funeral oration of Nicholas Richard, a Dominican, master of the Sacred P ilace, 4to; and a satire against the government of the Jesuits, entitled '< Monarchia Solipsorum,” is also attributed to him, but was more probably written by Julius Clement Scotti, an ex-Jesuit. On its first appearance it was ascribed to Sciopins, but that opinion is now given up. It was, however, dedicated to Leo Allatius, and was reprinted at Venice, 1652, with Inchofer’s name. Bourgeois, in his account of the book cwi “Frequent Comm mion,” page 89, enters into a large detail respecting Inchofer, and the “Monarchia Solipsorum,” and as he was at Rome when the work first came out, and was acquainted with Inchofer, to whom he ascribes it, his testimony must be allowed to have considerable weight.

a learned German, was born in 1575, at Lubeck, where his father

, a learned German, was born in 1575, at Lubeck, where his father was a merchant. He studied in his native place till he was eighteen years of age, and then went to Francfort on the Oder, where he continued four years, in a constant attendance upon lectures, and close application to his books. He afterwards studied in the university of Jena, and then in that of Strasburg; and some time after, a burgo-master of Luneburg, who had received a great character of him, chose him to accompany his son as trasrelling tutor, into France and Italy. He returned to Germany in 1602; and, stopping at Rostock, acquired so much reputation, that the next year he was appointed professor of poetry. The work which he published in 1604, “De funeribus Romanorum,” added not a little to his fame. He afterwards published another work, “De annulis,” which was also much esteemed, as a correct illustration of those antiquities. He was much employed in education, and a great many scholars were sent to him from the other cities of Germany. At length the magistrates of Lubeck, wanting a new principal or rector for their college, desired him to take that office upon him; and he was accordingly installed into it in 1613. He performed the functions of it the remainder of his days with the greatest care, and it is unjustly that some have attributed the decline of the college, which happened in his time, to his negligence. He died, March 20, 1643; and the 4th of May, his funeral oration was pronounced at Lubeck, by James Stolterfhot, who had married his eldest daughter.

Knorr à Rosenroth (Christian), a learned German orientalist, was born in 1636. He pursued his

Knorr à Rosenroth (Christian), a learned German orientalist, was born in 1636. He pursued his studies at various colleges, and then travelled for improvement into France, England, and Holland, but bestowed too much attention on chemistry and the cabalistic art, which vitiated the greater part of his works, althongh it obtained him the esteem and friendship of Lightfoot, More, and Van Helmont. By the count palatine of Sulzbach, he was, in 1688, nominated one of his privy council, and afterwards chancellor. His reputation is chiefly founded on his “Kabbala Denudata, seu Doctrina Hebræorum transcendentalis, et metaphysica, atque theologica,” &c. 3 vols. 4to; a farrago of wild reveries, fanciful chimeras, and mystical absurdities, with occasionally some learned notices of the philosophy of the Hebrews.

a learned German, was born at Altorf, in Franconia, in 1616; and

, a learned German, was born at Altorf, in Franconia, in 1616; and afterwards became professor of poetry and of the Greek tongue, and library-keeper, in the university there, in which last office he succeeded his father. He was well versed in the belles lettres, in divinity, and in the oriental languages; but, being afflicted with deafness some years before he died, he was much impeded in the discharge of his academical functions. He died Dec. 2 9, 1699, having survived a wife, whom he married in 1648, and four children. He gave several public specimens of his learning, but is principally known for a work entitled “Bibliotheca vetus et nova,” printed at Altorf, 1678, 4to. This is a biographical dictionary, which, though not free from defects, is a very useful collateral help in the investigation of literary history.

a learned German, and accurate classical editor, was born in 1647

, a learned German, and accurate classical editor, was born in 1647 at Gripswalde, a town of Pomerania, where his father was a merchant. Great care was taken of his education; and, after he had finished his juvenile studies in his own country, he was sent to Stade in Lower Saxony. In 1668, he went to the university of Jena, where he applied himself to divinity and the belles lettres. Travelling making one part of the education of a German, he visited the most celebrated towns of Franconia. His high reputation engaged Boccius, a minister of Oetingen in Swabia, to employ him as a preceptor to his children; which office he discharged with so much credit, that he was in 1669 made principal of the college in this town. He held this post three years, and then went to Strasburg; where, in 1676, he was elected Greek professor in the principal college. Ten years he acquitted himself honourably in this professorship, and then was appointed Greek and Hebrew professor in the university of the same town. His uncommon skill in the Greek language drew a vast nnmber of scholars about him, and from places and countries very distant. He died Dec. 11, 1697, aged 50.

a learned German divine, was born Nov. 11, 1630, at Goritz in

, a learned German divine, was born Nov. 11, 1630, at Goritz in Brandenburgh, and studied at the schools of Brandenburgh and Ruppin, whence he went to Stetin, and made great progress in his studies under Micrelius and other eminent professors of that college. In 1651 he studied philosophy and divinity at Wittemberg, and after two years residence was admitted to the degree of master of arts. He had now some advantageous offers of settlement in other places, but he could not bring himself to quit an university where he was so likely to add to his stores of knowledge. At length, however, in 1659, he accepted the office of corrector at Halle, which he retained until 1672, when he was appointed rector and professor in the Caroline college at Stetin. This he quitted in 1676, and accepted the office of corrector at Lubeck, where he died, Nov. 6, 1692, worn out, as Niceron informs us, by labour, chagrin, and disease. His works are very numerous, consisting of disputations, 'eloges, and other academical productions; but he is now principally known by his “Bibliotheca realis Theologica,” Francfort, 1685, 2 vols. “Biblioth. Juridica,” ib. 1679; “BibK Philosophica,” ibid. 1682; and “Biblioth. Medica,” ibid. 1679, making in all six folio volumes, containing an account of works published in each of these departments. The “Bibl. Juridica” was reprinted at Leipsic in 1757, 2 vols. and corrections and a supplement were published by Aug. Fr. Scott, in 1775; another supplement was published by Senkenberg in 1789, making in all four volumes folio. Morhoff speaks favourably of the original work, and the “Bibl. Juridica” is doubtless greatly improved.

a learned German critic, was born at Arnheim, a town of Gueldres,

, a learned German critic, was born at Arnheim, a town of Gueldres, in 1548. His father, who was a man of rank and learning, observing in him a more than ordinary inclination for books, took particular care of his education. He had him taught at home the elements of the Latin tongue, and then sent him to school at Deventer, where he learned the Greek under Noviomagus. Marcilius, having made a great progress in both languages, was removed thence to the university of Louvain, where he applied himself to philosophy and civil law; and, having finished his studies, went to Paris, and thence to Toulouse, where he taught polite literature many years. Returning to Paris, he taught rhetoric in 1578, in the college of Grassins, and afterwards read lectures in several other colleges successively. In 1602, he was made royal professor of the Latin tongue, and the belles lettres: and died March 15, 1617. Though he was not a critic of the first rank, yet he did not deserve the contemptuous treatment which Scaliger has given him. He published an edition in Greek and Latin of “Pythagoras’s Golden Verses,” at Paris, 1585, with commentaries, which John Albeit Fabricius has called learned; and notes upon many of the ancient authors, Persius, Horace, Martial, Catullus, Suetonius, Aulus Gellius, &c. which are to be found in several editions of their works. He was also the author of some Latin works, as, “Historia Strenarum,1596, 8vo “Lusu’s de Nemine,” &c. and some poems and orations.

oix at Toulouse, about 1629, and, after copying some things out of it, he gave it to James Spieghel, a learned German, and his preceptor in the Hebrew tongue. Spieghel

, a Dominican friar, and eminent orientalist, who flourished in the thirteenth century, was born at Sobiras in Catalonia; and was one of those of his order who were appointed, at a general chapter held at Toledo in 1250, to study Hebrew and Arabic, in order to confute the Jews and Mahometans. The occasion of it was this: Raymond de Pennafort, general of the order, having a strong desire to extirpate Judaism and Mahometanism, with which Spain was infected, procured an order from this chapter, that the religious of his society should apply themselves to the study of Hebrew and Arabic. This task he imposed on Martin among others; and he obtained a pension of the kings of Arragon and Castile, for such as should study those languages, pn purpose that they might be able to exert themselves in the conversion of infidels. Martin accordingly applied himself to those studies with great success; and, having sufficiently studied the works of the rabbins, they furnished him with such arguments, as enabled him to combat the Jews very skilfully. This appears from his “Pugio fidei,” which waa finished, as we learn from himself, in 1278, though the first publication of it at Paris was not till 1651. Bosquet, who died bishop of Montpelier, met with the manuscript, while he was with great ardour examining the library of the college de Foix at Toulouse, about 1629, and, after copying some things out of it, he gave it to James Spieghel, a learned German, and his preceptor in the Hebrew tongue. Spieghel advised Maussac to publish it; who, though very able to do it by himself, had however for an assistant Mr. de Voisin, son of a counsellor in the parliament at Bourdeaux, who took upon him the greatest part of the task. Thomas Turc, another general of the Dominicans, was very earnest in spurring on the promoters of this edition; and, not satisfied with soliciting them by letters equally importunate and obliging, he gave orders that they should be provided with all the manuscripts of the “Pugio fidei” that could be recovered, In short, the Dominican order interested themselves so much in it, that they bore the charges of the impression. Some assert, that Martin wrote another book, entitled, “Capistrum Judaeorum,” and also “A Confutation of the Alcoran;” and that a copy of the “Pugio fidei,” written by his own hand in Latin and Hebrew, was preserved at Naples in the convent of St. Dominic. The great knowledge which he has discovered of the books and opinions of the Jews, has made some imagine that he was of that religion; but this is thought to be a mistake. The time of Martin’s death is uncertain.

a learned German divine of the Protestant persuasion, was born

, a learned German divine of the Protestant persuasion, was born in 1572, and studied at Paderborn, under the celebrated Piscator. In his twenty-third year he was called to officiate as minister in the courts of the counts of Nassau Dillembourg; the following year was appointed professor in the college of Paderborn, and in 1592 was appointed regent of the schools. He was afterwards called to be rector of the school at Bremen, and, in 1618, was deputed by the magistrates of Bremen to the synod of Dort, where he maintained the opinions of Cameron, Amyraut, Dai lie, and others; but signed all the acts of the synod. He died in 1630, leaving behind him many theological treatises, now forgotten, and a “Lexicon philologicum, in quo Latinae et a Latinis auctoribus usurpatae turn purae, turn barbaroe voces ex originibus declarantur, &c.: accedit Cadmus Graeco-Phoanix etGlossarium Isidori,” Utrecht, 1697, 2 vols. folio; reprinted at Amsterdam, 1701. This work, at one time, enjoyed considerable reputation, and it is said that some philologists have availed themselves of it, without acknowledgment.

, in Latin Menckenius, a learned German writer, was born of a good family at Oldenburg,

, in Latin Menckenius, a learned German writer, was born of a good family at Oldenburg, in Westphalia, in 1644. He cultivated his first studies in his native place; and at seventeen went to Bremen, where he applied himself to philosophy. He stayed there one year, and removed to Leipsic, where he was admitted master of arts in 1664; and afterwards visited the other universities, Jena, Wittemberg, Groningen, Franeker, Utrecht, Leyden, and Kiel. Upon his return to Leipsic, he applied himself for some time to divinity and civil law. In 1668 he was chosen professor of morality in that university; and, in 1671, took the degree of licentiate in divinity. He discharged the duties of his professorship with great reputation till his death, which happened in 1707. He was five times rector of the university of Leipsic, and seven times dean of the faculty of philosophy. He published several works; many of his own, and some of other people. The edition of sir John Marsham’s “Canon Chronicus,” at Leipsic, in 4to, and a new edition of “Camden’s Annals of queen Elizabeth,” were procured by him. But his most considerable work, and what alone is sufficient to perpetuate his name, is the “Acta eruditorum” of Leipsic, of which he was the first author, and in which he was engaged till his death. When he had formed that design, he began a correspondence with the learned men of all nations, in order to inform himself of what passed in the republic of letters. For the same purpose he took a journey to Holland, and thence to England. He afterwards formed a society of several persons of eminent abilities, to assist him in the work, and took all proper measures to render it lasting. The elector of Saxony contributed, by his generosity, to the success of the design. The first volume was published at Leipsic, in 1682, in 4to. Our author continued to publish, with the assistance of colleagues, every year a volume while he lived, with supplements from time to time, and an index once in ten years. His share ends with the thirtieth volume.

a learned German, was born at Brussels in 1573; and was first

, a learned German, was born at Brussels in 1573; and was first almoner and librarian of Albert, archduke of Austria. He was an ecclesiastic, and laboured all his life for the good of the church and of his country. He died in 1640. His works are, 1.“Elogiaillustrium Belgii scriptorum,1609, 4to. 2. “Opera Historica et Diplomatica.” This is a collection of charters and diplomas, relating to the Low Countries. The best edition is that of 1724, 4 vols. in folio, by Foppens, who has made notes, corrections, and additions to it. 3. “Rerum Belgicarum Chronicon;” useful for the history of the Low Countries. 4. “De rebus Bohemicis,” 12mo. 5. “Bibliotheca Ecclesiastica.” 6. “Vita Justi Lipsii,” &c. Penetration, and exactness in facts and citations, are usually esteemed the characteristics of this writer.

a learned German, was descended from a family, which came originally

, a learned German, was descended from a family, which came originally from Schlestadt, and had been raised to nobility in the person of his great-grandfather by the emperor Rodolphus II. in 1604. Ulric was born, July 23, 1646, at Strasburg, where he had the first part of his education, and then proceeded to study the sciences at Montbelliard and Altorf. He inherited both the inclination and taste of his ancestors, who were all distinguished by the posts they held, either in the university, or in the senate of Strasburg. The study of the Latin, Greek, and Hebrew tongues was almost the first amusement of his infancy; and he learned, with equal facility, French, Spanish, and Italian. At fifteen^ he was so good a rhetorician, that he composed and pronounced a Latin speech in public, with universal applause. The method prescribed by his preceptors was, to suffer him to read only the ancient authors, and to derive the principles of eloquence from the purest sources, Demosthenes, Cicero, Quintilian, Longinus, &c. He also pursued the same plan, in his course of philosophy; Plato, Aristotle, and Pythagoras, being principally recommended to him. His general knowledge at length settled in jurisprudence and history: in both which he excelled, and filled the chairs of both in the university with great distinction, being admired, not more for the great extent of his knowledge, than for his perspicuity in communicating it. He gave an account of all ages as if he had lived in them; and of all laws as if he had been the maker of them. With all this, he spoke of such subjects as he knew best, like a man who sought rather to be informed than to decide. As soon as he had taken his licentiate’s degree, he resolved to travel for farther improvement. In this view, he went first to Vienna in Austria, with Mr. Kellerman, the Muscovite ambassador, and visited the libraries and learned men wherever he came. He commenced author at nineteen, when he published a kind of “Commentary upon Scipio’s Dream,” and “A Dissertation upon the Principles of Civil and Political Prude-nee.

, who wrote his name sometimes Grubendol, reversing the letters, was a learned German, and born in 1626, in the duchy of Bremen, in

, who wrote his name sometimes Grubendol, reversing the letters, was a learned German, and born in 1626, in the duchy of Bremen, in the Lower Saxony, being descended from the counts of Oldenburg, in Westphalia, whence his name. During the long English parliament in Charles I.'s time, he was appointed consul for his countrymen, in which post he continued at London after the usurpation of Cromwell; but, being discharged from that employment, he was made tutor to the lord Henry Obrien, an Irish nobleman, whom he attended to the university of Oxford, and in 1656 entered himself a student, chiefly for the sake of admission to the Bodleian library. He was afterwards tutor to William lord Cavendish, and was acquainted with Milton, among whose “Epistolae familiares,” are four letters to Oldenburg. During his residence at Oxford he became also acquainted with the members of that little association which gave birth to the royal society; and, upon the foundation of this latter, he was elected fellow; and, when the society found it necessary to have two secretaries, he was chosen assistant to Dr. Wilkins. He applied himself with extraordinary diligence to the business of this office, and began the publication of the “Philosophical Transactions;” with No. 1. in 1664. In order to discharge this task with greater credit to himself and the society, he held a correspondence with more than seventy learned persons, and others, upon a vast variety of subjects, in different parts of the world. This fatigue would have been insupportable, had he not, as he told Dr. Lister, answered every letter the moment he received it, a rule which cannot be too warmly recommended, whether in cases of business, literature, or pleasure. Among Oldenburg’s correspondents may be mentioned the celebrated Robert Boyle, with whom he had a very intimate friendship; and he translated several of that gentleman’s works into Latin.

a learned German divine and reformer, was born Jan. 8, 1478, at

, a learned German divine and reformer, was born Jan. 8, 1478, at Ruffach, in Alsatia. His family name was Kursiner, or Kirsner, but the name Pellican, which means the same thing in Latin as Kirsner in German, and is in neither very significant, was given him by his maternal uncle. Pellican began his studies at Ruffach in his sixth year, and under an excellent master, who inspired him with a love for literature; yet his difficulties were many, as, among other hindrances, he was obliged to write down every thing taught him, printing being then in its infancy, and no elementary treatise had issued from the press. His maternal uncle already mentioned, who lived at Heidelberg, and had often been rector of the university, hearing of the progress his nephew made in his studies, sent for him to that seminary, where he applied to the belles lettres and logic for about sixteen months, which was probably as long as his uncle could afford to maintain him. He returned therefore in Sept. 1492 to his parents, who were poor, and could give him little support, but got some employment as assistant to a schoolmaster, and had, what was then of great importance to him, the power of borrowing books from the convent of the Cordeliers. His frequent visits for this purpose brought on an acquaintance with those holy fathers, who conceived a very high opinion of Pellican, now in his sixteenth year, and appear to have found little difficulty in persuading him to enter their order, which accordingly he did in January 1493, but against the consent of his relations. He then commenced his theological studies, and in the following year was admitted to the order of subdeacon. In 1496, at the request of his uncle, he was sent to Tubingen, and recommended to Paul Scriptor, a very learned professor of philosophy and mathematics, under whom he profited much, and who conceived a great affection for his pupil. In 1499, meeting with a converted Jew, who was now one of his own order, Pellican expressed his wish to learn Hebrew, and with the assistance of this Jew accomplished the elementary part, although not without great difficulty. Melchior Adam mentions his enthusiastic joy on receiving the loan of a part of the Bible in Hebrew. Reuchlin, who came to Tubingen in 1500, gave Pellican some assistance in this language; and with this, and other helps, certainly very difficult to be procured at that time, and by indefatigable industry, he at length acquired such knowledge of it, as to be accounted, after Reuchlin, the first Hebrew scholar in Germany.

a learned German, was of a family originally of Teutorp, a small

, a learned German, was of a family originally of Teutorp, a small town in Westphalia: their name was Voorbrock; but being changed for Perizonius (a Greek word of similar import, implying something of the nature of a girdle) by one who published an “Epithalamium,” with this name subscribed, it was ever after retained by the learned part of the family. Anthony Perizonius, the father of the subject of this article, was rector of the school of Dam, professor of divinity and the Oriental languages, first at Ham, and afterwards at Deventer; at which last place he died in 1672, in his fortysixth year, he published, in 1669, a learned treatise, “De Ratione studii Theologici.

a learned German, was a native of Steinheim, in the sixteenth

, a learned German, was a native of Steinheim, in the sixteenth century. He was a disciple of Melancthon, and taught the belles lettres in the universities of Frankfort and Helmstadt till his death, in 1595. His chief publications, on history and genealogy, in. which he was profoundly versed, are, “Syntagma de Familiis Monarchiarum trium priorum,1574; “Families Regum Judseorum;” “Chronicon Hierosolymitanum” “Historia Orientals;” “Historia Julia,” 3 vols. folio; “Methodus Legendi Historian).

a learned German, who contributed much to the restoration of letters

, a learned German, who contributed much to the restoration of letters in Europe, was born at Pforzheim in 1450. His parents, perceiving his talents and turn for books, were easily persuaded to give him a liberal education, and sent him to Paris, then the seat of literature in these western parts, with the bishop of Utrecht; where he studied grammar under Joannes a Lapide, rhetoric under Gaguinus, Greek under Tiphernas, and Hebrew under Wesselus. Being returned to his own country, he took the degree of doctor in philosophy at Basil, where he lived four years; then went to Orleans to study the law, and was admitted doctor in 1479. He taught the Greek language at Orleans, as he had done at Basil; and composed and printed a grammar, a lexicon, some vocabularies, and other works of alike nature, to facilitate the study of that language. By all this he gained Extraordinary reputation; for, the knowledge of the two languages was at that time so rare an accomplishment, that it was actually made a title of honour. This appears from the following inscription of a letter: “Andronicus Contoblacas, natione Graecus, utriusque linguae peritus, Joanni Reuchlino,” &c. that is, “Andronicus Contoblacas, a Greek, skilled in both languages, to John Reuchlin,” &c.

a learned German, was born in 1546, at Sassowerf, belonging to

, a learned German, was born in 1546, at Sassowerf, belonging to the counts of Stolberg in Upper Saxony, who, induced by an early display of talents, bore the expence of his education at the college of Ilfield. He continued there six years; and made so great a progress in literature, that he was thought fit to teach in the most eminent schools and the most flourishing universities. He was especially skilled in the Greek tongue, and composed some Greek verses, which were much admired, but Scaliger did not think him equally happy in Latin poetry. He was very successful in a Latin translation of “Diodorus Siculus,” which Henry Stephens prevailed on him to undertake; and it was published in 1604, with Stephens^ text. He translated also into Latin the Greek poem of Quintus Calaber, concerning the taking of Troy; and added some corrections to it. At last, he was appointed professor of history in the university of Wittemberg, and died there in 1606. His other works were, 1. “Historia vitae & doctrincE Martini Lutheri carmine heroico descripta.” 2. “Descriptio Historian Ecclesiae, sive popult Dei, Politiae ejusdem, & rerum praecipuarum quae in illopopulo acciderum, Graeco carmine, cum versione Latina e regione textus Graeci,” Francof. 1581, 8vo. 3. “Poesis Christiana, id est, Palestine seu Historic sacra? Grseco-Latinae libri 9,” Marpnrgi, 15S9; Francof. 1590, 1630, 4to. 4. “Tabulae Etymologice Grseca?,” Francof. 1590, Svq. 5. “Memnonis Historia de Republica Heracliensium, & rebus Ponticis Eclogoe seu excerptae & abbreviates narrationes in Sermonem Latinum translatae,” Helmstadii, 1591, 4to. 6. “Epithalamia sacra,” Jenae, 1594, 4to. 7. “Ex Memnone, de Tyrannis Heracleae Ponticas Ctesia & Agatharchide excerptae Historiac Greece & Latine partim ex Laur. Rhodomani interpretatione,” Geneva, 1593, 8vo. 8. “Theologiae Christianæ tyrocinia, carmine heroico Græco-Latino in 5 libros digesta,” Lips. 1597, 8vo.

11ICIUS (Paul), was a learned German Jew, who, having been converted, taught philosophy

11ICIUS (Paul), was a learned German Jew, who, having been converted, taught philosophy with great credit at Padua, and was afterwards invited into Germany, by the emperor Maximilian, and appointed one of his physicians. There are no particulars of his life upon record, except the above general facts. He published many works against the Jews, and on different subjects, in which he maintains that the heavens are animated, and advances other paradoxes. “De Ccelesti Agricultural,” Bas. 1587, in folio; “Talmudica Commentariola,” Augsburg, 1519, 4to; “De 73 Mosaicae Sanctionis Edictis,” Augsburg, 1515, 4to. His candour, honesty, moderation, and learning, are much praised. He lived in the sixteenth century, and Erasmus has given his eulogy in the last letter of his first book.

a learned German, was born at Nuys, in the electorate of Cologne,

, a learned German, was born at Nuys, in the electorate of Cologne, 1646; his father was a major in the army of the landgrave of Hesse Cassel. He was educated for the church at Dxiisbourg; and, having rnacle the Oriental tongues his particular study, became professor of them in that university in 1677. In 1679 he removed to Leyden, to fill the same post for a larger stipend.; aud there continued till 1729, when, he died of an apoplexy. He published some useful books in the Oriental way as, 1. “Opus Aramseum, complectens Grammaticam Chaldaicam & Syriacam,” 1686, 8vo. 2. “Nq-, vuin Testamenturn Syriacum, cum versione Latina,” 1708,' 4to. The Latin version is that of Tii./melHus retouched. Leusdeu laboured jointly with hini in this work till death, which happened when they were got to Luke xv. 20 and, Scbaaf wrote the remainder by himself. At the end of it is subjoined, “Lexicon Syriacum Concordantiale.” 3. “Epitome Grammaticae Hebraicae,1716, 8vo. 4. “A Letter in Syriac of the bishop Mar Thomas, written from, Malabar to the patriarch of Antioch, and a Latin version by himself,1714, 4to. 5. “Sermo Academicus de Linguarum Orientalium scientia,” an Inauguration-Speech, In 1711 he drew up, at the request of the curators of the academy at Leyden, a catalogue of all the Hebrew, Chaldee, Syriac, and Samaritan books and manuscripts in the li^ brary there; which was joined to the catalogue of that library t published in 1714.

a learned German, was born at Strasburg in 1621, and probably

, a learned German, was born at Strasburg in 1621, and probably educated there. He applied himself principally to the study of Greek and Latin antiquities, and of history; and made himself a tolerable verbal critic upon Latin and Greek authors. He was driven out of his own country by the wars; and, as Christina of Sweden was at that time the general patroness of all men of letters, he withdrew into her kingdom in 1648. He was made, the same year, professor of eloquence and politics at Upsal afterwards, honorary professor, royal of the law of nature -and nations, andassessor of the royal college of antiquities; and, at length, librarian of the university of Upsal. He died in 1679, after havingpublished a great number of works. Many of his pieces relate to Qreek and Roman antiquities, and are to be found in. the collection of Qrseyius and Gronovius. He wrote notes uppn many ancient authors upon Ælian, Phaedrus, “Arrianl Tactica,” of which last he made also a Latin version Petronius, Hyginus, Julius Obsequens, Justin, &c. He was one of those who stoutly defended the authenticity of that fragment of Petronius, pretended to have been fou.nd at Trau which, however, is generally judged to be a forgery, and accordingly rejected by Burman and other critics.

a learned German, was born May 11, 1740, at Nordheim, and studied

, a learned German, was born May 11, 1740, at Nordheim, and studied law at Gottingen. In 1762 he visited St. Petersburgh in company, with count Munich, in whose family he had been tutor for some time, but returned to his studies, and took his law degrees at Gottingen, whence he removed to Helmstadt. He was soon after appointed professor in the Caroline college at Brunswick, where he lectured on history, public law, and statistics until 1779, when the prince made him a counsellor and keeper of the archives at Wolfenbuttel. In 1784, the prince added the title of aulic counsellor. He died in 1801. In his visit to Russia he contracted a fondness for that country and its language, and employed much of his time on its history. This produced various works, published in German, “Letters on Russia,” “Materials for a knowledge of the Constitution and Government of Russia,” “An attempt towards a new introduction to the History of Russia,' 1 &c. &c. He published also” A manual of History,“V Historical miscellanies,” and “A History of Germany,” which is spoken of as an eloquent and useful work.

a learned German, was born December 1641, at Corback, in the county

, a learned German, was born December 1641, at Corback, in the county of Waldeck. Having taken a doctor’s degree in philosophy at Wittemberg, in 1664, he returned to Corbac, where he taught during some time instead of his father, and then returning to Wittemberg, published a learned piece, entitled “Judicium de novissimis prudentise civilis scriptoribus,” &c. under the assumed name of “Eubulus Theodatus Sarckmasius.” Jn this little work, which consists but of a leaf and half, the author passes judgment very freely on fifteen German lawyers, or political writers, which raised him many enemies, and engaged him in a literary war, which produced a great number of pieces collected by Crusius, 8vo, under the title of “Acta Siirckmasiana,” and even occasioned his being struck out from the list of doctors by the university of Wittemberg. He was, however, not only restored to that title two years after, but appointed professor of history, then of poetry, and at length of Greek. In 1700, Schurtztieisch succeeded to the rhetorical chair, and became counsellor and librarian to the duke of Saxe-Weimar, and died July 7, 1708. He left a great number of learned works on history, poetry, criticism, literature, &c. the most celebrated of which are, “Disputationes historic^ civiles,” Leipsic, 1699,3 torn. 4to. Henry Leonard Schurtzfteisch, his brother, was also author of some works, among which is, “Historia Ensiferorum ordinis Teutonic!,” Wittemberg, 1701, 12mo.

a learned German writer, and one of the most arrogant and contentious

, a learned German writer, and one of the most arrogant and contentious critics of his time, was born about 1576; and studied first at Amberg, then at Heidelberg, afterwards at Altdorf, at the charges of the elector palatine. Having made a considerable stay at Ingolstadt, he returned to Altdorff, where he began to publish some of his works. Ottavia Ferrari, a celebrated professor at Padua, says, that he “published books when he was but sixteen, which deserved to be admired by old men;” some, however, of his early productions do not deserve this encomium. He took a journey into Italy; and, after he had been some time at Verona, returned into Germany, whence he went again into Italy, and published at Ferrara a panegyric upon the king of Spain and pope Clement VIII. Iti 1599, he embraced the Roman catholic religion, but had an extraordinary antipathy to the Jesuits; against whom, Baillet tells us, he wrote about thirty treatises under fictitious names. Nor was he more lenient to the Protestants, and solicited the princes to extirpate them by the most bloody means, in a book which he published at Pavia in 1619, under the title of “Gasp. Scioppii Consiliarii Regii Classieum belli sa'cri, sive, Heldus Redivivus.” The following is the title of another, printed at Mentz in 1612, against Philip Mornay du Plessis; and which, as he tells us in the title-page, he sent to James I. of England, by way of new-year’s gift: “Alexipharmacum Regium felli clraconum et veneno aspidum sub Philippi Mornaei de Piessis nuper Papatus historia abdito appositum, et sereniss. Jacobo Magnae Britanniae Regi strenae Januariae loco muneri missum.” He had before attacked the king of England, by publishing in 1611, two books with these titles; “Ec­clesiasticus auctoritati Sereniss. D. Jacob), &c. oppositus,” and “Collyrium Regium Britanniae Regi graviter ex oculis laboranti muneri missum;” that is, “An Eye-salve for the use of his Britannic majesty.” In the first of these pieces he ventured to attack Henry IV. of France in a most violent manner which occasioned his book to be burnt at Paris. He gloried, however, in this disgrace and, according to his own account, had the farther honour of being hanged in effigy in a farce, which was acted before the king of England. He did not, however, always escape with impunity; for, in 1614, the servants of the English ambassador are said to have beaten him with great severity at Madrid. Of the wounds he received in this conflict, he, as usual, made his boasts, as he also did of having been the principal contriver of the Catholic league, which proved so ruinous to the Protestants in Germany. In his way through Venice in 1607, he had a conference with father Paul, whom he endeavoured by promises and threats to bring over to the pope’s party; which, perhaps, with other circumstances, occasioned his being imprisoned there three or four days. After he had spent many years in literary contests, he applied himself to the prophecies of holy scripture, and flattered himself that he had discovered the true key to them. He sent some of these prophetical discoveries to cardinal Mazarine, who paid no attention to them. It has been said that he had thoughts at last of going back to the communion of Protestants; but this, resting upon the single testimony of Hornius, has not been generally believed. He died in 1649.

a learned German divine, was born at Zurich June 26, 1619; became

, a learned German divine, was born at Zurich June 26, 1619; became professor there of the Greek and Hebrew languages; and died at Heidelberg Nov. 8, 1684, according to Saxius. He was the compiler of a very useful work, called “Lexicon, sive Thesaurus Ecclesiastic us Patrum Graeconm):” the best edition of which is that of Amsterdam, 1728, 2 vols. fol. He had a son, Henry Suicer, distinguished by some literary productions, who was a professor, first at Zurich, then at Heidelberg, and who died in 1705.

a learned German, eminent for his great skill in Greek, was born

, a learned German, eminent for his great skill in Greek, was born at Marpurg, in the landgraviate of Hesse, in 1546, or, as Saxius says, 1536. His father, who was a farmer, gave him a liberal education, of which he made so good a use, as to become perfect in the Latin, French, and Greek languages, at a time when the latter was understood by very few. He was a school-master at Licha, for some of the first years of his life; but afterwards quitted that employment, and applied himself wholly to the revision and correction of ancient authors, the Greek particularly; many of which, still held in estimation, were published by him, from the presses of Wechel and Commelin. Among these were Aristotle, Herodotus, Dionysius Halicarnassensis, Dion Cassius, Justin Martyr, Clemens Alexandrinus, Theodoret, &c. He gave some assistance to Henry Stephens in compiling his ^ Thesaurus Graecoe linguae;“and was also the author of a Greek grammar, which was much valued, a Hebrew grammar, notes upon Clenardus, &c. For these and other services, he had an arinual stipend allowed him by the university of Marpurg. He was universally well spoken of by the learned, and died much lamented by them in 1596.” Unhappy event,“says Casaubon,” to the republic of letters for, a few days before his death, he sent me word by Commelin of many new labours projected and begun. The lovers of Greek have more especially reason to deplore the loss of him."

a learned German, was born in 1635, at Erfort, in Thuringia, where

, a learned German, was born in 1635, at Erfort, in Thuringia, where his father was minister of a Lutheran church. After having studied philosophy and theology at Konigsberg, he put himself under Job Ludolf, in order to learn “the Oriental tongues of that celebrated professor. Ludolf taught him the Ethiopic amorvg others; and then sent him at his own expence into England to print his” Ethiopic Dictionary,“which came out at London in 1661. Ludolf complained of Wansleb for inserting many false and ridiculous things, and afterwards gave a new. edition of it himself. Dr. Edmhnd Castell was at that time employed upon his” Lexicon Heptaglotton," and was much gratified to find in Wansleb a man who could assist him in his laborious undertaking; he received him therefore into his house, and kept him three months. Wansleb was no sooner returned to Germany, tban Ernest the pious, duke of Saxe-Gotha, being informed of his qualifications, sent him to Ethiopia: the prince’s design was, to establish a correspondence between the Protestant Europeans and Abyssines, with a view to promote true religion among the latter. Wansleb set out in June 1663, and arrived at Cairo in Jan. following. He employed the remainder of the year in visiting part of Egypt; but the patriarch of Alexandria, who has jurisdiction over the churches of Ethiopia, dissuaded him from proceeding to that kingdom, and sent his reasons to Ernest in an Arabic letter, which is still extant in the library of the duke of Saxe-Gotha.