Calovius, Abraham

, a celebrated Lutheran divine, and one of the ablest opponents of the Socinians of his time, was born Aug. 16, 1612, at Morungen in the duchy of Brunswick, where his father was a man of some consequence. Having finished his studies, and especially distinguished himself by his knowledge in oriental languages, he came to Rostock, where, in 1637, he took his doctor’s degree in divinity, and some time after was made professor of that faculty. He was very rigid in adhering to the Lutheran tenets, and the firmness he displayed in a controversy with John Bergius, a protestant divine, on the | subject of the Lord’s supper, occasioned his being appointed visitor of the churches and schools of the circle of Samlande in Prussia, and counsellor in the court of justice. In 1643 he was invited to Dantzic, and made rector of the college. He carried on several controversies, especially with Martin Statins, a Lutheran deacon, with Henry Nicolai, professor of philosophy, and with John Cæsar, a protestant minister of Dantzic. In 1650 he was appointed professor of divinity at Wittemberg, and became one of the warmest opponents of the comprehending system proposed by Calixtus (see Calixtus), and the partizans of the respective combatants were called Calixtins and Calovians. This dispute, conducted with much intemperance on both sides, lasted until his death, Feb. 20, 1686. His principal works, exclusive of those he wrote against Bergius, Nicolai, and Calixtus, were, 1. “Metaphysica divina, etaliascriptaphilosopbica.” 2. “Criticus sacer Biblicus.” 3. “Socinianismus profligatus.” 4. “Systema locorum theologicorum.” 5. “Conlideratio Arminianismi.” 6. “Biblia iilustrata,” a German Bible with Luther’s notes. His “Historia Syncretistica,” first published in 1682, was suppressed by order of the elector of Saxony, as calculated to revive the dispute with Calixtus, but was republished in 1685. 1


Moreri.—Saxii Onomast.Mosheim’s History.