Olearius, Godfrey

, the most considerable of a family of learned men of thU name, originally of Saxony, was horn at Leipsic July 23, 1672. He was the son of John Olearius, professor of Greek and theology in that university, and the grandson of Godfrey Olearius, a learned Lutheran divine. From his earliest years he discovered a thirst for knowledge, and a capacity which enabled him to rm.ke a distinguished figure during his studies. When his academic course was completed, in his twenty-first year he went to Holland, and then to England, attracted by the reputation of the university of Oxford and the Bodleian library, to which he gained admittance, and pursued his learned inquiries there a year. On his return home he was appointed professor of Greek at Leipsic; and in 1708 succeeded to the theological chair. In 1709 he obtained a canonry at Meissen; was appointed inspector of the students maintained by the elector, and in 1714 assessor to the electoral and ducal consistory. He died Nov. 10, 1715, when only forty-three years of age. He was an able divine and philosopher, and particularly distinguished for a critical knowledge of the Greek language. Among his works are, I.-“Dissertatio de miraculo Piscinae Bethesdae,” Leipsic, 1706, 4to. 2 “Dissert, de adoratione Dei Patris per Jesum Christum,” ibid. 1709, 4to, against the Socinians. 3. “Introduction to the Roman and German history, from the foundation of Rome to the year 1699,” ibid. 1699, 8vo, in German. 4. A Latin translation of sir Peter King’s “History of the Apostles’ Creed,1708, 8vo. 5. An edition, reckoned the best, of “Philostratus,” Gr. & Lat. Leipsic, 1709, fol. 6. A translation of Stanley’s “History of Philosophy,” ibid. 1712, 4to, with valuable notes and corrections, which were consulted in the reprint of the original at London in 1743, 4to. 7 “Observationes sacrae in Evangelium Matthaei,” Leipsic, 1713, 4to. He left various Mss. 2

O'Leary (Arthur), a Roman Catholic clergyman, was a native of Ireland, whence, when young, he embarked for France; studied at the college of St. Malo, in Briianny, and at length entered into the Franciscan order of


Chaufepie.Niceron, vol. VII.

| Capuchins. He then acted, for some time, as chaplain to the English prisoners during the seven years war, for which he received a small pension from the Frenrh government, which he retained till the French revolution. Having obtained permission to go to Ireland, he obtained, by his talents, the notice and recompence of the Irish government; and took an early opportunity of shewing the superiority of his courage and genius, by principally attacking the heterodox doctrines of Michael Servetus, revived at that time hy a Dr. Blair, of the city of Cork. After this, in 1782, when there was a disposition to relax the rigour of the penal laws against the Roman Catholics, and establish a sort of test-oath, he published a tract entitled “Loyalty asserted, or the Test- Oath vindicated,” in which, in opposition to most of his brethren, he endeavoured to prove that the Roman Catholics of Ireland might, consistently with their religion, swear that the pope possessed there no temporal authority, which was the chief point on which the oath hinged; and in other respects he evinced his loyalty, and his desire to restrain the impetuous bigotry of his brethren. His other productions were of a various and miscellaneous nature; and several effusions are supposed to have come from his pen which he did not think it necessary or perhaps prudent to acknowledge. He was a man singularly gifted with natural humour, and possessed great acquirements. He wrote on polemical subjects without acrimony, and on politics with a spirit of conciliation. Peace indeed seems to have been much his object. Some years ago, when a considerable number of nocturnal insurgents, of the Romish persuasion, committed great excesses in the county of Cork, particularly towards the tithe- proctors of the protestant clergy, he rendered himself extremely useful, by his various literary addresses to the deluded people, in bringing them to a proper sense of their error and insubordination. This laudable conduct did not escape the attention of the Irish government; and induced them, when he quitted Ireland, to recommend him to men of power in this country. For many years he resided in London, as principal of the Roman Catholic chapel in Soho-square, where he was highly esteemed by people of his religion. In his private character he was always cheerful, gay, sparkling with wit, and full of anecdote. He died at an advanced age in January, 1802, and was interred in St. Pancras church-yard. | His works are, 1. “Several Addresses to the Catholics of Ireland.” 2. “Remarks on Mr. Wesley’s Defence of the Protestant Association.” 3. “Defence of his conduct in the affair of the insurrection in Munster,1787. 4. “Review of the important Controversy between Dr. Carrol and the rev. Messrs. Wharton and Hopkins.” 5. “Fast sermon at St. Patrick’s chapel, Soho, March 8, 1797.” 6. A Collection of his Miscellaneous Tracts, in 1 vol. 8vo. 7. “A Defence of the Conduct and Writings of the rev. Arthur O’Leary, &c. written by himself, in answer to the illgrounded insinuations of the right rev. Dr. Woodward, bishop of Cloyne,1788, 8vo. The bishop, in his controversy with Mr. O’Leary, acknowledges that he represents matters strongly and eloquently, and that, “Shakspeare like, he is well acquainted with the avenues to the human heart;” and Mr. Wesley calls him an “arch and lively writer.” His style was certainly voluble, bold, and figurative but deficient in grace, manliness, perspicuity, and sometimes grammar; but he was distinguished as a friend to freedom, liberality, and toleration and was highly complimented on this account by Messrs. Grattan, Flood, and other members of the Irish parliament, in their public speeches. 1

Gent. Mag. vol. LXXII.