Locke, John

, one of the greatest philosophers this country has produced, was the son of John Locke, of Pensford, a market-town in Somersetshire, five miles from Bristol, by Anne his wife, daughter of Edmund Keen, or Ken, of Wrington, tanner. His father, who was first a clerk only to a neighbouring justice of the peace, Francis Baber, of Chew Magna, was advanced by col. Alexander Popham, whose seat was near Pensford, to be a captain in the parliament’s service. After the restoration, he practised as an attorney, and was clerk of the sewers in Somersetshire *. Although our philosopher’s age is not to be found in the registers of Wrington, which is the parish church of Pensford, it has been ascertained that he wasborn there Aug. 29, 1632. By the interest of col, Popham, he was admitted a scholar at Westminster, whence in 1652 he was elected to Christ church, Oxford. Here he took the degree of B. A. in 1655, and that of M. A. in 1658; but although he made a considerable progress in the usual course of studies at that time, he often said that what he learned was of little use to enlighten and enlarge his mind. The first books which gave him a relish for the study of philosophy, were the writings of Des Cartes, whom he always found perspicuous, although he did not always approve of his sentiments.

After taking his degrees in arts, he applied for some time to the study of physic, not so much, we are told, with a view to public practice, as for the benefit of his own constitution, which was but weak. But he must have made his skill more generally known than this amounts to, for we find that among the learned in his faculty who had a good opinion of his medical knowledge, the celebrated Dr. Sydenham, in his work on acute diseases, gives him the following high encomium “You know,” says he, "how much my method has been approved of by a person who has examined it to the bottom, End who is our common friend; I mean Mr. John Locke, who, if we consider

* /But an intelligent writer, who ap- minority, and the other our celebrated pears to have had access to the best metaphysician. See Gent. Mag. vol. authorities, asserts that Mr. Locke’s LXII. See also a letter on the same father was killed at Bristol in 1645, subject, in vol. LXIX. p. Ul. leaving two sons, one who died in his | his genius, and penetrating and exact judgment, or the purity of his morals, has scarce any superior, and few equals now living." Hence he was often saluted by his acquaintance with the title, though he never took the degree, of doctor, which we think would have been the case had he intended medicine as a profession, or had not been diverted from it by other studies and avocations f.

In 1664, sir William Swan being appointed envoy from the English court to the elector of Brandenburgh, and some other German princes, Mr. Locke attended him as his secretary, but returned to England within the year, and applied himself again with great vigour to his studies, and particularly to that of natural philosophy. While at Oxford, in 1666, he became acquainted with lord Ashley, afterwards earl of Shaftesbury, and that in the character of a medical practitioner. Lord Ashley by a fall had hurt his breast in such a manner, that there was an abscess formed in it, and being advised to drink the mineral waters at Astrop, wrote to Dr. Thomas, a physician at Oxford, to procure a quantity of those waters, which might be ready on his arrival. Dr. Thomas, being obliged to be absent from Oxford at that time, desired his friend Mr. Locke to execute this commission. By some accident or neglect, the waters were not ready the day after lord Ashley’s arrival, and Mr. Locke thought it his duty to wait on his lordship to make an apology, which he received with his usual civility, and was so pleased with Locke’s conversation as to detain him to supper, and engaged him to dine with him next day, that he might have the more of his company. And when his lordship left Oxford to go to Surinirig-hill, where he drank the waters, he made Mr. Locke promise to come thither, as he did in the summer of 1667. Lord Ashley afterwards returned, and obliged him to promise that he would come and lodge at his house. Mr. Locke accordingly went thither, and though not a regular practitioner, his lordship confided entirely in his advice, with regard to the operation, which was to be performed by opening the abscess in his breast, and which saved his life, though it never closed.

After this cure, his lordship, by frequent conversations, discovered qualities in Locke, which made him regard his

* In 1674 he took the degree of ba- in order to preserye Ms station hi chelor of medicine, probably, as Uinttsd Christ-church, at in bishop Fell’s letter hereafter given,
| medical skill as the least of his merits; and foreseeing the bent of his talents, advised him to apply himself to the study of political and religious topics, on which his lordship seems often to have consulted him. By his acquaintance with this nobleman, he was introduced to some persons of eminence, such as Villiers duke of Buckingham, lord Halifax, and other noblemen of wit and parts, who were all charmed with his conversation, and more so, it appears, than he was sometimes with theirs. One day, three or four of these lords having met at lord Ashley’s when Mr. Locke was there, after some compliments, cards were brought in, before scarce any conversation had passed between them. Mr. Locke looked upon them for some time while they were at play, and taking his pocket book began to write with great attention. One of the lords asked him what he was writing: “My lord,” said he, “I am endeavouring to profit as far as I am able, in your company; for having waited with impatience for the honour of being in an assembly of the greatest geniuses of this age, and at last having obtained the good fortune, I thought I could not do better than write down your conversation; and indeed I have set down the substance of what has been said for this hour or two.” This rebuke appears to have been taken in good part; the company quitted their play, and passed the rest of their time in a. manner more suitable to the rational character.

In 1668, he attended the earl and countess of Northumberland into France; but the earl’s death did not allow him to remain long in that country. On his return, Mr. Locke lived, as before, at lord Ashley’s, who was then chancellor of the exchequer, but made frequent visits to Oxford, in the prosecution of his studies, as well as for change of air, which appeared to be necessary to his health. While he was at lord Ashley’s, he had the care of the education of that nobleman’s eldest son, who was then about sixteen years of age. This province he executed with great care, and to the full satisfaction of his noble patron. The young lord being of a weakly constitution, his father wished to see him married, lest the family should be extinct by his death; and as he thought him too young to make a proper choice for himself, he not only consulted Mr. Locke on the subject, but even requested he would make a suitable choice for the youth. This was an affair of some delicacy, and no small risk; for, although lord | Ashley did not regard fortune, yet he conditioned for a lady of a good family, an agreeable temper, and a fine person; of good education, and of good understanding, and whose conduct would be different from that of the generality of court-ladies. In all these respects Mr.Xocke had the happiness to succeed, and the marriage was fruitful. The eldest son, afterwards the author of the “Characteristics,” was committed to the care of Mr. Locke in his education*, and his pupil, when lord Shaftesbury, always spoke of Mr. Locke with the highest esteem, and manifested on all occasions a grateful sense of his obliga r tions to him, but there are some passages in his works, in which he speaks of Mr. Locke’s philosophy with great severity. It will not, however, be thought a very serious objection to Mr. Locke, that his philosophy did not give entire satisfaction to lord Shaftesbury.

In 1670, and the year following, our author began to form the plan of his celebrated “Essay on Human Understanding,” at the earnest request of Mr. Tyrrell, Dr. Thomas, and some other friends, who met frequently in his chamber to converse together on philosophical subjects; but his employments and avocations prevented him from finishing it then. In 1668 he had been elected a fellow of the royal society, and appears to have been now looked up to as a man of superior talents, and an authority in those pursuits to which he more particularly addicted himself. In 1672, his patron Lord Ashley, being created earl of Shaftesburj‘, and lord high chancellor of England, appointed Mr. Locke secretary of the presentations to benefices; which place he held until 1673, when his lordship resigned the great seal. As he had been the confidant of this statesman in his most secret affairs, he now assisted his lordship in publishing some treatises, which were designed to excite the people to watch the Roman catholics, and to oppose the arbitrary measures of the court.

In 1675, Mr. Locke travelled into France on account of his health, and at Montpelier became first acquainted with Mr. Herbert, afterwards earl of Pembroke, to whom he dedicated his “Essay on Human Understanding.” From Montpelier he went to Paris, where he was introduced to various men of letters. In 1679 he was recalled to London, on the earl of Shaftesbury’s having regained his

* So in the Life of Mr. Locke; but see Lord Shaftesbury’s Life, vol. X, p. 220.
| favour at court and been made president of the council, but this was of short duration. The earl lost his place in a few months, for refusing to comply with the designs of the Court, which aimed at the establishment of popery and arbitrary power; attd having incurred the implacable hatred of the duke of York, on account of his supporting the exclusion-bill, he was, in 1681, committed to the lower, and although acquitted upon trial, thought it most safe to retire to Holland, where he died in 1683. Mr. Locke, also thinking himself not quite secure in England, followed his lordship to Holland, and was introduced to many of the learned men of Amsterdam, particularly 1 anborrh, and Le Clerc, whose intimacy and friendship he preserved throughout life.

During his residence in Holland, he was accused at court of having written certain tracts against the government of his country, which were afterwards discovered to be the production of another person; and upon that suspicion he was deprived of his studentship of Christ-church. This part of Mr. Locke’s history requires some detail. The writer of his life in the Biographia Britannica (Nicoll) says that “being observed to join in company with several English malcontents at the Hague, this conduct was communicated by our resident there to the earl of Sunderland, then secretary of state; who acquainting the king therewith, his majesty ordered the proper methods to be taken for expelling him from the college, and application to be made for that purpose to bishop Fell, the dean; in obedience to this command, the necessary information was given by his lordship, who at the same time wrote to our author, to appear and answer for himself on the first of January ensuing, but immediately receiving an express command to turn him out, was obliged to comply therewith, and, accordingly, Air. Locke was removed from his student’s place on the 15th of Nov. 1684.” This account, however, is not correct. All that lord Sunderland did, was to impart his majesty’s displeasure to the dean, and to request his opinion as to the proper method of removing Mr. Locke. The dean’s answer, dated Nov. 8, contains the following particulars of Mr. Locke, and of his own advice and proceedings against him. “I have,” says the dean, “for divers years had an eye upon him; but so close has his guard been on himself, that after several strict inquiries, I may confidently affirm there is not any man inthe college, | however familiar with him, who had heard him speak a word either against or so much as concerning the government; and although very frequently, both in public and private, discourses have been purposely introduced to the disparagement of his master, the earl of Shaftesbury, his party and designs, he never could be provoked to take any notice, or discover in word or look the least concern. So that I believe there is not a man in the world so much master of taciturnity and passion. He has here a physician’s place (he had taken the degree of B. M. in 1674) which frees him from the exercise of the college, and the obligations which others have to residence in it; and he is now abroad for want of health.

Thus far we might suppose the dean had advanced enough in behalf of the innocence of Mr. Locke. What follows, however, will be read with regret, that so good a man as bishop Fell should have given such advice. “Notwithstanding this, I have summoned him to return home, which is done with this prospect, that if he comes not back, he will be liable to expulsion for contumacy; and if he does, he will be answerable to the law for that which he shall be found to have done amiss. It being probable that, though he may have been thus cautious here, where he knew himself suspected, he has laid himself more open at London, where a general liberty of speaking was used, and where the execrable designs against his majesty and government were managed and pursued. If he don’t r^­turn by the first of January, which is the time limited to him, I shall be enabled of course to proceed against him to expulsion. But if this method seems not effectual or speedy enough, and his majesty, our founder and visitor, shall please to command his immediate remove, upon the receipt thereof, directed to the dean and chapter, it shall accordingly be executed.” In consequence of this, a warrant came down to the dean and chapter, dated Nov. 12, in these words: “Whereas we have received information of the factious and disloyal behaviour of Locke, one of the students of that our college; we have thought fit hereby to signify our will and pleasure to you, that you forthwith remove him from his student’s place, and deprive him of all rights and advantages thereunto belonging, for which this shall be your warrant,” &c. And thus, on the 16th following, one of the greatest men of his time was, expelled the college at the command of Charles II. without, | as far as ia known, any form of trial or inquiry. After the death of Charles II. William Penn, the celebrated quaker, who had known Mr. Locke at the university, used his interest with king James to procure a pardon for him) an J would have obtained it, if Mr. Locke had not said, that he had no occasion for a pardon, since he had not been guilty of any crime.

In 1685, when the duke of Monmouth was making preparations in Holland for his unfortunate enterprize, the English envoy at the Hague had orders to demand Mr. Locke and eighty-three other persons to be delivered up by the States- General. M. Le Clerc observes, that Mr. Locke had no correspondence with the duke of Monmouth, having no great opinion of his undertaking. Besides, iiis natural temper was timorous, not resolute, and he was far from being fond of commotions. It was proper, however, now to conceal himself, which his friends at Amsterdam enabled him to do, at the house of a Mr. Veen. In the mean time Limborch took care that his letters should be delivered to him, and was entrusted with his will, to be sent to certain relations whom he named, in case of his death. So highly was be respected, that one of the magistrates declared that although they could not protect him, if the king of England should demand him, yet he should not be betrayed, and his landlord should have timely notice. In 1686 he began to appear again in public, when it was sufficiently known that he had no share in the duke of Monmouth’s invasion.

During this concealment Mr. Locke wrote his “Letter on Toleration,” in Latin, which was printed at Gouda, 1689, under the title “Epistola de Tolerantia, ad clarissimum virum T. A. R. P. T. o. L. A. (i. e. Theologiae apud remonstrautes professorem, tyrannidis osorem, Limburgium Amstelodamensem) scripta a. P. A. p. o. I. L. A. (i. e. Pacis amico, persecutions osore, Joanne Lockio Anglo). This letter was translated into English by Mr. Popple (who was nephew to Andrew Marvell, and author of the” Rational Catechism,") and printed twice in London, 1689, 4to, and 16l>0, 12mo. It involved Mr. Locke in a controversy with the rev. Jonas Proast, M. A. of Queen’s-college, Oxford; and some pamphlets passed between them, to the last of which, published by Mr. Proast, a short time before Mr. Locke’s death, the latter left a reply unfinished, which was published in his posthumous works. While at | Amsterdam, Mr. Locke formed a weekly assembly, consisting of Limborch, Le Clerc, and others, for conversation upon important subjects, and had drawn up in Latin rules to be observed by them; but those conferences were much interrupted by the frequent changes he was obliged to make of his places of residence.

After being employed for some years on his great work, the “Essay concerning Human Understanding,” he finished it in Holland about the end of 1687. He made an abridgment of it himself, which his friend Le Clerc translated into French, and inserted in the “Bibliotheque Universelle” for January, 1688. This abridgment created a very general wish for the publication of the whole. About the same time, Le Clerc informs us, he made several extracts of books, as that of Boyle on “Specific Medicines,” which is inserted in the second volume of the “Bibl. Universelle,” and some others in the following volumes.

The revolution of 1688 at length restored Mr. Locke to England, to which he returned in the fleet which conveyed the princess of Orange. He now endeavoured to obtain his studentship of Christ-church, not that he had any design to return to college, but only that this would amount to a public testimony of his having been unjustly deprived of it. But when he found that the society could not be prevailed on to dispossess the person who had been elected in his room, and that they would only admit him a supernumerary student, he desisted from his claim.

He was now at full liberty to pursue his speculations, and, accordingly, in 1689, published his celebrated “Essay on Human Understanding,” and the same year his “Two Treatises on Government,” in which he fully vindicated the principles upon which the revolution was founded. His writings had now procured him such high reputation, and he had merited so much of the new government, that it would have been easy for him to have obtained a very considerable place; but he contented himself with that of commissioner of appeals, worth about 200l. per annum. He was offered to go abroad in a public character, and it was left to his choice whether he would be envoy at the court of the emperor, the elector of Brandenburgh, or any other, where he thought the air most suitable to him, but he declined it on account of his bad health.

About this time Mr. Locke’s attention was directed to the state of the coin, which had been so much clipped, | as to want above a third of its real value; and although his sentiments on the subject were at first disregarded, the parliament at length was obliged to take the matter into consideration, aud to assist the members in forming a right opinion on the matter, aud introduce a proper remedy. Mr. Locke, therefore, published “Some considerations of the consequence of the lowering of the interest, and raising the value of money,” and shortly followed it by two more on the same subject, in answer to objections. These writings extended his acquaintance among men of rank in the political world, with some of whom he used to associate on the most familiar terms. He had weekly interviews with the earl of Pembroke, then lord keeper of the privy seal; and when the air of London began to affect his lungs, he went for some days to the earl of Peterborough’s seat at Parsons’ Green, near Fulham, where he always met with the most friendly reception: but was obliged afterwards entirely to leave London*, at least during the whole of the winter season.

Having paid frequent visits to sir Francis Masham, at Oates, in Essex, he found the air so good for his constitution, and the society so delightful, that he was easily prevailed upon to become one of the family, and to settle there during his life. The air used to restore him in a few hours after his return at any time from the town, although quite spent and unable to support himself. Besides this advantage here, he found in lady Masham, the daughter of Dr. Cudworth, a friend and companion exactly to his heart’s wish; a lady of contemplative and studious complexion, and particularly inured, from her infancy, to speculations in theology, metaphysics, and morality. She was also so much devoted to Mr. Locke, that, to engage Uis residence there, she provided an apartment for him, of which he was wholly master; and took care that he should live in the family with as much ease as if the whole house had been his own. He had too the additional satisfaction of seeing this lady breed up her only son exactly upon the plan which be had laid down for the best method of education; and, what pleased him still more, the success of it was such as seemed to give a sanction to his judgment in the choice of that method, which he published in 1693, under the title of “Thoughts concerning the Education of Children,” and afterwards improved considerably.’

In 1695 be published his treatise of “The | reasonableness of Christianity, as delivered in the Scriptures,” written, it is said, in order to promote the scheme which king William III. had much at heart, of a comprehension with the dissenters. In this his argument is to prove, “that the Christian religion, as delivered in the Scriptures, free from all corrupt mixtures, is the most reasonable institution in the world;” and we allow that it would certainly appear so if men were agreed as to what are “corrupt mixtures,” which, it is well known, some writers have extended to those articles of belief which others not only find in the Scriptures, but consider as fundamental. On the appearance of this work, Mr. Locke found an opponent in Dr. John Edwards (see John Edwards), who considered his principles as verging towards Socinianism: and a defender ifi Mr. Samuel Bold. Mr. Locke also replied to Edwards.

Some time before this, Toland published his “Christianity not. mysterious,” in which he endeavoured to prove, that there is nothing in the Christian religion contrary to or above reason; and in explaining some of his notions, used several arguments drawn from Locke’s “Essay on Human Understanding.” Some Socinians,also about this time published several treatises, in which they affirmed, that there was nothing in the Christian religion but what was rational and intelligible; and Mr. Locke having asserted in his writings that revelation delivers nothing contrary to reason; all this induced Dr. Stillingfleet, the learned bishop of Worcester, to publish a treatise, in which he vindicated the doctrine of the Trinity against Toland and the Socinians, and likewise opposed some of Mr. Locke’s principles, as favourable to the above-mentioned writings. This produced a controversy, in the course of which our author endeavoured to show the perfect agreement of his principles with the Christian religion, and that he had advanced nothing which had the least tendency to scepticism, which the bishop had charged him with. But Stillingfleet dying some time after, the dispute ended, and ended as such disputes have frequently done, each party claiming the victory. On whichever side it lay, we may be permitted to add, that some of Mr. Locke’s biographers have spoken of Stillingfleet’s writings with unpardonable arrogance and contempt.

In 1695, Mr. Locke was appointed one of the commissioners of trade and plantations, a place wprth 1000l. per | annum. The duties of this post he discharged with great ability and diligence until 1700, when the increase of his asthmatic disorder, obliged him to resign it. On this occasion he acquainted no person with his intention, until he had given up his commission into the king’s hand. His majesty, who knew his worth, was very unwilling to part with him, and said he would be well pleased with his continuance in office, although he should give little or no attendance, and certainly would not wish him to remain in towji one day to the detriment of his health. But Mr. Locke told the king that he could not in conscience hold a place to which such a salary was annexed, without discharging the duties of it; and therefore he begged leave to resign it, which was accepted.

From this time, which was the year 1700, he lived altogether at Oates, and applied himself, without interruption, entirely to the study of the holy scriptures; and in this employment he found so much pleasure, that he regretted his not having devoted more of his time to it in the former part of his life. On one occasion, in answer to a young gentleman, who asked what was the shortest and surest way for a person to attain a true knowledge of the Christian religion? he replied, “Let him study the holy scripture, especially the New Testament. It has God for its author; salvation for its end; and truth, without any mixture of error, for its matter.” In 1703 he suffered much from his asthmatic disorder, but the pangs of bodily complaint were alleviated by the kind attentions of lady Masham: still he foresaw that his dissolution was not far distant, and he could anticipate it without dread, and speak of it with perfect calmness and composure. After receiving the sacrament at home, in company with some friends, he told the minister, “that he was in perfect charity with all men, and in a sincere communion with the church of Christ, by what name soever it might be distinguished.” He lived some months after this, which he spent in acts of piety and devotion: when he was meditating on the wisdom and goodness of the Creator, he could not forbear crying out, *‘ Oh the depth of the riches of the goodness and knowledge of God:“what he felt himself on this subject he was anxious to infuse into the hearts of others. On the day previously to uis departure he said,” he had lived long enough, and was thankful that he had enjoyed a happy life but that, after all, he looked upon | this life to be nothing but vanity,“or, as he expresses a similar sentiment, in a letter which he left behind him for his friend Mr. Anthony Collins, one that” affords no solid satisfaction but in the consciousness of doing well, and in the hopes of another life." He had no rest that night, and begged in the morning to be carried into his study,; where, being placed in an easy chair, he had a refreshing sleep for a considerable time. He then requested lady Masham to read aloud some of the psalms, to which he appeared exceedingly attentive, till feeling, probably, the approach of the last messenger, he begged her to desist, and in a few minutes expired, on the 28th of October 1704, in the 73d year of his age.

To this account we may add an extract from an unpublished letter of lady Masham’s to Mr. Laughton, obligingly communicated by Mr. Ellis of the British Museum.

You will not perhaps dislike to know that the last scene of Mr. Locke’s life was no less admirable than any thing else in him. All the faculties of his mind were perfect to the last; but his weakness, of which only he died, made such gradual and visible advances, that few people, I think, do so sensibly see death approach them as he did. During all which time, no one could observe the least alteration in his humour: always chearful, civil, conversible, tojthe last day; thoughtful of all the concerns of his friends, and omitting no tit occasion of giving Christian advice to all about him. In short, his death was like his life, truly pious, yet natural, easy, and unaffected; nor can time, I think, ever produce a more eminent example of reason and religion than he was, living and [dying. — Oates, Nov. 8, 1704.

Mr. Locke, says his latest biographer, had great knowledge of the world, and was prudent without cunning, easy, affable, and condescending without any mean complaisance. If there was any thing he could not bear, it was ill manners, and a rude behaviour. This was ever ungrateful to him, unless, when he perceived that it proceeded from ignorance; but when it was the effect of pride, ill- nature, or brutality, he detested it. He looked on civility not only as a duty of humanity, but Christianity; and he thought that it ought to be more pressed and urged upon men than it commonly is. He recommended on this occasion a treatise in the moral essays written by the gentlemen of the Port Roval, *-’ concerning the means of | preserving peace among men,“and was a great admirer of Dr. Whichcote’s Sermons on the subject. He was exact to his word, and religiously performed whatever he promised. He was very scrupulous of giving recommendations of persons whom he did not well know, and would by no means commend those whom he thought not to deserve it. If he was told that his recommendation had not produced the effect expected, he would say,” the reason was because he never deceived any person by saying more than he knew; that he never passed his word for any but such as he believed would answer the character he gave of them; and that if he should do otherwise, his recommendations would be worth nothing."

He was naturally very active, and employed himself as much as his health would permit. Sometimes he diverted himself by working in the garden, which he well understood. He loved walking, but not being able to walk much, through the disorder of his lungs, he used to ride out after dinner; and when he could not bear a horse, he went in a chaise. He always chose to have company with him, though it were but a child, for he took pleasure in talking with children of a good education. His bad health was a disturbance to none but himself; and any person might be with him without any other concern than that of seeing him suffer. He did not differ from others in his diet, except that he drank water only, which he thought was the means of lengthening his life. To this he also attributed the preservation of his sight in a great measure, for he could read by candle-light all sorts of books to the last, if they were not of a very small print, without the use of spectacles. He had no other distemper but his asthma, except a deafness for about six months, which helamented in a letter to one of his friends, telling him “he thought it better to be blind than deaf, as it deprived him of all conversation.” Many, interesting particulars of Mr. Locke’s private life may be seen in Coste’s character of him, printed in the ninth volume of the last edition of his works.

This edition contains, principally, the following treatises, to which we have here appended the years of their first publication 1. “Three Letters upon Toleration;” the first, printed at London in 168y, was in Latin. 2. “A Register of the Changes of the Air observed at Oxford,” inserted in Mr. Boyle’s “General History of the Air,| 1692, 8ro. 3. “New Method for a Common-place Book,1686. 4. “Essay concerning Human Understanding,1690, fol. 5. “Two Treatises of Civil Government,” &c. 1690, 8vo; again in 1694, and in 1698. A French translation at Amsterdam, and then at Geneva, in 1722. 6. “Some Considerations of the Consequences of lowering the Interest, and raising the Value, of Money,1691, 8vo, and again in 1695. 7. Some observations on a printed paper, entitled, “For coining silver Money in England,” &c. “Farther Observations concerning the raising the Value of Money,” &c. 9. “Some Thoughts concerning Education,” &c. 1693, 8vo, and again in 1694 and 1698; again after his death, with great additions; and in French, entitled, “De l'Education des Enfans,” Amster. 1695. 10. “The Reasonableness of Christianity,” &c. 1695, 8vo. 11. “Vindication of the Reasonableness,” &c. 1696, 8vo. 12. “A second Vindication,” &c. 1696, 8vo. 13. “A Letter to the Bishop of Worcester,1697, 8vo. 14. “Reply to the Bishop of Worcester,” &c. 1697, 4to. 15. “Reply, in answer to the Bishop’s second Letter,1698. 16. Posthumous Works of Mr. John Locke, viz. “Of the Conduct of the Understanding;” “An Examination of Malebranche’s Opinion,” &.c. “A Discourse of Miracles;” “Part of a fourth Letter for Toleration;” “Memoirs relating to the Life of Anthony first earl of Shaftesbury,” &c. &c. He deft behind him several Mss. from which his executors, sir Peter King aud Anthony Collins, esq. published, in 1705, his paraphrase and notes upon St. Paul’s epistle to the Galatians, which were soon followed by those upon the Corintbians, Romans, and Ephesians, with an essay prefixed, “For the understanding of St. Paul’s epistles, by consulting St. Paul himself.” In the following year the posthumous works of Mr. Locke were published, comprising a treatise “On the Conduct of the Understanding,” intended as a supplement to the “Essay:” “An Examination of Malebranche’s Opinion of seeing all Things in God.” In 1708, some familiar letters between Mr. Locke and several of his friends were published. All the works of this great man have been collected, and frequently reprinted in different sizes; in three vols. folio, in four vols. quarto, by bishop Law, and lately in nine vols. 8vo.

Of all Mr. Locke’s works, his “Essay on Human Understanding,” is that which has contributed most to his fame, | and the reputation which it had from the beginning, and which it has gradually acquired abroad, is a sufficient testimony of its merit. There is perhaps no book of the metaphysical kind that has been so generally read by those who understand the language, or that is more adapted to teach men to think with precision, and to inspire them with that candour and love of truth, which is the genuine spirit of philosophy. He gave, Dr. Reid thinks, the first example in the English language of writing on such abstract subjects, with a remarkable degree of simplicity and perspicuity; and in this he has been happily imitated by others that came after him. No author has. more successfully pointed out the danger of ambiguous words, and the importance of having distinct and determinate notions in judging and reasoning. His observations on the various powers of the human understanding, on the use and abuse of words, and on the extent and limits of human knowledge, are drawn from attentive reflection on the operations of his own mind, the true source of all real knowledge on those subjects; and show an uncommon degree of penetration and judgment Such is the opinion of the learned and candid Dr. Reid, who says, “I mention these things that when I have occasion to differ from him, I may not be thought insensible of the merit of an author whom I highly respect, and to whom I owe my first lights in those studies, as well as my attachment to them.” Dr. Reid has ably pointed out what he thought defective in Locke’s system, which indeed has been more or less the subject of discussion in every work on metaphysics during the last century. The late Mr. Home Tooke, in his “Diversions of Purley,” differs from all others in advancing one of those singular opinions which are peculiar to that gentleman. He calls Locke’s Essay, merely “a grammatical treatise, or a treatise on words, or on language;” and says, that “it was a lucky mistake which Mr. Locke made when he called his book an Essay on the Human Understanding. For some part of the inestimable benefit of that book has, merely on account of its title, reached to thousands more than, I fear, it would have done, had he called it a Grammatical Essay. The human mind, or the human understanding, appears to be a grand and noble theme, and all men, even the most insufficient, conceive ttut to be a proper object for their contemplation, while | inquiries into the nature of language are supposed to be beneath the concern of their exalted understanding.1


Principally from the Life prefixed to Locke’s Works.