, a learned astronomer and **mathematician**, was born in 1665 at Perinaldo in the county of Nice, a place

**mathematician**, a learned astronomer and
**mathematician**, was born in 1665 at Perinaldo in the county
of Nice, a place already honoured by the birth of his maternal uncle, the celebrated Cassini. Having made a considerable progress in mathematics, at the age of twentytwo his uncle, who had been a long time settled in France,
invited him there, that he might himself cultivate the
promising genius of his nephew. Maraldi no sooner applied himself to the contemplation of the heavens, than
he conceived the design of forming a catalogue of the
fixed stars, the foundation of the whole astronomical edifice. In consequence of this design, he applied himself to
observe them with the most constant attention; and he
became by this means so intimate with them, that on being
shown any one of them, however small, he could immediately tell what constellation it belonged to, and its place
in that constellation. He has been known to discover
those small comets, which astronomers often take for the
stars of the constellation in which they are seen, for want
of knowing precisely what stars the constellation consists
f, when others, on the spot, and with eyes directed
equally to the same part of the heavens, could not for a
long time see any thing of them.

, a physician, **mathematician**, and poet of Pisa, was born at Pontormo, between Pisa and Florence,

**mathematician**, a physician, **mathematician**, and poet of Pisa, was born at Pontormo, between
Pisa and Florence, March 17, 1633. His talents were
early developed, and he became the pupil and intimate
friend of the learned Borelli, whom he succeeded in 1679,
as professor of mathematics at Pisa. He was a man above
prejudices, free to declare his sentiments, preferring experiment to authority, and reason to Aristotle. He produced
several excellent disciples, and died at Pontormo, Sept.
6, 1714, aged eighty-one. There are extant by him, 1.
“Poems,

” the versification, in my opinion, is but indifferent.

” It was not allowed to be published in Italy,
but was published in London, 1717, in 4to, by Paulo Rolli,
the translator of Milton into,blank verse. 4. His free translation of Anacreon is less esteemed; it was published at
Venice in 1736. There is an edition of his poems, printed
at Venice in 1755, 4to, to which his life is prefixed.

, an eminent French philosopher and **mathematician**, was born at Dijon, and admitted a member of the academy of

**mathematician**, an eminent French philosopher and **mathematician**, was born at Dijon, and admitted
a member of the academy of sciences of Paris in 1666. His
works, however, are better known than his life. He was
a good **mathematician**, and the first French philosopher
who applied much to experimental physics. The law of
the shock or collision of bodies, the theory of the pressure
and motion of fluids, the nature of vision, and of the air,
particularly engaged his attention. He carried into his
philosophical researches that spirit of scrutiny and investigation so necessary to those who would make any considerable progress in it. He died May 12, 16S4. He communicated a number of curious and valuable papers to the
academy of sciences, which were printed in the collection
of their Memoirs dated 1666, viz. from volume 1 to volume
10. And all his works were collected into 2 volumes in
4to, and printed at Leyden in 1717.

, an eminent astronomer and **mathematician**, the son of Edmund Maskelyne, esq. of Purton, in Wiltshire,

**mathematician**, an eminent astronomer and
**mathematician**, the son of Edmund Maskelyne, esq. of
Purton, in Wiltshire, was born at London in 1732, and
educated at Westminster school, where he made a distinguished progress in classical learning. Before he left
school his studies appear to have been determined to astronomy by his accidentally seeing the memorable solar eclipse
of 1748, exhibited through a large telescope in a camera
obscura. From this period he applied himself with ardour
to astronomy and optics, and as a necessary preparation,
turned his attention to geometry and algebra, the elements
of which he learned in a few months without the help of a
master. In 1749 he entered of Catherine hall, Cambridge,
but soon after removed to Trinity college, where he pursued his favourite studies with increased success; and on
taking his degree of B. A. in 1754, received distinguished
honours from the university. He took his degrees of A.M.
in 1757, B. D. in 1768, and D. D. in 1777. Being admitted into holy orders he officiated for some time as curate
of Barnet; and in 1756 became a fellow of his college.

, a celebrated French **mathematician** and philosopher, was born at St. Malo in 1698, and at first

**mathematician**, a celebrated French **mathematician** and philosopher, was born at
St. Malo in 1698, and at first educated there. In 1714
he studied in the college of La Marche, at Paris, where he
discovered a strong inclination for mathematics. He fixed,
however, on no profession until he arrived at his twentieth
year, when he entered into the army, and during the space
of five years in which he remained in it, pursued his mathematical studies with great vigour. In 1723 he was
received into the royal academy of sciences, and read his
first performance, a memoir upon the construction and
form of musical instruments. When he commenced his
travels, his first visit was to England, and during his residence at London he became a zealous admirer and follower of Newton. His next excursion was to Basil in
Switzerland, where he formed a friendship with the celebrated John Bernouilli and his family, which continued till
his death. At his return to Paris he applied himself to his
favourite studies with greater zeal than ever. And how
well he fulfilled the duties of an academician, may be seen
in the Memoirs of the academy from 1724 to 1744; where
the most sublime questions in the mathematical sciences,
received from his hand that elegance, clearness, and precision, so remarkable in all his writings. In 1736 he was
sent to the polar circle to measure a degree of the meridian, in order to ascertain the figure of the earth; in
which expedition he was accompanied by Messrs. Clairault,
Camus, Monnier, Outhier, and Celsus, the celebrated professor of astronomy at Upsal. This business rendered him
so famous, that on his return he was admitted a member of
almost every academy in Europe.

, a celebrated Italian **mathematician**, was born in 1494 at Messina, where he afterwards taught mathematics

**mathematician**, a celebrated Italian **mathematician**, was born in 1494 at Messina,
where he afterwards taught mathematics with great success.
In that employment he was particularly admired, for the
astonishing clearness with which he expressed himself,
making the most difficult questions easy, by the manner
in which he explained them. He had a penetrating mind,
and a prodigious memory. He was abbe of Santa Maria
del Porto, in Sicily; but, as mathematicians in his time
were generally supposed to be able to read the stars, he
could not resist the temptation of assuming to himself such
powers; and delivered some predictions to don Juan of
Austria, for which, as he happened to guess rightly, he
obtained the credit of being a prophet, besides considerable
rewards. He died July 21, 1575, at the age of eightyone. His principal works are, 1. An edition of the “Spherics of Theodosius,

” Emendatio et restitutio Conicorum Apollonii Pergasi,

” Archimedis monumenta omnia,

” Euclidis phenomena,

” Rome, Martyrologium,
1566, 4to. 6.

” Sinicarum rerum Compendium.“7. Also, in
1552,

” Rimes,“in 8vo. He published also, 8.

” Opuscula
Mathematica,“1575, 4to. 9.

” Arithmeticorum libri duo,"
1575. These, with a few more, form the list of his works,
most of which are upon subjects of a similar nature.

, a very able French **mathematician** and astronomer, was born at Laon in 17 44, where his father

**mathematician**, a very able
French **mathematician** and astronomer, was born at Laon
in 17 44, where his father was an architect, and at one time
a man of considerable property. At an early age he discovered a strong inclination for mathematical pursuits,
and while he was under the instruction of his tutors, corresponded with Lalande, whom he was desirous of assisting
in his labours. In 1772, Mechain was invited to Paris,
where he was employed at the depot of the marine, and
assisted M. Darquier in correcting his observations. Here
his merit brought him acquainted with M. Doisy, director
of the depot, who gave him a more advantageous situation
at Versailles. At this place he diligently observed the
heavens, and, in 1774, sent to the Royal Academy of
Sciences “A Memoir relative to an Eclipse of Aldebaran,

”
observed by him on the 15th of April. He calculated the
orbit of the comet of 1774, and discovered that of 1781.
In 1782, he gained the prize of the academy on the subject
of the comet of 1661, the return of which was eagerly expected in 1790; and in the same year he was admitted a
member of the academy, and soon selected for the superintendance of the Connoissance des Tems. In 1790, M.
Mechain discoveredhis eighth comet, and communicated
to the academy his observations on it, together with his
calculations of its orbit. In 1792 he undertook, conjointly
with M. Delambre, the labour of measuring the degrees of
the meridian, for the purpose of more accurately determining the magnitude of the earth and the length of a
metre. In the month of June 1792, M. Mechain set out
to measure the triangles between Perpignan and Barcelona;
and notwithstanding that the war occasioned a temporary
suspension of his labours, he was enabled to resume and
complete them during the following year. He died on the
20th of September 1805, at Castellon de la Plana, in the
sixty-second year of his age. Lalande deplores his loss as
that of not only one of the best French astronomers, but
one of the most laborious, the most courageous, and the
most robust. His last observations and calculations of the
eclipse of the sun on the llth of February, are inserted in
the Connoissance des Tems for the year 15; and he also
published a great many in the Ephemerides of M. Bode,
of Berlin, which he preferred to a former work after Lalande became its editor. A more extensive memoir of his
labours may be seen in Baron von Zach’s Journal for July
1800, and Lalande’s History of Astronomy for 1804.

sally esteemed an accomplished scholar. He was an acute logician, an accurate philosopher, a skilful **mathematician**, an excellent anatomist, a great philologer, a master of many

**mathematician**By the time he had taken the degree of master of arts,
which was in 1610, he had made such progress in all kinds
of academical study, that he was universally esteemed an
accomplished scholar. He was an acute logician, an accurate philosopher, a skilful **mathematician**, an excellent
anatomist, a great philologer, a master of many languages,
and a good proficient in history and chronology. His first
public effort was an address that he made to bishop Andrews, in a Latin tract “De sanctitate relativa;

” which, in
his maturer years, he censured as a juvenile performance,
and therefore never published it. That great prelate, however, who was a good judge and patron of learning, liked
it so well, that he not only was the author’s firm friend
upon an occasion that offered soon after, but also then desired him to be his domestic chaplain. This Mede very
civilly refused; valuing the liberty of his studies above
any hopes of preferment, wnd esteeming that freedom
which he enjoyed in his cell, so he used to call it, as the
haven of all his wishes. These thoughts, indeed, had possessed him. betimes: for, when he was a school-boy, he
was invited by his uncle, Mr. Richard Mede, a merchant,
who, being then without children, offered to adopt him for
his son, if he would live with him: but he refused the
offer, preferring, as it should seem, a life of study to a
life of gain.

ses, a Polish Jew, who, without any advantages of education, had become an able, though self-taught, **mathematician** and naturalist. Hg very readily undertook the office of instructor

**mathematician**, a Jewish philosophical writer,
was born at Dessau, in Anhalt, in 1729. After being
educated under his father, who was a schoolmaster, he devoted every hour he could spare to literature, and obtained
as a scholar a distinguished reputation; but his father ber
ing unable to maintain him, he was obliged, in search of
labour, or bread, to go on foot, at the age of fourteen, to
Berlin, where he lived for some years in indigence, and
frequently in want of necessaries. At length he got employment from a rabbi as a transcriber of Mss, who, at the
same time that he afforded him the means of subsistence,
liberally initiated him into the mysteries of the theology,
the jurisprudence, and scholastic philosophy of the Jews.
The study of philosophy and general literature became
from this time his favourite pursuit, but the fervours of
application to learning were by degrees alleviated and
animated by the consolations of literary friendship. He
formed a strict intimacy with Israel Moses, a Polish Jew,
who, without any advantages of education, had become
an able, though self-taught, **mathematician** and naturalist.
Hg very readily undertook the office of instructor of Mendelsohn, in subjects of which he was before ignorant; and
taught him the Elements of Euclid from his own Hebrew
version. The intercourse between these young men was
not of long duration, owing to the calumnies propagated
against Israel Moses, which occasioned his expulsion from
the communion of the orthodox; in consequence of this
he became the victim of a gloomy melancholy and despondence, which terminated in a premature death. His
loss, which was a grievous affliction to Mendelsohn, was
in some measure supplied by Dr. Kisch, a Jewish physician,
by whose assistance he was enabled to attain a competent
knowledge of the Latin language. In 1748 he became
acquainted with another literary Jew, viz. Dr. Solomon
Gumperts, by whose encouragement and assistance he
attained a general knowledge of the living and modern
languages, and particularly the English, by which he was
enabled to read the great work of our immortal Locke in
his own idiom, which he had before studied through the
medium of the Latin language. About the same period
he enrolled the celebrated Lessing among his friends, to
whom he was likewise indebted for assistance in his literary
pursuits. The scholar amply repaid the efforts of his intructor, and soon became his rival and his associate, and
after his death the defender of his reputation against Jacobi, a German writer, who had accused Lessing of atheism.
Mendelsohn died Jan. 4, 1785, at the age of fifty-seven,
highly respected and beloved by a numerous acquaintance,
and by persons of very different opinions. When his remains were consigned to the grave, he received those honours from his nation which are commonly paid to their
chief rabbies. As an author, the first piece was published
in 1755, entitled “Jerusalem,

” in which he maintains that
the Jews have a revealed law, but not a revealed religion,
but that the religion of the Jewish nation is that of nature.
His work entitled “Phaedon, a dialogue on the Immortality of the Soul,

” in the manner of Plato, gained him
much honour: in this hepresents the reader with all the
arguments of modern philosophy, stated with great force
and perspicuity, and recommended by the charms of elegant writing. From the reputation which he obtained by
this masterly performance, he was entitled by various periodical writers the “Jewish Socrates.

” It was translated
into French in Philosophical
Pieces;

” “A Commentary on Part of the Old Testament;

” “Letters on the Sensation of the Beautiful.

”

, an able Italian **mathematician** in the seventeenth century, concerning whose birth there is

**mathematician**, an able Italian **mathematician** in
the seventeenth century, concerning whose birth there is
no trace, studied mathematics under Cavalieri, to whom
the Italians ascribe the invention of the first principles of
the infinitesimal calculus. Mengoli was appointed professor
of “mechanics

” in the college of nobles at Bologna, and
acquired high reputation by the success with which he
filled that post. His principal works are, “Geometriae
SpeciosgR Elementa

” “Novae Quadrature Arithmetics,
sen de additione Fractionum

” “Via regia ad Mathematicas ornata

” “Rerrazzione e paralasse Solare

” “Speculation! de Musica;

” “Arithmetics rationalis Elementa

”
“Arithmetica realis.

” Of these Dr. Burney notices his
“Speculationi di Musica,

” a desultory and fanciful work,
published at Bologna, 1670. An account of this treatise was
given in the Phil. Trans, vol. VIII. No. c. p. 6194, seemingly by Birchensha. The speculations contained in Mengoli’s work are some of them specious and ingenious; but
the philosophy of sound has been so much more scientifically and clearly treated since its publication, that the
difficulty of finding the book is no great impediment to
the Advancement of music. He was still living in 1678.

, an eminent geographer and **mathematician**, was born in 1512, at Ruremonde in the Low Countries. He applied

**mathematician**, an eminent geographer and
**mathematician**, was born in 1512, at Ruremonde in the
Low Countries. He applied himself with such industry to
the sciences of geography and mathematics, that it has
been said he often forgot to eat and sleep. The emperor
Charles V. encouraged him much in his labours; and the
tluke of Juliers made him his cosmographer. He composed
and published a chronology; a larger and smaller atlas;
and some geographical tables besides other books in philosophy and divinity. He was also so curious, as well as
ingenious, that he engraved and coloured his maps himself. He made various maps, globes, and other mathematical instruments for the use of the emperor; and gave
the most ample proofs of his uncommon skill in what he
professed. His method of laying down charts is still used,
which bear the name of “Mercator’s Charts;

” also a part
of navigation is from him called Mercator’s Sailing. He
died at Duisbourg in 1594, at eighty-two years of age.

, an eminent **mathematician** and astronomer, whose name in High-Dutch was Kauffman, was born

**mathematician**, an eminent **mathematician**
and astronomer, whose name in High-Dutch was Kauffman,
was born about 1640, at Holstein in Denmark. From his
works we learn, that he had an early and liberal education,
suitable to his distinguished genius, by which he was enabled to extend his researches into the mathematical sciences,
and to make very considerable improvements: for it appears from his writings, as well as from the character given
of him by other mathematicians, that his talent rather lay
in improving, and adapting any discoveries and improvements to use, than invention. However, his genius for
the mathematical sciences was very conspicuous, and introduced him to public regard and esteem in his own
country, and facilitated a correspondence with such as
were eminent in those sciences, in Denmark, Italy, and
England, In consequence, some of his correspondents
gave him an invitation to this country, which he accepted; and he afterwards continued in England till hi
death. In 1666 he was admitted F. R. S. and gave frequent proofs of his close application to study, as well as
of his eminent abilities in improving some branch or other
of the sciences. But he is charged sometimes with borrowing the inventions of others, and adopting them as his
own, and it appeared upon some occasions that he was not
of an over-liberal mind in scientific communications. Thus,
it had some time before him been observed, that there was
an analogy between a scale of logarithmic tangents and
Wright’s protraction of the nautical meridian line, which
consisted of the sums of the secants; though it does not
appear by whom this analogy was first discovered. It appears, however, to have been first published, and introduced into the practice of navigation, by Henry Bond, who
mentions this property in an edition of Norwood’s Epitome
of Navigation, printed about 1645; and he again treats of
it more fully in an edition of Gunter’s works, printed in
1653, where he teaches, from this property, to resolve all
the cases of Mercator’s sailing by the logarithmic tangents,
independent of the table of meridional parts. This analogy
had only been found to be nearly true by trials, but not
demonstrated to be a mathematical property. Such demonstration seems to have been first discovered by Mercator, who, desirous of making the most advantage of this and
another concealed invention of his in navigation, by a paper
in the Philosophical Transactions for June 4, 1666, invites
the public to enter into a wager with him on his ability to
prove the truth or falsehood of the supposed analogy. This
mercenary proposal it seems was not taken up by any one;
and Mercator reserved his demonstration. Our author,
however, distinguished himself by many valuable pieces on
philosophical and mathematical subjects. His first attempt
was, to reduce astrology to rational principles, which
proved a vain attempt. But his writings of more particular
note, are as follow: 1. “Cosmographia, sive Descriptio
Cceli & Terrse in Circulos, qua fundamentum sterniter sequentibus ordine Trigonometric Sphericorum Logarithmicse, &c. a

” Nicolao Hauffman Holsato,“Dantzic, 1651,
12mo. 2.

” Rationes Mathematics subductse anno Copenhagen, 4to. 3.

” De Emendatione annua Diatribae
duae, quibus exponuntur & demonstrantur Cycli Soiis &
Lunce,“&c. 4to. 4.

” Hypothesis Astronomica nova, et
Consensus ejus cum Observationibus,“Lond. 1664, folio.
5.

” Logarithmotechnia, sive Method us construendi Logarithmos nova, accurata, et facilis; scripto antehac communicata anno sc. 1667 nonis Augusti; cui nunc accedit,
Vera Quadratura Hyperbolae, & inventio summae Logaritbmorum. Auctore Nicolao Mercatore Holsato e Societate
Regia. Huic etiam jungitur Michaelis Angeli Riccii Exercitatio Geometrica de Maximis et Minimis, hie ob argument! praestantiam & exemplarium raritatem recusa,“Lond. 1668, 4to. 6.

” Institutionum Astronomicarum libri duo, de Motu Astrorum communi & proprio, secundum
hypotheses veterum & recentiorum praecipuas deque Hypotheseon ex observatis constructione, cum tabulis Tychonianis, Solaribus, Lunaribus, Lunae-solaribus, & Rudolphinis Solis, Fixarum &*quinque Errantium, earumque usu
prajceptis et exemplis commonstrato. Quibus accedit Appendix de iis, quae uovissimis temporibus coelitus innotuerunt,“Lond. 1676, 8vo. 7.

” Euclidis Elementa Geometrica, novo ordine ac methodo fere, demonstrata. Una
cum Nic. Mercatoris in Geometriam Introductione brevi,
qua Magnitudinum Ortus ex genuinis Principiis, & Ortarum Affectiones ex ipsa Genesi derivantur," Lond. 1678,
12mo. His papers in the Philosophical Transactions are,
1. A Problem on some Points of Navigation vol. I. p. 215.
2. Illustrations of the Logarithmo-technia vol. Hi. p. 759.
3. Considerations concerning his Geometrical and Direct
Method for finding the Apogees, Excentricities, and Anomalies of the Planets; vol. V. p. 1168. Mercator died in
1594, about fifty-four years of age.

been one of the best classical scholars of his time, and by no means a contemptible philosopher and **mathematician**. His wit also was very lively, and shone particularly in jovial

**mathematician**Meston is said to have been one of the best classical
scholars of his time, and by no means a contemptible philosopher and **mathematician**. His wit also was very lively,
and shone particularly in jovial meetings, to which unhappily he was rather too strongly addicted. His poems
were first published separately, as they were written, and
doubtless by way of assisting him in his necessities.
That called “the Knight/* appears to have been first
printed in 1723; and, after it had received several corrections, a second edition was printed at London. The
first decade of

” Mother Grim’s Tales,“afterwards appeared; and next, the second part, by Jodocus, her grandson. Some years after, the piece called,

” Mob contra
Mob.“The whole were first collected in a small volume,
12 mo, at Edinburgh, in 1767, to which a short account of
his life is prefixed, whence the present memoirs have been
extracted. The Knight,

” and several others of his
poems, are in the style of Butler, whom he greatly adinired and imitated, perhaps too servilely, yet with some
success. In the second decade, written under the name
of Jodocus, there are several poems in Latin, and the
title was in that language. It runs thus: “Decadem alteram, ex probatissimis auctoribus, in usum Juventutis
Jinguse Latinse, prsesertim verse poeseos studiosse, selectam,
et in scholis ad propagandam fidem legendam: admixtis
subinde nonnullis, in gratiam Pulchrioris Sexus, vernaculis,
subjunxit Jodocus Grimmus Aniculae nostrae pronepos.

”
His Latin poetry is of no great excellence.

, or Meton, a celebrated **mathematician** of Athens, who flourished 432 B. C. was the son of Pausanias.

**mathematician**, or Meton, a celebrated **mathematician** of
Athens, who flourished 432 B. C. was the son of Pausanias.
He observed, in the first year of the 87th olympiad, the
solstice at Athens, and published his cycle of 19 years, by
which he endeavoured to adjust the course of the sun and
moon, and to make the solar and lunar years begin at the
same point of time. This is called the Metonic period, or
cycle. It is also called the golden number, from its great
use in the calendar. Meton was living about the year 412
B. C. for when the Athenian fleet was sent to Sicily, he
escaped from being embarked on that disastrous expedition
by counterfeiting an appearance of idiotism.

an excellent **mathematician** and astronomer, was born April 17, 1656, at Dublin, where his

**mathematician** an excellent **mathematician** and astronomer, was born April 17, 1656, at Dublin, where his father, a gentleman of good family and fortune, lived*. Being of a tender constitution, he was educated under a private tutor at home, till he was near fifteen,
and then placed in the university of Dublin, under the care
of Dr. PaJliser, afterwards archbishop of Cashell. He distinguished himself here by the probity of his manners as

, an eminent French astronomer and **mathematician**, was born at Paris, Nov. 23, 1715. His education was chiefly

**mathematician**, an eminent French
astronomer and **mathematician**, was born at Paris, Nov. 23,
1715. His education was chiefly directed to the sciences,
to which he manifested an early attachment; and his progress was such that at the age of twenty-one, he was
chosen as the co-operator of Maupertuis, in the measure
of a degree of the meridian at the polar circle. At the
period when the errors in Flamsteed’s catalogue of the stars
began to be manifest, he undertook to determine anew the
positions of the zodiacal stars as being the most useful to
astronomers. In 1743 he traced at St. Sulpice a grand
meridian line, in order to ascertain certain solar motions,
and also the small variations in the obliquity of the ecliptic.

, an able **mathematician**, was born at Paris in the year 1678, and intended for the profession

**mathematician**, an able **mathematician**, was born at Paris in the year 1678, and intended
for the profession of the law, to enable him to qualify for
a place in the magistracy. From dislike of this destination,
he withdrew into England, whence he passed over into the
Low Countries, and travelled into Germany, where he resided with a near relation, M. Chambois, the plenipotentiary of France at the diet of Ratisbon. He returned to
France in 1699, and after the death of his father, who left
him an ample fortune, devoted his talents to the study of
philosophy and the mathematics, under the direction of the
celebrated Malehranche, to whom he had, some years before, felt greatly indebted for the conviction of the truth
of Christianity, by perusing his work on “The Search after
Truth.

” In The Application of Algebra to Geometry,

” and that of Newton on the “Quadrature of Curves.

”
In Analytical Essay on Games of
Chance,

” and an improved edition in Infinite Series,'

”
which was inserted in the Philosophical Transactions for
the year 1717. He was elected an associate of the Royal
Academy of Sciences at Paris in 1716, and died at the early
age of forty-one, of the small-pox. He sustained all the
relations of Hie in the most honourable manner, and though
subject to fits’ of passion, yet his anger soon subsided, and
he was ever ashamed of the irritability of his temper. Such
was his steady attention that he could resolve the most difficult problems in company, and among the noise of playful children. He was employed several years in writing
“A History of Geometry,

” but he did not live to complete it.

, a celebrated **mathematician**, was born at Lyons in the year 1725, and giving early indications

**mathematician**, a celebrated **mathematician**, was born at Lyons in the year 1725, and giving
early indications of a love of learning, was placed under the
instructions of the Jesuits, with whom he acquired an intimate acquaintance with the ancient and modern languages,
and some knowledge of the mathematics. At the age of
sixteen he went to Toulouse to study the law, and was admitted an advocate, though without much intention of
practising at the bar. Having completed his studies, he
went to Paris, cultivated an acquaintance with the most
distinguished literary characters, and it was owing to his
intercourse with them, that he was induced to undertake
his “History of the Mathematical Sciences.

” But in the
interim he published new editions, with additions and
improvements, of several mathematical treatises which
were already held in the highest estimation. The first of
these was “Mathematical Recreations,

” by M. Ozanam,
which has been since translated into English, and published in London, in 4 vols. 8vo. To all the works which
he edited, after Ozanam’s, he gave the initials of his name.
He also contributed his assistance for some years to “The
French Gazette;

” and in History of Inquiries relative to the Quadrature of the
Circle.

” The encouragement which this met with from
very able judges of its merit, afforded him great encouragement to apply with ardour to his grand design, “The
History of the Mathematics;

” and in History,

” in two volumes, 4to, which terminates with
the close of the 17th century. It answered the expectations
of all his friends, and of men of science in all countries, and
the author was instantly elevated to a high rank in the
learned world. His fame was widely diffused, and he was
pressed from all quarters to proceed with the mathematical
history of the 18th century, which he had announced for
the subject of a third volume, and for which he had made
considerable preparations; but he was diverted from his
design, by receiving the appointment of secretary to the
Intendance at Grenoble. Here he spent his leisure hours
chiefly in retirement, and in scientific pursuits. In 1764,
Turgot, being appointed to establish a colony at Cayenne,
took Montucla with him as his “secretary,

” to which was
added the title of “astronomer to the king,

” and although
he returned without attaining any particular object with
regard to the astronomical observations, for which he went
out, he had an opportunity of collecting some valuable
tropical plants, with which he enriched the king’s hothouses at Versailles. Soon after his return, he was
appointed chief clerk in an official department, similar to
that known in this country by the name of the “Board of
Works,

” which he retained till the place was abolished in
1792, when he was reduced to considerable pecuniary embarrassments. Under the pressure of these circumstances,
he began to prepare a new and much enlarged edition of
his “History,

” which he presented to the world in

, a very respectable **mathematician**, fellow of the royal society, and surveyor-general of the ordnance,

**mathematician**, a very respectable **mathematician**,
fellow of the royal society, and surveyor-general of the
ordnance, was born at Whitlee, or Whitle, in Lancashire,
Feb. 8, 1617. After enjoying the advantages of a liberal
education, he bent his studies principally to the mathematics, to which he had always a strong inclination, and in
the early part of his life taught that science in London for
his support. In the expedition of king Charles the First
into the northern parts of England, our author was introduced to him, as a person studious and learned in those
sciences; and the king expressed much approbation of
him, and promised him encouragement; which indeed laid
the foundation of his fortune. He was afterwards, when
the king was at Holdenby-house, in 1647, appointed mathematical master to the king’s second son James, to instruct him in arithmetic, geography, the use of the globes,
&c. During Cromwell’s government he appears to have
followed the profession of a public teacher of mathematics;
for he is styled, in the title-page of some of his publications, “professor of the mathematics;

” but his loyalty
was a considerable prejudice to his fortune. In his greatest necessity, he was assisted by colonel Giles Strangeways, then a prisoner in the Tower of London, who likewise recommended him to the other eminent persons, his
fellow- prisoners, and prosecuted his interest so far as to
procure him to be chosen surveyor in the work of draining
the great level of the fens’. Having observed in his survey
that the sea made a curve line on the beach, he thence
took the hint to keep it effectually out of Norfolk. This
added much to his reputation. Aubrey informs us, that
he made a model of a citadel for Oliver Cromwell “to bridle
the city of London,

” which was in the possession of Mr.
Wild, one of the friends who procured him the surveyorship of the Fens. Aubrey adds, what we do not very clearly
understand, that this citadel was to have been the crossbuilding of St. Paul’s church.

, a French **mathematician**, born in the province of Auvergne about 1643, became a professor

**mathematician**, a French **mathematician**,
born in the province of Auvergne about 1643, became a
professor of rhetoric and mathematics in different seminaries belonging to the Jesuits, and was at length appointed
professor- royal at the university of Toulouse. He died, in
1713, a sacrifice to his exertions in the cause of humanity,
during the dreadful pestilential disorder which then raged
at Toulouse. To very profound as well as extensive erudition, he united the most polished and amiable manners,
and the most ardent piety, which made him zealous in his
attempts to reform the age in which he lived. He was a
considerable writer: his most celebrated pieces are, “New
Elements of Geometry, comprised in less than fifty Propositions;

” “A Parallel between Christian Morality and that
of the Ancient Philosophers;

” “An Explanation of the
Theology of the Pythagoreans, and of the other learned
Sects in Greece, for the Purpose of illustrating the Writings of the Christian Fathers

” and “A Treatise on
French Poetry.

”

egius, or Koningsberg, a town in Franconia, was born in 1436, and became the greatest astronomer and **mathematician** of his time. He was indeed a very prodigy for genius and learning.

**mathematician**, commonly called Regiomontanus,
from his native place, Mons Regius, or Koningsberg, a
town in Franconia, was born in 1436, and became the
greatest astronomer and **mathematician** of his time. He
was indeed a very prodigy for genius and learning.
Having first acquired grammatical learning in his own
country, he was admitted, while yet a boy, into the academy at Leipsic, where he formed a strong attachment to
the mathematical sciences, arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, &c. But not finding proper assistance in these
studies at this place, he removed, at only fifteen years
of age, to Vienna, to study under the famous Purbacb,
the professor there, who read lectures in those sciences
with the highest reputation. A strong and affectionate
friendship soon took place between these two, and our
author made such rapid improvement in the sciences, that
he was able to be assisting to his master, and to become
his companion in all his labours. In this manner they
spent about ten years together, elucidating obscurities,
observing the motions of the heavenly bodies, and comparing and correcting the tables of them, particularly those
of Mars, which they found to disagree with the motions,
sometimes as much as two degrees.

, an eminent German divine and **mathematician**, was born at Inghelheim in 1489; and, at fourteen commenced

**mathematician**, an eminent German divine
and **mathematician**, was born at Inghelheim in 1489; and,
at fourteen commenced his studies at Heidelberg. Two
years after, he entered the convent of the Cordeliers,
where he laboured assiduously; yet did not content him
self with the studies relating to his profession, but applied
himself also to mathematics and cosmography. He was
the first who published a “Chaldee Grammar and Lexicon;

” and gave the world, a short time after, a “Talmudic Dictionary.

” He went afterwards to Basil, and succeeded Pelicanus, of whom he had learned Hebrew, in
the professorship of that language. He was one of the
first who attached himself to Luther, but meddled little in
the controversies of the age, employing his time and attention chiefly to the study of the Hebrew and other Oriental languages, mathematics, and natural philosophy. He
published a great number^ of works on these subjects, of
which the principal is a Latin version from the Hebrew of
all the books of the Old Testament, with learned notes,
printed at Basil in 1534 and 1546. This is thought more
faithful than the versions of Pagninus and Arias Montanus; and his notes are generally approved, though he
dwells a little too long upon the explications of the rabbins.
For this version he was called the German Esdras, as he
was the German Strabo for an “Universal Cosmography,

”
in six books, which he printed at Basil in Tabulae novae ad geog. Ptolemaei,

” “Rudimenta mathematica,

” &c. He was a pacific, studious, retired man, and, Dupin allows, one of the
most able men that embraced the reformed religion. For
this reason Beza and Verheiden have placed him among
the heroes of the reformation, although he wrote nothing
expressly on the subject. He died at Basil, of the plague,
May 23, 1552.

, an eminent **mathematician** and natural philosopher, was born at Leyden in 1692. He appears

**mathematician**, an eminent **mathematician** and natural philosopher, was born at Leyden in
1692. He appears first to have studied medicine, as he
took his doctor’s degree in that faculty in 1715, but natural philosophy afterwards occupied most of his attention.
After visiting London, where he became acquainted with
Newton and Desaguliers, probably about 1734, when he
was chosen a fellow of the royal society, he returned home,
and was appointed professor of mathematics and natural
philosophy at Utrecht, which he rendered as celebrated for
those sciences as it had long been for law studies. He was
afterwards placed in the same chair at Leyden, and obtained great and deserved reputation throughout all Europe. Besides being elected a member of the Paris academy and other learned bodies, the kings of England,
Prussia, and Denmark, made him tempting offers to reside
in their dominions; but he preferred his native place, where
he died in 1761. He published several works in Latin, all
of them demonstrating his great penetration and accuracy:
1. “Disputatio de Aeris praesentia in humoribus animalibus,

” Leyd. Epitome Elementorum Pbysico-mathematicorum,

” ib. Physicx, experimentales, et geometries Dissertationes: ut et Ephemerides meteorologicae Utrajectenses,

” ibid. Tentamina Experinientorurn naturalium, in academia del
Cimento, ex Ital. in Lat. conversa,

” ibid. Elementa Physicsc,

” Introduction to Natural
Philosophy,

” which he began to print in Memoirs of the Academy of
Sciences

” for

, an able **mathematician**, was born at Paris in 1585, and was educated to the law. He

**mathematician**, an able **mathematician**, was
born at Paris in 1585, and was educated to the law. He
became counsellor to the Chatelet, and afterwards treasurer of France in the generality of Amiens, but was too
much attached to mathematical pursuits, and master of too
ample a fortune, to pursue his profession as a source of
emolument. He was the friend and acquaintance of Des
Cartes, and entered into a vindication of him, in the dispute which he had with M. Fermat, and was afterwards a
mediator of the peace which was made between those
learned men in 1638. In the same year Mydorge published
a Lutin treatise “On Conic Sections,

” in four bt oks,
which Meisenne has inserted in his “Abridgment of
Universal Geometry.

” In 1642, he and Des Cartes received
an invitation from sir Charles Cavendish to settle in England, which he declined, on the approach of the rebellion.
He died at Paris in 1647, in the sixty-third year of his
age. He was a practical mechanic, as well as an able **mathematician**, and spent more than a thousand crowns on
the fabrication of glasses for telescopes, burning mirrors,
mechanical engines, and mathematical instruments.

will acquaint you,” says Lilly, “with one memorable story related unto me by John Marr, an excellent **mathematician** and geometrician, whom I conceive you remember. He was, servant

**mathematician**The following passage, from the life of Lilly the astrologer, contains a curious account of the meeting of those two
illustrious men. “I will acquaint you,

” says Lilly, “with
one memorable story related unto me by John Marr, an excellent

”
**mathematician** and geometrician, whom I
conceive you remember. He was, servant to king James and
Charles the First. At first when the lord Napier, or Marchiston, made public his logarithms, Mr. Briggs, then
reader of the astronomy lectures at Gresham college in
London, was so surprised with admiration of them, that he
could have no quietness in himself until he had seen that
noble person the lord Marchiston, whose only invention
they were: he acquaints John Marr herewith, who went
into Scotland before Mr. Briggs, purposely to be there
when these two so learned persons should meet. Mr. Briggs
appoints a certain day when to meet at Edinburgh; but
failing thereof, the lord Napier was doubtful he would not
come. It happened one day as John Marr and the lord
Napier were speaking of Mr. Briggs; `Ah, John,‘ said
Marchiston, `Mr. Briggs will not now come.’ At the very
instant one knocks at the gate; John Marr hasted down,
and it proved Mr. Briggs, to his great contentment. He
brings Mr. Briggs up into my lord’s chamber, where almost one quarter of an hour was spent, each beholding
other almost with admiration before one word was spoke.
At last Mr. Briggs began: ‘My lord, I have undertaken
this long journey purposely to see your person, and to
know by what engine of wit or ingenuity you came first to
think of this most excellent help into astronomy, viz. the
logarithms; but, my lord, being by you found out, I wonder no body else found it out before, when now known it
is so easy.’ He was nobly entertained by the lord Napier;
and every summer after that, during the lord’s being alive,
this venerable man Mr. Briggs went purposely into Scotland
to visit him.

, an able **mathematician**, was born in 1654, of poor parents, at Metz. He retired to Berlin

**mathematician**, an able **mathematician**, was born
in 1654, of poor parents, at Metz. He retired to Berlin
after the revocation of the edict of Nantes, and there forming a friendship with Langerfield, **mathematician** to the
court, who taught the pages, succeeded him in 1696, was
admitted into the society of sciences at Berlin in 1701,
and into the academy of the princes, as professor of
mathematics, in 1704. He died in 1729, at Berlin. His
particular study 'as divinity, on which he has written much
more than on mathematics; his only work on that science
being a system of geometry, in German, 4to, and some
other small pieces in the “Miscellanea,

” of the society at
Berlin. His theological works are, “Meditationes Saintes,

”
12mo, “Morale Evangelique,

” 2 vols. 8vo. “La souveraine perfection de Dieu dans ses divins attributs, et la
parfaite intégrité de l'Ecriture prise au sens des anciens
reformes,

” 2 vols. 8vo, against Bayle; “Examen de deux
Traités de M. de la Placette,

” 2 vols. 12mo. His eldest son
distinguished himself as his successor, and died 1745. He
was a skilful **mathematician**, member of the societies of
Berlin and London; and several memoirs of his may be
found in the “Miscellanea Berolinensia,

”

, an eminent English **mathematician** and divine, the grandson of John Newton, of Axmouth, in Devonshire,

**mathematician**, an eminent English **mathematician**
and divine, the grandson of John Newton, of Axmouth, in
Devonshire, and the son of Humphrey Newton of Oundle,
in Northamptonshire, was born at Oundle in 1622, and
was entered a commoner of St. Edmund’s hall, Oxford,
in 1637. He took the degree of B. A. in 1641; and the
year following, was created master, in precedence to several gentlemen that belonged to the king and court, then
residing in the university, on account of his distinguished
talents in the higher branches of science. His genius
being inclined to astronomy and the mathematics, he made
great proficiency in these sciences, which he found of service during the times of the usurpation, when he continued stedfest to his legal sovereign. After the restoration he was created D. D. at Oxford, Sept. 1661, was
made one of the king’s chaplains, and rector of Ross, in
Herefordshire, in the place of Mr. John Toombes, ejected
for non-conformity. He held this living till his death,
which happened at Ross, Dec. 25, 1678. Mr. Wood gives
him the character of a capricious and humoursome person; but whatever may be in this, his writings are sufficient
monuments of his genius and skill in the mathematics.
These are, 1. “Astronomia Britannica, &c. in three parts,

”
Help to Calculation; with tables of declination, ascension, &c.

” Trigonometria Britannica, in two books,

” Chiliades centum Logarithmorum,

” printed with, 5. “Geometrical Trigonometry,

” Mathematical Elements, three parts,

” A perpetual Diary, or Almanac,

” Description of
the use of the Carpenter’s Rule,

” Ephemerides,
shewing the Interest and Rate of Money at six per cent.

”
&c. Chiliades centum Logarithmorum, et tabula partium proportionalium,

” The Rule of
Interest, or the case of Decimal Fractions, &c. part II.

”
1668, 8vo. 12. “School-Pastime for young Children,

”
&c. Art of practical Gauging,

” &c. Introduction to the art of Rhetoric,

” The
art of Natural Arithmetic, in whole numbers, and fractions
vulgar and decimal,

” The English Academy,

” Cosmography.

” 18. “Introduction to Astronomy.

” 19. “Introduction to Geography,

”

, an able **mathematician**, was born at Paris in 1613. Having finished his academical studies

**mathematician**, an able **mathematician**,
was born at Paris in 1613. Having finished his academical
studies with the most promising success, he entered into
the order of Minims, took the habit in 1632, and as usual,
changed the name given him at his baptism for that
of Francis, the name of his paternal uncle, who was also a
Minim, or Franciscan. The inclination which he had for
mathematics appeared early during his philosophical studies;
and he devoted to this science all the time he could spare
from his other employments, after he had completed his
studies in theology. Ah the branches of the mathematics,
however, did not equally engage his attention; he confined himself particularly to optics, and studied the rest
only as they were subservient to his more favourite pursuit.
He informs us in the preface to his “Thaumaturgus Opticus,

” that he went twice to Rome; and that, on his return home, he was appointed teacher of theology. He was
afterwards chosen to accompany father Francis de la Noue,
vica^r-general of the order, in his visitation of the convents
throughout all France. Amidst so many employments, it
is wonderful that he found so much time to study, for his
life was short, and must have been laborious. Being taken
sick at Aix, in Provence, he died there, September 22,
1646, aged only thirty-three. He was an intimate acquaintance of Des Cartes, who had a high esteem for him,
and presented him with his works. Niceron’s writings are,
1. “L'Interpretation des Chiffres, ou Regies pour bien
entendre et expliquer facilement toutes sortes des Chiffres
Simples,

” &c. Paris, La Perspective curieuse, ou
Magie artificielle des effets marveilleux de l'Optique, Catroptique, et Dioptrique,

” intended as an introduction to
his, 3. “Thaumaturgus Opticus: sive, Admiranda Optices,
Catoptrices, et Dioptrices, Pars prima, &c.

”

, a very celebrated French **mathematician**, was born at Paris, December 23, 1683. His early attachment

**mathematician**, a very celebrated French **mathematician**, was born at Paris, December 23, 1683. His early
attachment to the mathematics induced M. Montmortto take
the charge of his education, and initiate him in the higher
geometry. He first distinguished himself by detecting the
fallacy of a pretended quadrature of the circle. A M. Mathulon was so confident that he had discovered this quadrature, as to deposit in the hands of a public notary at
Lyons, the sum of 3000 livres, to be paid to any person
who in the judgment of the academy of sciences, should
demonstrate the falsity of his solution. M. Nicole having
undertaken the task, the academy’s judgment was, that he
had plainly proved that the rectilineal figure which Mathulon had given as equal to the circle, was not only unequal
to it, but that it was even greater than the polygon of 32
sides circumscribed about the circle. It was the love of
science, however, and not of money, which inspired Nicole on this occasion, for he presented the prize of 300O
livres to the public hospital of Lyons. The academy
named Nicole eleve-mechanician, March 12, 1707; adjunct in 1716, associate in 1718, and pensioner in 1724,
which he continued till his death, which happened January
18, 1758, at seventy-five years of age.

, an eminent Dutch philosopher and **mathematician**, was born Aug. 10, 1654, at Westgraafdyk in North Holland, of

**mathematician**, an eminent Dutch philosopher and **mathematician**, was born Aug. 10, 1654, at
Westgraafdyk in North Holland, of which place his father
vvas minister. He discovered a turn for learning in his
first infancy, and his father designed him for the ministry;
but when he found him averse from this study, he suffered
him to gratify his own taste. He then applied himself to
logic, and the art of reasoning justly; in which he grounded
himself upon the principles of Des Cartes, with whose
philosophy he was greatly delighted. Thence he proceeded to the mathematics, where he made a great proficiency; and added so much to his stock of various knowledge, that he was accounted a good philosopher, a great
**mathematician**, a celebrated physician, and an able and
just magistrate. Although naturally of a grave and serious
disposition, yet his engaging manner in conversation made
him be equally admired as a companion and friend, and
frequently drew over to his opinion those who, at first,
differed very widely from him. Thus accomplished, he
acquired great esteem and credit in the council of the
town of Purmerende, where he resided; as he did also in
the states of that province, who respected him the more,
as he never interfered in any cabals or factions. His disposition inclined him to cultivate the sciences, rather than
to obtain the honours of the government and he therefore
contented himself with being counsellor and burgomaster
of the town, without wishing for more bustling preferments,
which might interfere with his studies, and draw him too
much out of his library. He died May 30, 1718, in the
sixty-third year of his age. His works are, 1. “Considerationes circa Analyseos ad Quantitates infinite parvas applicator principia,

” &c. Amst. Analysis
infinitorum seu curvilineorum Proprietates ex Polygpnorum
natura deductse,

” ibid. Considerationes
secundoe circa differentialis Principia r & Responsio ad Yirum nobilissimum G. G. Leibnitium,

” ibid. A Treatise upon
a New Use of the Tables of Sines and Tangents.

” 5. “Le
veritable Usage de la Contemplation de TUnivers, pour la
conviction des Athees & des Incredules,

” in Dutch. This
is his most esteemed work; and went through four editions
in three or four years. It was translated into English by
Mr. John Chamberlaine, and printed three or four times
under the title of the “Religious Philosopher,

” &c. 3 vols.
8vo. This was, until within these forty years, a very popular book in this country. We have also, by our author,
one letter to Bothnia of Burmania, upon the 27th article
of his meteors, and a refutation of Spinosa, 1720, 4to, in
the Dutch language.

, a very eminent Portuguese **mathematician** and physician, was born in 1497, at Alcazar in Portugal, anciently

**mathematician**, a very eminent Portuguese **mathematician** and physician, was born in 1497, at
Alcazar in Portugal, anciently a remarkable city, known
by the name of Salacia, from whence he was surnamed
Salaciensis. He was professor of mathematics in the university of Cojmbra, where he published some pieces which
procured him great reputation. He was mathematical
preceptor to Don Henry, son to king Emanuel of Portugal,
and principal cosmographer to the king. Nonius was very
serviceable to the designs which this court entertained of
carrying on their maritime expeditions into the East, by
the publication of his book “Of the Art of Navigation,

”
and various other works. He died in

“Art of Navigation,” father Dechaies says, “In the year 1530, Peter Nonius, a celebrated Portuguese **mathematician**, upon occasion of some doubts proposed to him by Martinus Alphonsus

**mathematician**Nonius was the author of several ingenious works and
inventions, and justly esteemed one of the most eminent
mathematicians of his age. Concerning his “Art of Navigation,

” father Dechaies says, “In the year 1530, Peter
Nonius, a celebrated Portuguese

” but says he is
rather obscure in his manner of writing. Furetiere, in
his Dictionary, takes notice that Peter Nonius was the first
who, in 1530, invented the angles which the Loxodromic
curves make with each meridian, calling them in his language Rhumbs, and which he calculated by spherical
triangles. Stevinus acknowledges that Peter Nonius was
scarce inferior to the very best mathematicians of the age.
And Schottus says he explained a great many problems,
and particularly the mechanical problem of Aristotle on the
motion of vessels by oars. His Notes upon Purbach’s
Theory of the Planets, are very much to be esteemed: he
there explains several things, which had either not been
noticed before, or not rightly understood.
**mathematician**, upon
occasion of some doubts proposed to him by Martinus
Alphonsus Sofa, wrote a treatise on Navigation, divided
into two books; in the first he answers some of those
doubts, and explains the nature of Loxodromic lines. In
the second book he treats of rules and instruments proper
for navigation, particularly sea- charts, and instruments
serving to find the elevation of the pole

courage that no danger or fatigue could dishearten; a skilful observer, a great designer, and a good **mathematician**: to all which qualities may be added an enthusiastic desire

**mathematician**Christian VI. was desirous of having a circumstantial
account of a country so distant and so famous from an intelligent man, and one whose fidelity could not be questioned; and no one was thought more proper than Norden.
He was then in the flower of his age, of great abilities, of
a good taste, and of a courage that no danger or fatigue
could dishearten; a skilful observer, a great designer, and
a good **mathematician**: to all which qualities may be added
an enthusiastic desire of examining, upon the spot, the
wonders of Egypt, even prior to the order of his master.
How he acquitted himself in this business appears amply
from his “Travels in Egypt and Nubia.

” In these countries he stayed about a year and, at his return, when the
count of Danneskiold-Samsoe, who was at the head of the
marine, presented him to his majesty, the king was much
pleased with the masterly designs he had made of the objects in his travels, and desired he would draw up an account of his voyage, for the instruction of the curious and
learned. At this time he was made captain-lieutenant,
and soon after captain of the royal navy, and one of the
commissioners for building ships.

ovy on his return wished to have retained him in his service, with the appointment of astronomer and **mathematician**; not, however, his biographers tell us, so much on account of

**mathematician**, a learned traveller, whose German name was Oelschlager, was born in 1599, or 1600,
at Aschersieben, a small town in the principality of Anhalt.
43is parents were very poor, and scarcely able to maintain
him, yet by some means he was enabled to enter as a student at Leipsic, where he took his degrees in arts and
philosophy, but never was a professor, as some biographers
have asserted. He quitted Leipsic for Holsteiu, where the
duke Frederic, hearing of his merit and capacity, wished to
employ him. This prince having a wish to extend the
commerce of his country to the East, determined to send
an embassy to the Czar Michael Federowitz, and the king of
Persia, and having chosen for this purpose two of his counsellors, Philip Crusius and Otto Bruggeman, he appointed
Olearius to accompany them as secretary. Their travels
lasted six years, during which Olearius collected a great
fund of information respecting the various countries they
visited. The Czar of Moscovy on his return wished to
have retained him in his service, with the appointment of
astronomer and **mathematician**; not, however, his biographers tell us, so much on account of his skill in these
sciences, as because the Czar knew that Olearius had very
exactly traced the course of the Volga, which the Russians
then wished to keep a secret from foreigners. Olearius
had an inclination, however, to have accepted this offer,
but after his return to the court of Holstein, he was dissuaded from it, and the duke having apologized to the
Czar, attached him to himself as **mathematician** and antiquary. In 1643, the duke sent him on a commission to
Moscow, where, as before, his ingenuity made him be
taken for a magician, especially as on this occasion he exhibited a camera obscura. In 1650 the duke appointed him
his librarian, and keeper of his curiosities. The library he
enriched with many Oriental Mss. which he had procured
in his travels, and made also considerable additions to the
duke’s museum, particularly of the collection of Paludanns,
a Dutch physician, which the duke sent him to Holland ta
purchase; and he drew up a description of the whole,
which was published at Sleswick in 1666, 4to. He also
constructed the famous globe of Gottorp, and an armillary
sphere of copper, which was not less admired, and proved
how much mathematics had been his study. He died Feb.
22, 1671. He published, in German, his travels, 1647,
1656, 1669, fol. Besides these three editions, they were
translated into English by Davies, and into Dutch and
Italian. The most complete translation is that, in French,
by Wicquefort, Amst. 1727, 2 vols. fol. who also translated
Olearius’s edition of Mandelso’s “Voyages to Persia,

” c.
fol. Among his other and less known works, are some
lives of eminent Germans “The Valley of Persian Roses,

”
from the Persian; “An abridged Chronicle of Holstein,

”
&c

, in 1562. During this time he had made himself master of rhetoric and philosophy, and became a good **mathematician**; and being now at leisure to improve himself, he repaired to

**mathematician**, a celebrated cardinal, and one of
the greatest men of his time, was born at a small village
in the county of Almagnac, Aug. 23, 1526. He was descended of indigent parents, and left an orphan at nine
years of age, in very hopeless circumstances; but Thomas
de Marca, a neighbouring gentleman, having observed his
promising genius, took the care of his education, and
placed him under the tutors of the young lord of Castlenau
de Mugnone, his nephew and ward. D'Ossat made such
a quick progress, that he became preceptor to his companion; and was sent in that character with the young
nobleman and two other youths to Paris, where they arrived in May 1559. He discharged this trust with fidelity
and care, till they had completed their course of study;
and then sent them back to Gascony, in 1562. During
this time he had made himself master of rhetoric and philosophy, and became a good **mathematician**; and being now
at leisure to improve himself, he repaired to Bourges,
where he studied the law under Cujacius. About this
time he wrote a defence of Peter Rarnus, under whom he
had studied philosophy, against James Charpentier, entitled “Expositio in disputationem Jacobi Carpenterii de
Methodo,

” Parisi Ad expositionem disputationis de methodo, contra Thessalum Ossatum responsio.

” D'Ossat,
having obtained his diploma at Bourges, returned to Paris
in 1568, and applied himself to the bar. In this station
his merit procured him the acquaintance and esteem of
many distinguished persons; and, among the rest, of Paul
de Foix, then counsellor to the parliament of Paris,
took him in his company to Rome, in 1574.

s Lilly tells us himself, in the “History of his own Life,” where he styles Oughtred the most famous **mathematician** then of Europe. “The truth is,” continues this writer, “he had

**mathematician**Notwithstanding all Oughtred’s mathematical merit, he
was, in 1646, in danger of a sequestration by the committee
for plundering ministers; in order to which, several articles
were deposed and sworn against him; but, upon his day
of hearing, William Lilly, the famous astrologer, applied
to sir Bulstrode Whitelocke and all his old friends, who
appeared so numerous in his behalf, that though the chairman and many other presbyterian members were active
against him, yet he was cleared by the majority. This
Lilly tells us himself, in the “History of his own Life,

”
where he styles Oughtred the most famous **mathematician**
then of Europe. “The truth is,

” continues this writer,
“he had a considerable parsonage and that alone was
enough to sequester any moderate judgment besides, he
was also well known to affect his majesty.

” His merit,
however, appeared so much neglected, and his situation
was made so uneasy at home, that his friends procured
several invitations to him from abroad, to live either in
Italy, France, or Holland, but he chose to encounter all
his difficulties at Albury. Aubrey informs us that the
grand duke invited him to Florence, and offered him 500*l*.
a year, but he would not accept it because of his religion.
From the same author we learn that he was thought a
very indifferent preacher, so bent were his thoughts on
mathematics; but, when he found himself in danger of
being sequestered for a royalist, " he fell to the study of
divinity, and preached (they sayd) admirably well, even
in his old age.

papers of the learned William Oughtred." Oughtred, says Dr. Hutton, though undoubtedly a very great **mathematician**, was yet far from having the happiest method of treating the

**mathematician**Although, according to Aubrey, he burnt “a world of
papers

” just before his death, yet it is certain that he also
left behind him a great number of papers upon mathematical subjects; and, in most of his Greek and Latin mathematical books there were found notes in his own handwriting, with an abridgment of almost every proposition
and demonstration in the margin, which came into the
museum of the late William Jones, esq. F. R. S. father to
sir William Jones. These books and manuscripts then
passed into the hands of sir Charles Scarborough, the physician; the latter of which were carefully looked over, and
all that were found fit for the press, printed at Oxford,
1676, under the title of “Opuscula Mathematica hactenus
inedita.

” This collection contains the following pieces:
1. “Institutiones mechanics.

” 2. “De variis corporum
generibus gravitate et magnitudine comparatis.

” 3. “Automata.

” 4. “Qusestiones Diophanti Alexandrini, libri
tres.

” 5. “De triangulis planis rectangulis.

” 6. “t)e divisione superficiorum.

” 7. “Musicae elemental 8.

” De
propugnaculornm munitionibus.“9.

” Sectiones angulares.“In 1660, sir Jonas Moore annexed to his arithmetic, then printed in octavo, a treatise entitled

” Conical
sections; or, the several sections of a cone; being an
analysis or methodical contraction of the two first books of
Mydorgius, and whereby the nature of the parabola, hyperbola, and ellipsis, is very clearly laid down. Translated
from the papers of the learned William Oughtred."
Oughtred, says Dr. Hutton, though undoubtedly a very
great **mathematician**, was yet far from having the happiest
method of treating the subjects he wrote upon. His style
and manner were very concise, obscure, and dry and his
rules and precepts so involved in symbols and abbreviations, as rendered his mathematical writings very troublesome to read, and difficult to be understood.

n in Tourraine, and a canon of Tours, He enjoyed the reputation of an universal scholar; was a poet, **mathematician**, divine, a controversial writer, and even a musician, although

**mathematician**, a learned French ecclesiastic, of
the seventeenth century, was a native of Chinon in Tourraine, and a canon of Tours, He enjoyed the reputation
of an universal scholar; was a poet, **mathematician**, divine,
a controversial writer, and even a musician, although in
the latter character he appears to have escaped the very
minute researches of Dr. Burney in his valuable history of
that art. He had been music- master of the holy chapel at
Paris for ten years, before he became a canon of Tours.
He wrote a great many works, among which some of his
controversial pieces against the protestants, his “History
of Music from its origin to the present time,

” and his dissertation on Vossius’s treatise “De poematum cantu et
viribus rythmi,

” remain in manuscript. Those which were
published, are, 1. “Secret pour composer en musique par
un art nouveau,

” Paris, Studiosis sanctarum
scripturarum Biblia Sacra in lectiones ad singulos dies, per
legem, prophetas, et evangelium distributa, et 529 carminibus mnemonicis comprehensa,

” ibid. Motifs de
reunion a l‘eglise catholique, presentes a ceux de la religion pretendue-reforme*e de France, avec un avertissement
sur la reponse d’un ministre a Poffice du saint Sacrement,

”
ibid. Le motifs de la conversion du comte de
Lorges Montgommery,

” dedicated to Louis XIV. ibid.
1670. 5. “Defense de Tancienne tradition des eglises de
France, sur la mission des premiers predicateurs evangeliques dans les Gaules, du temps des apotres ou de leurs
disciples immediats, et de Pusage des ecrits des S. S.
Severe-Sulpice, et Gregoire de Tours, et de Tabus qu‘on en
faiten cette rnatiere et en d’autres pareilles,

” ibid. 178.
This was addressed to the clergy and people of To'irs by
the author, who held the same sentiments as M.de Ma re a,
respecting St. Denis. 6. “L‘Art de la science des Nombres,
en Francois et en Latin, avec un preface de i’excellence de
Farithmetique,

” ibid. Architecture harmonique, ou application de la doctrine des proportions, de la
musique a ^architecture, avec un addition a cet ecrit,

”
ibid. Calendarium novum, perpetuum, et
irrevocable,

” Breviarium Turonense, renovatum, et in melius restitutum,

”

, an eminent French **mathematician**, was descended from a family of Jewish extraction, but which

**mathematician**, an eminent French **mathematician**,
was descended from a family of Jewish extraction, but
which had long been convertsto the Romish faith and
some of whom had held considerable places in the parliaments of Provence. He was born at Boligneux, in Brescia,
in 1640; and being a younger son, though his father had
a good estate, it was thought proper to breed him to the
church, that he might enjoy some small benefices which
belonged to the family, to serve as a provision for him.
Accordingly he studied divinity four years; but, on the
death of his father, devoted himself entirely to the mathematics, to which he had always been strongly attached.
Some mathematical books, which fell into his hands, first
excited his curiosity; and by his extraordinary genius,
without the aid of a master, he made so great a progress,
that at the age of fifteen he wrote a treatise of that kind,
of which, although it was not published, he inserted the
principal parts in some of his subsequent works.

He used to say, that it was the business of the Sorbonne to discuss, of the pope to decide, and of a **mathematician** to go straight to heaven in a perpendicular line. He wrote a

**mathematician**Ozanam was of a mild and calm disposition, a cheerful and
pleasant temper, endeared by a generosity almost unparalleled. His manners were irreproachable after marriage;
and he was sincerely pious, and zealously devout, though
studiously avoiding to meddle in theological questions. He
used to say, that it was the business of the Sorbonne to
discuss, of the pope to decide, and of a **mathematician** to go
straight to heaven in a perpendicular line. He wrote a
great number of useful books; a list of which is as follows
1. “La Geometric-pratique, contenant la Trigonometric
theorique & pratique, la Longimetrie, la Planimetrie, &
la Stereometric,

” Paris, Tables des
Sinus, Tangentes, & Secantes, & des Logarithmes des
Sinus & des Tangentes, & des nombres depuis T unite
jusqu'a dix mille, avec un traite de Trigonometric, par
de nouvelles demonstrations & des pratiques tres faciles,

”
Paris, Traite des 'Lignes du premier genre, de la construction
des equations, et des lieux Geometriques, expliquees par
une methode nouveile & facile,

” Paris, L‘usage du Compas de proportion, explique & demontre
d’une maniere courte & facile, & augmente d'un Traite
de la division des champs,

” Paris, Usage de l'instrument universel pour resoudre
promptement & tres-exactement tous les problemes de la
Geometric- pratique sans aucun calcul,

” Paris, Dictionaire Mathematique, ou
Idee generale des Mathematiques,

” Paris, Methode Generale pour tracer des Cadrans sur toutes
sortes de plans,

” Paris, Cours de Mathematiques, qui comprend toutes les parties de cette science les plus utiles &
les plus necessaires,

” Paris, Traite

”
4e la Fortification, contenant les methodes anciennes &
modernes pour la construction & defense des Places, & la
maniere de les attaquer, expliquees plus au long qu‘elles
n’on jusqu' a present,“Paris, 1694, 4to. 10.

” Recreations
Mathematiques & Physiques, qui contiennent plusieurs
problemes utiles & agreables de PArithmetiquej de Geometric, d'Optique, de Gnomonique, de Cosmographie, de
Mechanique, de Pyrotecnie, & de Physique, avec un
Traite des Horloges elementaires,“Paris, 1694, 2 vols.
8vo. There was a new edition, with additions, at Paris, in
1724, 4 vols. 8vo; and in 1803, Dr. Hutton published a very
enlarged edition, in 4 vols. 8vo, with Montucla’s and his
own additions and improvements. 11.

” Nouvelle Trigonometric, oil Ton trouve la maniere de calculer toutes
sortes de Triangles rectilignes, sans les tables des Sinus,
& aussi par les Tables des Sinus, avec un application de
la Trigonometric a la mesure de Lignes droites accessibles
& inaccessibles sur la terre,“Paris, 1699, 12mo. 12.

” Methode facile pour arpenter ou mesurer toutes sortes
de superficies, & pour toiser exactement la Ma^onnerie,
les Vuidanges des terres, & tous les autres corps, avec le
toise du bois de charpente, & un traite dela Separation des
Terres,“Paris, 1699, 12mo; reprinted, with corrections,
in 1725. 13.

” Nouveaux Elemens d'Algebre, ou Principes generaux pour resoudre toutes sortes de problemes
de Mathematiques,“Amsterdam, 1702, 8vo, Mr. Leibnitz, in the Journal des Savans of 1703, speaks thus of this
work of our author:

” Monsieur Ozanam’s Algebra seems
to me greatly preferable to most of those which have been
published a long time, and are only copies from Des Cartes
and his commentators. I am well pleased that he has revived part of Vieta’s precepts, which deserve not to be forgotten.“14.

” Les Elemens d'Euclide, par le P. Dechales. Nouvelle edition corrigee & augmentee,“Paris,
1709, in 12mo; reprinted in 1720. 15.

” GeometriePratique du Pieur Boulanger, augmentee de plusieurs notes
& d‘un Traite de l’Arithmetique par Geometric, par M.
Ozanam,“Paris, 1691, 12mo. 16.

” Traite de la Sphere
du Monde, par Boulanger, revu, corrige*, & augmente,
par M. Ozanam,“Paris, 12mo. 17.

” La Perspective
Theorique & Pratique, ou Ton enseigne la maniere de
mettre toutes sortes d‘objets en perspective, & d’en representer les ombres causees par le Soleil, ou par une petite
Lumiere,“Paris, 1711, 8vo. 18. * e Le Geographic &
Cosmographie, qui traite de la Sphere, des Corps celestes,
des differens Systmes du Monde, du Globe, & de ses
usages,

” Paris, 1711, 8vb. 19. In the Journal des Ssavans,
our author has the following pieces I. “Demonstration
de ce Theoreme que la somme ou la. difference de deux
quarre

”-quarrez ne peut etre un quarre-quarre,“Journal of
May 20, 1680. II.

” Response a un probleme propose“par
M.'Comiers,

” Journal of Nov. 17, 1681. III. “Demonstration d'un problSaie touchant les racines fausses imaginaires,

” Journal of the 2d and 9th of April, 1685. IV.
“Methode pour trouver en nombres la racine cubique, &
la racme sursolide d'un binoine, quand ii y en a une,

”
Journal of April 9th, 1691. 20. In the “Me mo ires de
Trevoux,

” he has this piece, “Reponse aux principaux
articles, qui sont dans le 23 Journal de Paris de Tan 1703,
touchant la premiere partie de son Algebre,

” inserted in
the Me. noire* of December

, an eminent French **mathematician**, was born at Avignon, in Provence, March 3, 1604, and entered

**mathematician**, an eminent
French **mathematician**, was born at Avignon, in Provence,
March 3, 1604, and entered the army at fourteen, for
which he had been educated with extraordinary care. Ir>
1620 he was engaged at the siege of Caen, in the battle of
the bridge of Ce, and other exploits, in which he signalized
himself, and acquired a reputation above his years. He
was present, in 1G21, at the siege of St. John d'Angeli, as
also at that of Clerac and Montauban, where he lost his
left eye by a musket-shot. At this siege he had another
loss, which he felt with no less sensibility, viz. that of the
constable of Luynes, who died there of a scarlet fever.
The constable was a near relation to him, and had been
his patron at court. He did not, however, sink under his
misfortune, but on the contrary seemed to acquire fresh
energy from the reflection that he must now trust solely
to himself. Accordingly, there was after this time, no
siege, battle, or any other occasion, in which he did not
signalize himself by some effort of courage and conduct.
At the passage of the Alps, and the barricade of Suza, he
put himself at the head of the forlorn hope, consisting of
the bravest youths among the guards; and undertook to
arrive the first at the attack by a private way which was
extremely dangerous; but, having gained the top of a very
steep mountain, he cried out to his followers, “See the
way to glory!

” and sliding down the mountain, his companions followed him, and coming first to the attack, as
they wished to do, immediately began a furious assault;
and when the army came up to their support, forced the
barricades. He had afterwards the pleasure of standing
on the left hand of the king when his majesty related this
heroic action to the duke of Savoy, with extraordinary
commendations, in the presence of a very full court. When
the king laid siege to Nancy in 1633, our hero had the
honour to attend his sovereign in drawing the lines and
forts of circumvallation. In 1642 his majesty sent him to
the service in Portugal, in the post of field-marshal; but
that year he had the misfortune to lose his eye-sight.

emperor Theodosius the Great, from the year 379 to* 395, and acquired deserved fame as a consummate **mathematician**. Many of his works are lost, or at least have not yet been discovered.

**mathematician**, a very eminent Greek of Alexandria, flourished, according to Suidas, under the emperor Theodosius the Great, from the year 379 to* 395, and acquired
deserved fame as a consummate **mathematician**. Many of
his works are lost, or at least have not yet been discovered.
Suidas and Vossius mention as the principal of them, his
“Mathematical Collections,

” in 8 books, of which the first
and part of the second are lost; a “Commentary upon
Ptolomy’s Almagest;

” an “Universal Chorography;

” “A
Description of the Rivers of Libya;

” a treatise or' “Military Engines;

” “Commentaries upon Aristarchus of Samos, concerning the Magnitude and Distance of the Sun
and Moon,

” &c. Of these, there have been published,
“The Mathematical Collections,

” in a Latin translation,
with a large commentary, by Commandine, in 1588, folio;
reprinted in 1660. In 1644, Mersenne exhibited an
abridgment of them in his <c Synopsis JVIathematica,“in
4to, containing only such propositions as could be understood without figure*. In 1655, Meibomius gave some of
the Lemmata of the seventh book, in his

” Dialogue upon
Proportions.“In 1688, Dr. Wallis printed the last twelve
propositions of the second book, at the end of his

” Aristarchus Samius.“In 1703, Dr. David Gregory gave part
of the preface of the seventh book, in the Prolegomena to
his Euclid. And in 1706, Dr. Halley exhibited that preface entire, in the beginning of his

” Apollonius." Dr.
Ilutton, in his Dictionary, has given an excellent analysis
of the “Mathematical Collections.”

, or rather Deparcieux (Anthony), an able **mathematician**, was born in 1703, at a hamlet near Nismes, of industrious but

**mathematician**, or rather Deparcieux (Anthony), an
able **mathematician**, was born in 1703, at a hamlet near
Nismes, of industrious but poor parents, who were unable
to give him education; he soon, however, found a patron,
who placed him in the college at Lyons, where he made
astonishing progress in mathematics. On his arrival at
Paris, he was obliged to accept of humble employment
from the mathematical instrument makers, until his works
brought him into notice. These were, 1. “Table astronomiques,

” Traite

” de trigonometric rectiligne et spherique, avec un trait6 de gnomonique et des
tables de logarithmes,“1741, 4to. 3.

” Essai sur les probabilites de la dnre de la vie humame,“1746, 4to. 4.

” Reponse aux objections contrtr ce livre,“1746, 4to. 5.

” Additions a I'essai, c.“1760, 4to. 6.

” Memoires sur
la possibility et la facilit^ d‘amener aiipres de PEstrapade,
a Paris, les eaux de la riviere d’Yvette,“1763, 4to, reprinted, with additions, in 1777. It was always Deparcieux’s object to turn his knowledge of mathematics to
practical purposes, and in the memoirs of the academy of
sciences are many excellent papers which he contributed
with this view. He also introduced some ingenious improvements in machinery. He was censor- royal and member of the academy of sciences at Paris, and of those of
Berlin, Stockholm, Metz, Lyons, and Montpelher. He
died at Paris Sept. 2, 1768, aged sixty-five. He had a
nephew of the same name, born in 1753, who was educated at the college of Navarre at Paris, where he studied
mathematics and philosophy, and at the age of twentyfour gave public lectures. In 177y he began a course of
experimental philosophy, in the military school of Brienne;
after which, he occupied the philosophical professorship
at the Lyceum in Paris, where he died June 23, 1799, in
a state bordering on indigence. He wrote a

” Traité elementaire de Mathematiques,“for the use of students;

”Traite* des annuites, ou des rentes a terme,“1781, 4to

” Dissertation snr le moyen d‘elever l’eau par la rotation
d'une curde verticale sans fin,“Amst. 1782, 8vo

” Dissertation sur ies globes areostatiques,“Paris, 1783, 8vo.
He left also some unfinished works; and a

” Cours complet
de physique et de chimie," was in the press when he died.

, an ingenious French **mathematician** and philosopher, was born at Pau, in the province of Gascony,

**mathematician**, an ingenious French
**mathematician** and philosopher, was born at Pau, in the
province of Gascony, in 1636; his faiher being a counsellor of the parliament of that city. At the age of sixteen
he entered into the order of Jesuits, and made so great
proficiency in his studies, that he taught polite literature,
and composed many pieces in prose and v< rse with considerable delicacy of thought and style before he was well
arrived at the age of manhood. Propriety and elegance of
language appear to have been his first pursuits, lor which
purpose he studied the belles lettres; but afterwards he
devoted himself to mathematical and philosophical studies,
and read, with due attention, the most valuable authors,
ancient and modern, in those sciences. By such assiduity
in a short time he made himself master of the Peripatetic
and Cartesian philosophy, and taught them both with great
reputation. Notwithstanding he embraced Cartesianism,
yet he affected to be rather an inventor in philosophy himself. In this spirit he sometimes advanced very bold opinions in natural philosophy, which met with opposers, who
charged him with starting absurdities: but he was ingenious enough to give his notions a plausible turn, so as to
clear them seemingly from contradictions. His reputation
procured him a call to Paris, as professor of rhetoric in the
college of Louis the Great. He also taught the mathematics in that city, as he had before done in other places;
but the high expectations which his writings very reasonably created, were all disappointed by his early death, in
1673, at thirty-seven years of age. He fell a victim to his
zeal, having caught a contagious disorder by preaching to
the prisoners in the Bicetre.

, a French **mathematician**, was born at Paris in 1666. He shewed early a propensity to

**mathematician**, a French **mathematician**, was
born at Paris in 1666. He shewed early a propensity to
mathematics, eagerly perusing such books as fell in his
way. His custom was to write remarks upon the margins
of the books which he read; and he had filled some of
these with a kind of commentary at the age of thirteen.
At fourteen he was put under a master who taught rhetoric at Chartres. Here he happened to see a Dodecaedron, upon every face of which was delineated a sun-dial,
except the lowest, on which it stood. Struck immediately
with the curiosity of these dials, he set about drawing one
himself; but, having a book which only shewed the practical part without the theory, it was not till some time
after, when his rhetoric-master came to explain the doctrine of the sphere to him, that he began to understand
how the projection of the circles of the sphere formed sundials. He then undertook to write a “Treatise upon Gnomonics,

” anr the piece was rude and unpolished enough;
but it was entirely his own. About the same time he wrote
also a book of “Geometry,

” at Beauvais.

M. Sauveur, that friend recommended him to the marquis d'Aligre, who happened at that time to want a **mathematician** in his suite. Parent accordingly made two campaigns with the

**mathematician**At length his friends sent for him to Paris, to study the
law; and, in obedience to them he went through a course
in that faculty, but this was no sooner finished, than, his
passion for mathematics returning, he shut himself up in
the college of Dormans, and, with an allowance of less than
200 livres a year, he lived content in this retreat, which he
never left but to go to the royal college, in order to hear
the lectures of M. de la Hire, or M. de Sauveur. As soon
as he found himself able enough to teach others, he took
pupils; and, fortification being a part of mathematics
which the war had rendered very necessary, he turned his
attention to that branch; but after some time began to
entertain scruples about teaching what he knew only in
books, having never examined a fortification elsewhere,
and communicating these scruples to M. Sauveur, that
friend recommended him to the marquis d'Aligre, who
happened at that time to want a **mathematician** in his suite.
Parent accordingly made two campaigns with the marquis,
and instructed himself thoroughly by viewing fortified
places, of which he drew a number of plans, though hq
had never received any instruction in that branch. From
this time he assiduously cultivated natural philosophy, and
the mathematics in all its branches, both speculative and
practical; to which he joined anatomy, botany, and chemistry, and never appears to have been satisfied while
there was any thing to learn. M. de Billettes being admitted into the academy of sciences at Paris in 1699, with
the title of their mechanician, nominated for his eleve or
disciple, Parent, who excelled chiefly in that branch. It
was soon found in this society, that he engaged in all the
various subjects which were brought before them, but often
with an eagerness and impetuosity, and an impatience of
contradiction, which involved him in unpleasant disputes
with the members, who, on their parts, exerted a pettish
fastidiousness in examining his papers. He was in particular charged with obscurity in his productions; and indeed the fault was so notorious, that he perceived it himself, and could not avoid correcting it.

universal scholar; understood, and had a good taste both in painting and architecture. He was also a **mathematician**, a poet, an orator, a divine, an historian, and a man of distinguished

**mathematician**, an English historian, was a Benedictine monk of the congregation of Clugny, in the monastery of St. Alban’s, the habit of which order he took in
1217. He was an universal scholar; understood, and had
a good taste both in painting and architecture. He was
also a **mathematician**, a poet, an orator, a divine, an historian, and a man of distinguished probity. Such rare
accomplishments and qualities as these, did not fail to
place him very high in the esteem of his contemporaries;
and he was frequently employed in reforming some monasteries, visiting others, and establishing the monastic discipline in all. He reproved vice without distinction of persons, and did not even spare the English court itself; at
the same time he shewed a hearty affection for his country
in maintaining its privileges against the encroachments of
the pope. Of this we have a clear, though unwilling,
evidence in Baronius, who observes, that this author remonstrated with too sharp and bitter a spirit against the
court of Rome; and that, except in this particular only,
his history was an incomparable work. He died at St.
Alban’s in 1259. His principal work, entitled “Historia
Major,

” consists of two parts: The first, from the creation
of the world to William the Conqueror; the second, from
that king’s reign to 1250. He carried on this history afterwards to the year of his death in 1259. Rishanger, a
monk of the monastery of St. Alban’s, continued it to
1272 or 1273, the year of the death of Henry III. It was
first printed at London in 1571, and reprinted 1640, 1684,
fol. besides several foreign editions. There are various
ms copies in our public libraries, particularly one which
he presented to Henry III. and which is now in the British
Museum. From Jiis Mss. have also been published “Vitas
duorum Offarum, Merciae regum, S, Albani fundatorum

”
<c Gesta viginti duo abbatum S. Albani“”Additamenta
chronicorum ad historian) majorern,“all which accompany
the editions of his

” Historia Major“printed in 1640 -and
1684. Among his unpublished Mss. are an epitome of
his

” Historia Major," and a history from Adam to the
conquest, principally from Matthew of Westminster. This
is in the library of Bene't college, Cambridge. The titles
of some other works, but of doubtful authority, may be
seen in Bale and Pits.

, a French **mathematician** and philosopher, and one of the greatest geniuses and best writers

**mathematician**, a French **mathematician** and philosopher, and one of the greatest geniuses and best writers
that country has produced, was born at Clermont in Auvergne, June 19, 1623. His father, Stephen Pascal, was
president of the Court of Aids in his province, and was
also a very learned man, an able **mathematician**, and a
friend of Des Cartes. Having an extraordinary tenderness
for this child, his only son, he quitted his office and
settled at Paris in 1631, that he might be quite at leisure
to attend to his son’s education, of which he was the sole
superintendant, young Pascal never having had any other
roaster. From his infancy Blaise gave proofs of a very
extraordinary capacity. He was extremely inquisitive;
desiring to know the reason of every thing; and when,
good reasons were not given him, he would seek for better;
nor would he ever yield his assent but upon such as appeared to him well grounded. What is told of his manner
of learning the mathematics, as well as the progress he
quickly made in that science, seems almost miraculous,
liis father, perceiving in him an extraordinary inclination
to reasoning, was afraid lest the knowledge of the mathematics might hinder his learning the languages, so necessary as a foundation to all sound learning. He therefore
kept him as much as he could from all notions of geometry,
locked up all his books of that kind, and refrained even
from speaking of it in his presence. He could not however prevent his son from musing on that science; and
one day in particular he surprised him at work with charcoal upon his chamber floor, and in the midst of figures.
The father asked him what he was doing: “I am searching,

” says Pascal, “for such a thing;

” which was just the
same as the 32d proposition of the 1st book of Euclid. He
asked him then how he came to think of this: “It was,

”
says Blaise, “because I found out such another thing;

” and
so, going backward, and using the names of bar and round,
he came at length to the definitions and axioms he had
formed to himself. Of this singular progress we are
assured by his sister, madame Perier, and several other
persons, the credit of whose testimony cannot reasonably
be questioned.

, an eminent English **mathematician**, descended from an ancient family in Lincolnshire, was bora

**mathematician**, an eminent English **mathematician**, descended from an ancient family in Lincolnshire, was bora
at Southwyke in Sussex, March t, 1610; and educated in
grammar-learning at the free-school, then newly founded,
at Steyning in that county. At thirteen, he was sent to
Trinity college in Cambridge, where he pursued his studies with unusual diligence, but although capable of undergoing any trials, and one of the best classical scholars
of his age, he never offered himself a candidate at the
election of scholars or fellows of this college. After taking
the degree of B. A. in 1628, he drew up the “Description and Use of the Quadrant, written for the use of a
friend, in two books;

” the original ms. of which is still
extant among his papers in the Royal Society; and the
same year he held a correspondence with Mr. Henry
Briggs on logarithms. In 1630 he wrote “Modus supputatidi Ephemerides Astronomicas (quantum ad motum solis attinet) paradigmate ad an. 1630 accommodate;

” and “A
Key to unlock the Meaning of Johannes Trithemius, in his
Discourse of Ste^anography;

” which key Pell the same
year imparted to Mr. Samuel Hartlib and Mr. Jacob Homedae. The same year, he took the degree of master of
arts at Cambridge, and the year following was incorporated
in the university of Oxford. In June he wrote “A Letter to
Mr. Edward Win gate on Logarithms;

” and, Oct. 5, 1631,
“Commentationes in Cosmographiam Alstedii.

” July 3,
1632', he married Ithamaria, second daughter of IVtr. Henry
Reginolles of London, by whom he had four sons and four
daughters. In 1633 he finished his “Astronomical History
of Observations of heavenly Motions and Appearances;

”
and his “Eclipticus Prognostica or Foreknower of the
Eclipses; teaching how, by calculation, to foreknow and
foretell all sorts of Eclipses of the heavenly lights.

” In
The everlasting Tables of Heavenly
Motions, grounded upon the observations of all times,
and agreeing with them all, by Philip Lansberg, of Ghent
in Flanders

” and the same year he committed to writing,
“The Manner of deducing his Astronomical Tables out of
the Tables and axioms of Philip Lansberg.

” In March
A Letter of Remarks on Gellibrand’s
Mathematical Discourse on the Variation of the Magnetic
Needle; and, June following, another on the same subject. Such were the employments of the first six years of
Mr. Pell’s public life, during which mathematics entirely
engrossed his attention. Conceiving this science of the
utmost importance, he drew up a scheme for a mathematical school on an extensive scale of utility and emulation*,
Which was much approved by Des Cartes^ but so censured
by Mersenne in France, that our author was obliged to
write in its defence. The controversy may be seen in
Hooke’s Philosophical Collections, and with Pell’s

” Idea
of the Mathematics."

letters to him, and copies of those from him, &c. but also several manuscripts of Walter Warner, the **mathematician** and philosopher, who lived in the reignS of James the First

**mathematician**Some of his manuscripts he left at Brereton in Cheshire",
where he resided some years, being the seat of William
lord Brereton, who had been his pupil at Breda. A great
many others came into the hands of Dr. Busby; which Mr.
Hook was desired to use his endeavours to obtain for the
society. But they continued buried under dust, and mixed
with the papers and pamphlets of Dr. Busby, in four large
boxes, till 1755; when Dr. Birch, secretary to the Royal
Society, procured them for that body, from the trustees of
Dfr. Busby. The collection contains not only Pell’s mathematical papers, letters to him, and copies of those from
him, &c. but also several manuscripts of Walter Warner,
the **mathematician** and philosopher, who lived in the reignS
of James the First and Charles the First.

, a learned physician, **mathematician**, and mechanist, was born at London, in 1694. After studying

**mathematician**, a learned physician, **mathematician**, and mechanist, was born at London, in 1694.
After studying grammar at a school, and the higher classics
under Mr. John Ward, afterwards professor of rhetoric at
Gresham college, he went to Leyden, and attended the
lectures of the celebrated Boerhaave, to qualify himself for
the profession of medicine. Here also, as well as in England, he constantly mixed with his professional studies
those of the best mathematical authors, whom he contemplated with great effect. From hence he went to Paris, to
perfect himself in the practice of anatomy, to which he
readily attained, being naturally dexterous in all manual
operations. Having obtained his main object, he returned
to London, enriched also with other branches of scientific
knowledge, and a choice collection of mathematical books,
both ancient and modern, from the sale of the valuable library of the abbe Gallois, which took place during his stay
in Paris. After his return he assiduously attended St.
Thomas’s hospital, to acquire the London practice of
physic, though he seldom afterwards practised, owing to
his delicate state of health. In 1719 he returned to Leyden, to take his degree of M. D where he was kindly entertained by his friend Dr. Boerhaave. After his return to
London, he became more intimately acquainted with Dr.
Mead, sir I. Newton, and other eminent men, with whom
he afterwards cultivated the most friendly connexions.
Hence he was useful in assisting sir I. Newton in preparing
a new edition of his “Principia,

” in writing an account of
his philosophical discoveries, in bringing forward Mr. Robins, and writing some pieces printed in the 2d volume of
that gentleman’s collection of tracts, in Dr. Mead’s * Treatise on the Plague," and in his edition of Cowper on the
Muscles, &c. Being chosen professor of physic in Gresham-college, he undertook to give a course of lectures on
chemistry, which was improved every time he exhibited it,
and was publisned in 1771, by his friend Dr. James Wilson.
In this situation too, at the request of the college of physicians, he revised and reformed their pharmacopoeia, in a
new and much improved edition. After a long and laborious life, spent in improving science, and assisting its
cultivators, Dr. Pemberton died in 1771, at seventy-seven
years of age.

house, became a famous preacher, a well-studied artist, a skilful linguist, a good orator, an expert **mathematician**, and an ornament to the society. “All which accomplishments,”

**mathematician**, a learned divine, was born, according to Fuller, in Sussex, but more probably at Egerton, in Kent, in 1591, and was educated at Magdalen
college, Oxford, on one of the exhibitions of John Baker,
of Mayfield, in Sussex, esq. Wood informs us that having
completed his degree of bachelor by determination, in
1613, he removed to Magdalen-hall, where he became a
noted reader and tutor, took the degree of M. A. entered
into orders, was made divinity reader of that house, became a famous preacher, a well-studied artist, a skilful
linguist, a good orator, an expert **mathematician**, and an
ornament to the society. “All which accomplishments,

”
he adds, “were knit together in a body of about thirtytwo years of age, which had it lived to the age of man,
might have proved a prodigy of learning.

” As he was a
zealous Calvinist, he may be ranked among the puritans,
but he was not a nonconformist. He died while on a visit
to his tutor, Richard Capel, who was at this time minister
of Eastington, in Gloucestershire, in the thirty-second
year of his age, April 14, 1623. His works, all of which
were separately printed after his death, were collected in
1 vol. fol. in 1635, and reprinted four or five times; but
this volume does not include his Latin works, “De formarum origine;

” “De Sensibus internis,

” and “Enchiridion
Oratorium,

” Bishop Wilkins includes Pemble’s Sermons
in the list of the best of his age.

, a celebrated **mathematician**, who descended from an illustrious family of Aix, was born at

**mathematician**, a celebrated **mathematician**, who descended from an illustrious family of Aix, was born at
Moustiers, in the diocese of Riez, in Provence, in 1530.
He studied the belles lettres under Ramus, but is said to
have afterwards instructed his master in mathematics, which
science he taught with great credit in the royal college at
Paris. He died Aug. 23, 1560, aged thirty. M. Pena
left a Latin translation of Euclid’s “Catoptrica,

” with a
curious preface, and also employed his pen upon that geometrician’s other works, and upon an edition of the “Spherica

” of Theodosius, Greek and Latin, Paris,

of a profound theorist, perfectly skilled in the music of the ancients; and attaching himself to the **mathematician** De Moivre and Geo. Lewis Scot, who helped him to calculate ratios,

**mathematician**The sole ambition bf Pepus’ch, during the last years of
his life, seems to have been the obtaining the reputation
of a profound theorist, perfectly skilled in the music of
the ancients; and attaching himself to the **mathematician**
De Moivre and Geo. Lewis Scot, who helped him to calculate ratios, and to construe the Greek writers on music, he
bewildered himself and some of his scholars with the Greek
genera, scales, diagrams, geometrical, arithmetical, and harmonical proportions, surd quantities, apotomes, lemmas, and
every thing concerning ancient harmonics, that was dark,
unintelligible, and foreign to common and useful practice.
But with all his pedantry and ideal admiration of the music
of the ancients, he certainly had read more books on the
theory of modern music, and examined more curious compositions, than any of the musicians of his time; and
though totally devoid of fancy and invention, he was able to
correct the productions of his contemporaries, and to assign
reasons for whatever had been done by the greatest masters
who preceded him. But when he is called the most learned
musician of his time, it should be said, in the music of the
sixteenth century. Indeed, he had at last such a partiality
for musical mysteries, and a spirit so truly antiquarian, that
he allowed no composition to be music but what was old
and obscure. Yet, though he fettered the genius of his
scholars by antiquated rules, he knew the mechanical laws
of harmony so well, that in glancing his eye over a score,
he could by a stroke of his pen smooth the wildest and
most incoherent notes into melody, and make them submissive to harmony; instantly seeing the superfluous or
deficient notes, and suggesting a bass from which there
was no appeal. His “Treatise on Harmony

” has lately
been praised, as it deserves, in Mr. Shield’s valuable “Introduction to Harmony.

”

, a considerable **mathematician** and philosopher of France, was born at Montlugon, in the diocese

**mathematician**, a considerable **mathematician** and philosopher of France, was born at Montlugon, in the diocese
of Bourges, in 1598, according to some, but in 1600 according to others. He first cultivated the mathematics and
philosophy in the place of his nativity; but in 1633 he repaired to Paris, to which place his reputation had procured
him an invitation. Here he became highly celebrated for
his ingenious writings, and for his connections with Pascal,
Des Cartes, Mersenne, and the other great men of that
time. He was employed on several occasions by cardinal
Richelieu; particularly to visit the sea-ports, with the title
of the king’s engineer; and was also sent into Italy upon
the king’s business. He was at Tours in 1640, where he
married; and was afterwards made intendant of the fortifications. Baillet, in his Life of Des Cartes, says, that Petit had a great genius for mathematics; that he excelled
particularly in astronomy; and had a singular passion for
experimental philosophy. About 1637 he returned to
Paris from Italy, when the dioptrics of Des Cartes were
much spoken of. He read them, and communicated his
objections to Mersenne, with whom he was intimately acquainted, and yet soon after embraced the principles of
Des Cartes, becoming not only his friend, but his partisan
and defender. He was intimately connected with Pascal,
with whom he made at Rouen the same experiments concerning the vacuum, which Torricelli had before made in
Italy; and was assured of their truth by frequent repetitions. This was in 1646 and 1647; and though there appears to be a long interval from this date to the time of his
death, we meet with no other memoirs of his life. He died
August 20, 1667, at Lagny, near Paris, whither he had
retired for some time before his decease.
Petit was the author of several works upon physical and
astronomical subjects; the principal of which are, 1. “Chronological Discourse,

” &c. Treatise on the Proportional Compasses.

” 3.
“On the Weight and Magnitude of Metals.

” 4. “Construction and Use of the Artillery Calibers.

” 5. “On a
Vacuum.

” 6. “On Eclipses.

” 7. “On Remedies against
the Inundations of the Seine at Paris.

” 8. “On the Junction of the Ocean with the Mediterranean Sea, by means of
the rivers Aude and Garonne.

” 9. “On Comets.

” 10.
“On the proper Day for celebrating Easter.

” 11. “On
the nature of Heat and Cold,

” &c.

to serve his turne. At Caen he studyed the arts. At eighteen, he was (I have heard him say) a better **mathematician** than he is now; but when occasion is, he knows how to recurre

**mathematician**, a singular instance of an almost
universal genius, and of learning, mechanical ingenuity,
and ceconomy, applied to useful purposes, was the eldest
son of Anthony Petty, a clothier at Rumsey, in Hampshire,
and was born May 16, 1623. It does not appear that his
father was a man of much property, as he left this son none
at his death, in 1641, and contributed very little to his
maintenance. When young, the boy took extraordinary
pleasure in viewing various mechanics at their work, and
so readily conceived the natjure of their employment, and
the use of their tools, that he was, at the age of twelve,
able to iiandle the latter with dexterity not much inferior
to that of the most expert workmen in any trade which he
had ever seen. What education he had was first at the
grammar-school at Rum?ey, where, according to his own
account, he acquired, before the age of fifteen, a competent
knowledge of the Latin, Greek, and French languages,
and became master of the common rules of arithmetic,
geometry, dialling, and the astronomical part of navigation.
With this uncommon fund of various knowledge he removed, at the above age of fifteen, to the university of
Caen in Normandy. This circumstance is mentioned among
those particulars of his early life which he has given in
his will, although, by a blunder of the transcriber, Oxford is put for Caen in Collir.s’s Peerage. Wood says
that, when he went to Caen, “with a little stock of merchandizing which he then improved, he maintained himself there, learning the French tongue, and at eighteen
years of age, the arts and mathematics.

” Mr. Aubrey’s
account is in these not very perspicuous words: “He has
told me, there happened to him the most remarkable accident of life (which he did not tell me), and which was the
foundation of all the rest of his greatness and acquiring
riches. He informed me that about fifteen, in March, he
went over to Caen, in Normandy, in a vessel that went
hence, with a little stock, and began to play the merchant,
and had so good successe that he maintained himselfe, and
also educated himselfe: this I guesse was that most remarkable accident that he meant. Here he learned the
French tongue, and perfected himself in Latin, and had
Greeke enough to serve his turne. At Caen he studyed
the arts. At eighteen, he was (I have heard him say) a
better

” These accounts agree in the main points, and we
may learn from both that he had at a very early period begun that money-making system which enabled him to realize a vast fortune. He appears to have been of opinion,
that “**mathematician** than he is now; but when occasion
is, he knows how to recurre to more mathematical knowledge.there are few ways in which a man can be more
harmlessly employed than in making money.

”
On his return to his native country, he speaks of being 1
preferred to^the king’s navy, but in what capacity is not
known. This he attributes to the knowledge he had acquired, and his “having been at the university of Caen.

”
In the navy, however, before he was twenty years of age,
he got together about 60*l*. and the civil war raging at this
time, he determined to set out on his travels, for further improvement in his studies. He had now chosen medicine
as a profession, and in the year 1643, visited Leyden,
Utrecht, Amsterdam, and Paris, at which last city he studied anatomy, and read Vesalixis with the celebrated
Hobbes, who was partial to him. Hobbes was then writing
on optics, and Mr. Petty, who had a turn that way, drew
his diagrams, &c. for him. While at Paris, he informed
Aubrey that “at one time he was driven to a great streight
for money, and told him, that he lived a week or two on
three pennyworths of walnuts.

” Aubrey likewise queries
whether he was not some time a prisoner there. His ingenuity and industry, however, appear to have extricated
him from his difficulties, for we have his own authority that;
he returned home in 1646, a richer man by IQl. than he
set out, and yet had maintained his brother Anthony as
well as himself.

, a celebrated physician and **mathematician**, was born at Bautzen in Lusatia in 1525, and became a doctor

**mathematician**, a celebrated physician and **mathematician**, was born at Bautzen in Lusatia in 1525, and
became a doctor and professor of medicine at Wirtemberg.
He married a daughter of Melancthon, whose principles
he contributed to diffuse, and whose works he published at
Wirtemberg in 1601, in five volumes folio. He had an
extreme ardour for study. Being for ten years in close
imprisonment, on account of his opinions, he wrote his
thoughts on the margins of old books which they gave him
for amusement, making his ink of burnt crusts of bread,
infused in wine. He died at seventy-eight, on the 25th
of September, 1602. He wrote several tracts, 1. “De
praecipuis divinationum generibus,

” Francfort, 1614, 8vo. 3.

” De Febribus,“1614, 4to. 4.

” Vita? illustrium medicowjm.“5.

” Hypotheses astronomicas.“6.

” Les no, us
des Monnoies, des Poids, et Mesures," 8vo. His
character, as drawn by himself, is that of a man who did no injury to any one, but, on the contrary, gave all the aid in
his power to all who might require it. For these things he
calls God to witness.

e’s Dictionary of Arts and Sciences, which was supplanted by Prevot’s “Manuel Lexique,” Ward’s Young **Mathematician**’s Guide, and Smith’s Optics. From the German he translated Baker’s

**Mathematician**, a learned Jesuit, born at Avignon in 1692, where he died some little time after 1770,
was for a long time professor of physics and hydrography
at Marseilles. His works and translations on these and
similar subjects are very numerous: 1. “Elemens du Pilotages,

” Pratique du pilotage,

”
Theory and practice of gauging,

” 8vo.
5. “Maclaurin’s Algebra translated,

” Manuel Lexique,

” Ward’s
Young **Mathematician**’s Guide, and Smith’s Optics. From
the German he translated Baker’s Treatise of the Microscope, 1754. His ideas and language were clear, and he
was esteemed for the mildness and agreeableness of his
character, as well as for his talents.

, an able **mathematician** of France, aud one of the most learned astronomers of the seventeenth

**mathematician**, an able **mathematician** of France,
aud one of the most learned astronomers of the seventeenth
century, was born at Fleche, and became priest and prior
of Rillie in Anjou. Coming afterwards to Paris, his superior talents for mathematics and astronomy soon made
him known and respected. In 1666 he was appointed
astronomer in the Academy of Sciences. And five years
after, he was sent, by order of the king, to the castle of
Urani burgh, built by Tycho Brahe in Denmark, to make
astronomical observations there; and from thence he brought
the original manuscripts written by Tycho Brahe; which
are the more valuable, as they differ in many places from
the printed copies, and contain a book more than lias yet
appeared. These discoveries were followed by many
others, particularly in astronomy: he was one of the first
who applied the telescope to astronomical quadrants: he
first executed the work called “La Connoissance des
Temps,

” which he calculated from A treatise
on Levelling.

” 2. “Practical Dialling by calculation.

”
3. “Fragments of Dioptrics.

” 4. “Experiments on Running Water.

” 5. “Of Measurements.

” 6. “Mensuration of Fluids and Solids.

” 7. ' Abridgment of the Measure of the Earth.“8.

” Journey to Uraniburgh, or Astronomical Observations made in Denmark.“9.

” Astronomical Observations made in divers parts of France.“10

” La Connoissance des Temps," from 1679 to 1683.

, a Dutch divine and **mathematician**, was born at Campen in Overyssell, towards the close of the

**mathematician**, a Dutch divine and **mathematician**,
was born at Campen in Overyssell, towards the close of
the fifteenth century, and was educated at Louvain. He
acquired considerable distinction by his publications
against Luther, Melancthon, Bucer, and Calvin, and was
much esteemed, as indeed he deserved, by popes Adrian
VI. Clement VII. and Paul III for, even by the confession of the catholic historians, he was most blindly attached
to the powers, privileges, and usurpations of the Romish
pontiffs. He died at Utrecht, where he was provost of the
church of St. John the Baptist, Dec. 29, 1542, leaving
many works; the most considerable among which is entitled “Assertio Hierarchiae Ecclesiastical,

” Colog. De Ratione Paschalis celebrationis,

” De Æquinoctiorum Solstitiorumque inventione

” a defence of the Alphonsine tables, and “Astrologiae Defensio

” against the pretenders to prognostics, and annual predictions.

, a French **mathematician** and astronomer, was born at Paris, in 1711. In 1727 he became

**mathematician**, a French **mathematician**
and astronomer, was born at Paris, in 1711. In 1727 he
became a member of the canons regular of the congregation of France. He was intended for the church, hut the
freedom of his opinions displeased his superiors, and after
a few years’ study of theology, he devoted himself entirely
to the sciences. In 1749 he was appointed a member of
the academy of sciences in Rouen, and was elected to fill
the office of astronomer, and attained to first-rate excellence. His earliest production, as an author, was the
“Calculation of an Eclipse of the Moon,

” on the 23d of
December 1749. Lacaille had calculated it at Paris; but
the calculations differed by four minutes: Lacaille., however confessed his error, and received Pingre into his
friendship. In May 1753 he was elected correspondent of
the Academy of Sciences at Paris, after having sent them
an observation of the transit of Mercury, which he made at
Rouen. He was next appointed librarian of the abbey of
St. Genevieve, obtained the construction of an observatory, and was furnished by the abbot and chapter with a
six-foot telescope, while he had the loan of an excellent
quadrant from the academy. At the desire of Le Monnier, he next engaged in calculating “A Nautical Almanack,

” to enable navigators more easily to ascertain the
longitude by means of lunar observations. He calculated a
table of the eclipses visible of the sun and moon from the
commencement of the Christian aera to 1900, and afterwards a table of the eclipses visible from the northern
pole to the equator, for a thousand years before our aera.
The utility of these labours for verifying historical dates,
induced the Academy of Inscriptions to insert a part of
them in the forty-second volume of their Memoirs. He
published the “State of the Heavens

” for A Memoir relating to the Discoveries made in the South Sea, during the Voyages of the
English and French round the World.

” In . 2. At the same
time the English astronomer Mason concluded, from the
observations which he made at the Cape of Good Hope,
that the parallax was 8

”. 2. La Lande, in his “Astronomy,

” published in , in
which he was followed by astronomers in general, till more
numerous observations, made on the transit of 1769, led to
a different result. After the return of Pingre from the
East, he published a description of Pekin, in which he
shewed the position of that capital from the result of a
number of calculations of eclipses; and ascertained its
longitude by other calculations, with a degree of precision
to which none of the labours of the scientific missionaries
had any pretensions. In 1769 he sailed for the island of
St. Domingo, on board the Isis man of war, to observe the
transit of Venus, and performed the service committed to
him in the most able and satisfactory manner possible. An
account of this voyage, which proved of considerable importance to the science of geography, as well as astronomy, appeared in 1773, in two vols. 4to. After comparing the results of the immense number of calculations made by the observers of the transit in 1769J the
sun’s parallax has been concluded to be about 8

”. 6. In
1771, Pingre made another voyage, on board the Flora
frigate, with a view of extending the interests of geographical and astronomical knowledge, having with him, as
the companion of his pursuits, the chevalier de Borda, a
celebrated engineer and geometrician. The account of
their proceedings, observations, and experiments, was
published in 1778, in two vols. 4to. In 1784, M. Pingre published his “Cometography, or historical and theoretical
treatise on Comets,

” in two vols. 4tc, which is his most
considerable work, and contains calculations of the orbits
of all the comets of which an. account has been preserved.
After a long life, spent in the most important services to
the world, he died in the month of May 179tf, leaving
behind him a high character for integrity, having enjoyed
the esteem of the public, as well as that of his friends. He
was author of many other works besides those that have
been already noticed.

, an ingenious **mathematician**, descended of a noble family of Languedoc, was born in 1695.

**mathematician**, an ingenious **mathematician**, descended of a noble family of Languedoc, was born in 1695.
In his early mathematical studies, he appears to have had
no instructor; but going, in his twenty-third year, to Paris,
he formed an acquaintance with Reaumur. In 1724 he
was received into the academy of sciences, in the Memoirs
of which he wrote a great many papers, He wrote a valuable work, entitled “The Theory of working Ships,

”

, an Italian marquis, and a learned **mathematician**, was born at Padua in 1683. He was appointed professor of astronomy

**mathematician**, an Italian marquis, and a learned **mathematician**, was born at Padua in 1683. He was appointed
professor of astronomy and mathematics in the university of
his native city, and filled that post with high reputation.
In three instances he gained prizes from the Royal Academy of Sciences, and in 1739 he was elected an associate
of that body. He was also a member of the academy of
Berlin, a fellow of the London Royal Society, and a member of the Institutes of Padua and Bologna, and contributed
many valuable mathematical and astronomical papers to the
Memoirs of these Societies. As he was celebrated for his
skill and deep knowledge of hydraulic architecture, he was
nominated by the Venetian government, superintendant of
the rivers and waters throughout the republic; other states
also applied to him for advice, in business belonging to
the same science. He was sent for by pope Benedict XIV.
to survey the state of St. Peter’s church at Rome, and drew
up a memoir on what he conceived necessary to be done.
He died at Padua in 1761, at the age of 7S. He appears
to have acquired very distinguished reputation in his day,
and was the correspondent of many learned contemporaries,
particularly sir Isaac Newton, Leibnitz, the Bernoulli’s,
Wolff, Cassini, Gravesande, Muschenbroeck, Fontenelle,
and others. Nor was he more esteemed as a **mathematician** than as an antiquary, and the learned world is indebted
to him for a valuable supplement to the collections of Graerius and Gronovius, Venice, 1737, 5 vols. fol. but these
volumes are rather scarce. Among his other most valued
publications are, “Exercitationes Vitruvianae, seu Commentarius Criticus de Vitruvii architectura,

” Venice, Dissertazione sopra al Tempio di Diana di
Efeso,

” Rome,

ome of the modern languages, particularly Italian and Dutch. In early life he proved himself an able **mathematician** and mechanist. He constructed a clock, which pointed both to

**mathematician**, successively bishop of
Rochester and Winchester, in the reign of Edward VI.
was born in the county of Kent, about the year 1516, and
was educated in King’s college, Cambridge, where his
adversaries allow he was distinguished for his learning;. He
was not only skilled in Greek and Latin, but in some of
the modern languages, particularly Italian and Dutch. In
early life he proved himself an able **mathematician** and
mechanist. He constructed a clock, which pointed both
to the hours of the day, the day of the month, the sign of
the Zodiack, the lunar variations, and the tides, which
was presented to Henry VIII. and considered by him and
others as a very extraordinary performance. Heylin, who
is seldom partial to the early English reformers, tells us,
that he was “well-studied with the ancient fathers.

”

, a great geographer, **mathematician**, and astronomer of antiquity, was born at Pelusium, in Egypt,

**mathematician**, a great geographer, **mathematician**, and astronomer of antiquity, was born at Pelusium, in Egypt, about the year 70, and flourished in the
reigns of Adrian and Marcus Antoninus. He tells us himself, in one place, that he made a great number of ob*
servations upon the fixed stars at Alexandria, in the second year of Antoninus Pius and in another, that he
observed an eclipse of the moon in the ninth year of Adrian,
whence it is reasonable to conclude that this astronomer’s
observations upon the heavens were made between A. D.
125, and A. D. 140. Hence appears the error of some
authors in supposing that this Claudius Ptolemy was the
same with the astrologer Ptolemy, who constantly attended
Galba, promised Otho that he should survive Nero, and
afterwards that he should obtain the empire; which is as
improbable as what Isidorus, an ecclesiastical writer of
the seventh century, and some modems after him, have asserted; namely, that this astronomer was one of the kings
of Egypt. We know no circumstances of the life of Ptolemy but it is noted in his Canon, that Antoninus Pius
reigned three-and-twenty years, which shews that himself
survived him.

, a very eminent **mathematician** and astronomer, was born at Purbach, a town upon the confines

**mathematician**, a very eminent **mathematician**
and astronomer, was born at Purbach, a town upon the
confines of Bavaria and Austria, in 1423, and educated at
Vienna. He afterwards visited the most celebrated universities in Germany, France, and Italy; and found a
particular friend and patron in cardinal Cusa, at Rome.
Returning to Vienna, he was appointed mathematical
professor, in which office he continued till his death, which
happened in 1461, in the 39th year of his age only, to the
great loss of the learned world.

, or La Ramme'E, a celebrated French **mathematician** and philosopher, was born in 1515, in a village of Vermandois,

**mathematician**, or La Ramme'E, a celebrated French
**mathematician** and philosopher, was born in 1515, in a
village of Vermandois, in Picardy, of a family so greatly
reduced by the ravages of war, that his grandfather, having
lost all his possessions, was obliged to turn collier for a livelihood. His father followed husbandry, but appears to
have been unable to give any education to this son, whose
4 arly years were spent in mean occupations. At length he
obtained the place of servant in the college of Navarre, at
Paris, where he picked up the rudiments of learning, and
became acquainted with the logic of Aristotle. All his
leisure time he devoted to study, so that what is related in
the first Scaligerana of his living to nineteen without learning to read, and of his being very dull and stupid, is totally inconsistent with the truth. On the contrary, his
talents and perseverance at last procured him to be regularly educated in the college, and having finished classical
learning and rhetoric, he went through a course of philosophy, which took him up three years and a half. The
thesis which he made for his master’s degree denied the
authority of Aristotle, and this he maintained with great
ability, and very ingeniously replied to the objections of
the professors. This success inclined him to examine the
doctrine of Aristotle more closely, and to combat it vigorously: but he confined himself principally to his logic.
All this, however, was little less than heresy; and the two
first books he published, the one entitled “Institutiones
Dialecticae,

” the other “Aristotelicse Animadversiones,

”
so irritated the professors of the university of Paris, that,
besides many effusions of spleen and calumny, they prosecuted this anti- peripatetic before the civil magistrate, as a
man who was at war with religion and learning. The cause
was then carried before the parliament of Paris, but his
enemies dreading either the delay or the fairness of a
trial there, brought it before the king, Francis I. who
ordered that Ramus, and Antony Govea, who was his principal adversary, should chuse two judges each, to pronounce on the controversy after they should have ended
their disputation; while he himself appointed an umpire.
Ramus, in obedience to the king’s orders, appeared before
the five judges, though three of them were his declared
enemies. The dispute lasted two days; and Govea had all
the advantage he could desire, Ramus’s books being prohibited in all parts of the kingdom, and their author sentenced not to write or teach philosophy any longer. This
sentence, which elated his enemies beyond all bounds of
moderation, was published in Latin and French in all the
streets of Paris, and in all parts of Europe, whither it could
be sent. Plays were acted with great pomp, in which Ramus was ridiculed in various ways amidst the applauses and
acclamations of the Aristotelians. This happened in 1543.
The year after, the plague made great havoc in Paris, and
forced most of the students to quit the university, and cut
off several of the professors. On their return, Ramus,
being prevailed upon to teach in it, soon drew together a
great number of auditors, and through the patronage and
protection of the cardinal of Lorrain he obtained in 1547
from Henry II. the liberty of speaking and writing, and the
royal professorship of philosophy aad eloquence in 1551.
The parliament of Paris had, before this, maintained him
in the liberty of joining philosophical lectures to those of
eloquence; and this arret or decree had put an end to several prosecutions, which Ramus and his pupils had suffered. As soon as he was made regius professor, he was
fired with new zeal for improving the sciences; and was
extremely laborious and active on this occasion, notwithstanding the machinations of his enemies. He bore at that
time a part in a very singular aflair, which deserves to be
mentioned. About 1550 the royal professors corrected,
among other abuses, that which had crept into the pronunciation of the Latin tongue. Some of the clergy followed this regulation; but the Sorbonnists were much
offended at it as an innovation, and defended the old pronunciation with great zeal. Things at length were carried
so far, that a clergyman who had a good living was ejected
from his benefice for having pronounced qm’squis, quanquaw,
according to the new way, instead of kiskis, kankam, according to the old. The clergyman applied to the parliament; and the royal professors, with Ramus among them,
fearing he would fall a victim to the credit and authority
of the faculty of divines, for presuming to pronounce the
Latin tongue according to their regulations, thought it incumbent on them to assist him. Accordingly they went
to the court of justice, and represented in such strong
terms the indignity of the prosecution, that the person accused was acquitted, and the pronunciation of Latin recovered its liberty.

, a French **mathematician** and astronomer, was born at Montpellier, Sept. 1, 1722, and

**mathematician**, a French **mathematician** and astronomer, was born at Montpellier, Sept. 1,
1722, and from his earliest years became attached to the
study of the sciences, particularly mathematics. When
very young, he was appointed secretary to the Montpellier
academy of sciences, which office he held until all academies in France were dissolved. In the course of his office,
he published two volumes of their “Memoirs/' and was
preparing a third at the time of the revolution. He also
contributed many valuable papers himself on philosophical
and mathematical subjects, and furnished some articles for
the

” Dictionnaire Encyclopedique.“The comet of 1759,
the subject of so much prediction and expectation, so far
altered his pursuits as to make them afterwards centre in
astronomy. He was for a long time considered as the only
good astronomer at Montpellier, and made many useful
observations, particularly on the famous transit of Venus
in 1761. Such was his zeal, that when old age prevented
him from making observations with his usual accuracy, he
maintained a person for that purpose at his own expence as
keeper of the observatory at Montpellier. On the death
of his father, in 1770, he became counsellor of the court
of aids, and was often the organ of that company on remarkable occasions. In 1793, when such members of the
old academy as had esdaped the murderous period of the
revolution attempted to revive it under the name of

” Societe* Libre des sciences et belles lettres de Montpeliier,“De Ratte was chosen president. Some volumes of their
transactions have been published under the title of

” Bulletins." When the national institute was formed, De Ratte
was chosen an associate, and also a member of other learned
societies in France, and at last one of the legion of honour.
He died Aug. 15, 1805, aged eighty-three. His astronomical observations have been collected for publication by
M. De Flaugergues, an astronomer of Viviers; but our
authority does not mdntipn whether they haV yet appeared.

, a learned physician and **mathematician**, was born of a good family in Wales, and flourished in the reigns

**mathematician**, a learned physician and **mathematician**, was born of a good family in Wales, and flourished in the reigns of Henry VIII., Edward VI., and Mary.
There is no account of the exact time of his birth, though
it must have been early in the sixteenth century, as he was
entered of the university of Oxford about 1525, where he
was elected fellow of All Souls college in 1531, being then
B. A. but Wood is doubtful as to the degree of master.
Making physic his profession, he went to Cambridge, where
he was honoured with the degree of doctor in that faculty,
in 1545, and highly esteemed by all that knew him for his
great knowledge in several arts and sciences. He afterwards returned to Oxford, where, as he had done before
he went to Cambridge, he publicly taught arithmetic, and
other branches of the mathematics, with great applause.
It seems he afterwards repaired to London, and it has been
said he was physician to Edward VI. and Mary, to which
princes he dedicates some of his books; and yet he ended
his days in the King’s Bench prison, Southwark, where he
was confined for debt, in 155.S, at a very immature age.
Pits gives him a very high character, as excelling in every
branch of knowledge, philosophy, polite literature, astronomy, natural history, &c. &c. And Tanner observes that
he had a knowledge of the Saxon language, as appears from
his marginal notes on Alexander Essebiens, a ms. in Corpus Christi college, Cambridge.

h his learning, and amused him with his vanity; and enjoyed repeatedly the conversation of the blind **mathematician** Saunderson; a phenomenon in the history of the human mind, to

**mathematician**In 1736, he resigned this office, and, accompanied by
Dr. John Stewart, afterwards professor of mathematics in
Marischal college, and author of a “Commentary on
Newton’s Quadrature of Curves,

” on an excursion to England. They visited together London, Oxford, and Cambridge, and were introduced to the acquaintance of many
persons of the first literary eminence. His relation to David Gregory procured him a ready access to Martin Folkes,
whose house concentrated the most interesting objects
which the metropolis had to offer to his curiosity. At Cambridge he saw Dr. Bentley, who delighted him with his
learning, and amused him with his vanity; and enjoyed
repeatedly the conversation of the blind **mathematician**
Saunderson; a phenomenon in the history of the human
mind, to which he has referred more than once in his philosophical speculations. With the learned and amiable
Dr. Stewart he maintained an uninterrupted friendship till
1766, when Mr. Stewart died of a malignant fever. His
death was accompanied with circumstances deeply affecting to Dr. Reid’s sensibility; the same disorder proving
fatal to his wife and daughter, both of whom were buried
with him the same day in the same grave.

, an eminent astronomer and **mathematician**, was born at Salfeldt in Thuringia, a province in Upper Saxony,

**mathematician**, an eminent astronomer and
**mathematician**, was born at Salfeldt in Thuringia, a province in Upper Saxony, the llth of October, 1511. H^
studied mathematics under James Milichi at Wittemberg,
in which university he afterwards became professor of those
sciences, which he taught with great applause. After
writing a number of useful and learned works, he died
February 19, 1553, at 42 years of age only. His writings
are chiefly the following: 1. “Theorize novae Planetarum
G. Purbachii,

” augmented and illustrated with diagrams
and Scholia in 8vo, 1542; and again in 1580. In this
work, among other things worthy of notice, he teaches (p. 75 and 76) that the centre of the lunar epicycle describes
an ovalfgure in each monthly period, and that the or hit
of Mercury is also of the same oval figure. 2. “Ptolomy’s
Almagest,

” the first book, in Greek, with a Latin version,
and Scholia, explaining the more obscure passages, 1549,
8vo. At the end of p. 123 he promises an edition of
Theon’s Commentaries, which are wry useful for understanding Ptolomy’s meaning; but his immature death prevented Reinhold from giving this and other works which he
had projected. 3. “Prutenicse Tabulae Ccelestiurn Motuum,

” Primus
liber Tabularum Directionum

” to which are added, the
“Canon Fcecundus,

” or Table of Tangents, to every
minute of the quadrant and New Tables of Climates, Parallels, and Shadows, with an Appendix containing the
second Book of the Canon of Directions; 1554, 4to.
Reinhold here supplies what was omitted by Regiomontanus in his Table of Directions, &c.; shewing the finding
of the sines, and the construction of the tangents, the sines
being found to every minute of the quadrant, to the radius 10,000,000; and he produced the Oblique Ascensions
from 60 degrees to the end of the quadrant. He teaches
also the use of these tables in the solution of spherical
problems.

Reinhold left a son, named also Erasmus after himself, an eminent **mathematician** and physician at Salfeldt. He wrote a small work in the German

**mathematician**Reinhold left a son, named also Erasmus after himself,
an eminent **mathematician** and physician at Salfeldt. He
wrote a small work in the German language, on Subterranean Geometry, printed in 4to at Erfurt, 1575. He
wrote also concerning the New Star which appeared in
Cassiopeia in 1572; with an Astrological Prognostication,
published in 1574, in the German language.

, a German lawyer and **mathematician**, was born April 19, 1635, at Schleusingen in the county of Henneberg,

**mathematician**, a German lawyer and **mathematician**, was born April 19, 1635, at Schleusingen in the county
of Henneberg, and was educated at Leipsic and Leyden.
He was afterwards appointed preceptor to the young prince
of Gotha, then professor of mathematics at Kiel, 1655,
and some years after professor of law in the same place,
where he died Nov. 22, 1714, being then counsellor to
the duke of Saxe Gotha, and member of the Royal Academy
of Sciences at Berlin. Reyher translated Euclid’s works
into German with algebraical demonstrations, and wrote
several works in Latin, among which, that entitled “Mathesis Biblica,

” and a very curious Dissertation on the Inscriptions upon our Saviour’s cross and the hour of his
crucifixion, are particularly esteemed.

, commonly called Father Reyneau, a noted French **mathematician**, was born at Brissac, in the province of Anjou, in 1656. At

**mathematician**, commonly called Father
Reyneau, a noted French **mathematician**, was born at
Brissac, in the province of Anjou, in 1656. At twenty
years of age he entered himself in the congregation of the
Oratory at Paris, and was soon after sent, by his superiors,
to teach philosophy at Pezenas, and then at Toulon. His
employment requiring some acquaintance with geometry,
he contracted a great affection for this science, which he
cultivated and improved to so great an extent, that he was
called to Angers in 1683, to fill the mathematical chair;
and the academy of Angers elected him a member in 1694.

, a celebrated German astronomer and **mathematician**, was born at Feldkirk in Tyrol, February 15, 1514. After imbibing

**mathematician**, a celebrated German
astronomer and **mathematician**, was born at Feldkirk in
Tyrol, February 15, 1514. After imbibing the elements
of the mathematics at Zurick with Oswald Mycone, he
went to Wittemberg, where he diligently cultivated that
science, and was made master of philosophy in 1535, and
professor in 1537. He quitted this situation, however, two
years after, and went to Fruenburg to profit by the instructions of the celebrated Copernicus, who had then acquired
great fame. Rheticus assisted this astronomer for some
years, and constantly exhorted him to perfect his work
“De Revolutionibus,

” which he published after the death
of Copernicus, viz. in 1543, folio, atNorimberg, together
with an illustration of the same, dedicated to Schoner.
Here too, to render astronomical calculations more accurate,
he began his very elaborate canon of sines, tangents and
secants, to 15 places of figures, and to every 10 seconds
of the quadrant, a design which he did not live quite to
complete. The canon of sines however to that radius, for
every 10 seconds, and for every single second in the first
and last degree of the quadrant, computed by him, was
published in folio at Francfort, 1613, by Pitiscus, who
himself added a few of the first sines computed to 22 places
of figures. But the larger work, or canon of sines, tangents, and secants, to every 10 seconds, was perfected and
published after his death, viz. in 1596, by his disciple Valentine Otho, **mathematician** to the electoral prince palatine; a particular account and analysis of which work may
be seen in the Historical Introduction to Dr. Button’s Logarithms.

, an able **mathematician**, was born in 1707 at Castel Franco, in the territory of Treviso,

**mathematician**, an able **mathematician**, was born
in 1707 at Castel Franco, in the territory of Treviso, and
in 1726 entered among the Jesuits, and taught mathematics
at Bologna, till the suppression of his order in 1773. At
this period he returned to his native place, and died there
of a cholic, in 1775, aged sixty-eight, leaving some good
mathematical works among others, a large treatise on the
“Integral Calculus,

” 3 vols. 4to. He had been much employed in hydraulics, and such was the importance of his
services in this branch, that the republic of Venice ordered a gold medal, worth a thousand livres, to be struck
in honour of him, in 1774.

, a learned Italian astronomer, philosopher, and **mathematician**, was born in 1598, at Ferrara, a city in Italy, in the dominions

**mathematician**, a learned Italian astronomer, philosopher, and **mathematician**, was born in 1598,
at Ferrara, a city in Italy, in the dominions of the pope.
At sixteen years of age he was admitted into the society of
the Jesuits, and the progress he made in every branch of
literature and science was surprising. He was first appointed
to teach rhetoric, poetry, philosophy, and scholastic divinity, in the Jesuits’ colleges at Parma and Bologna; yet
applied himself in the mean time to making observations
in geography, chronology, and astronomy. This was his
natural bent, and at length he obtained leave from his superiors to quit all other employment, that he might devote
himself entirely to those sciences.

, in German Sterck, an eminent Flemish philosopher and **mathematician**, was born at Antwerp, and first studied in the emperor Maximilian

**mathematician**, in German
Sterck, an eminent Flemish philosopher and **mathematician**,
was born at Antwerp, and first studied in the emperor
Maximilian the First’s palace, and afterwards at the university of Lou vain, where he acquired the learned languages, philosophy, and the mathematical sciences. He
became a public professor in that university, and taught
various sciences; and in 1528 went into Germany, and
taught the mathematical sciences and the Greek tongue in
various seminaries of that country, and afterwards at Parig,
Orleans, and Bourdeaux, and other places. He died about
1536. Among his most esteemed works were, “De Ratione Studii,

” Antwerp, Ley den, 1547;

” De conscribendis Epistolis Lib.“” Rhetoricae, et quat
ad earn spectant“” Sententiae“” Sphiera, sive Institutionum Astronomicarum, Lib. III.,“Basil, 1528, 8vo;

” Cosmographia“” Optica“” Chaos Mathematicum“”Arithraetica" all which were collected and published at
Leyden, in 1531.

, an American philosopher and **mathematician**, was born in Pennsylvania in 1732. By the dint of genius and

**mathematician**, an American philosopher
and **mathematician**, was born in Pennsylvania in 1732.
By the dint of genius and application, he was enabled to
mingle the pursuits of science with the active employments
of a farmer and watch-maker. The latter of these occupations he filled with unrivalled eminence among his countrymen. In 17t9 he was with others invited by the American Philosophical Society to observe the transit of Venus,
when he particularly distinguished himself by his observations and calculations. He afterwards constructed an observatory, where he made such valuable discoveries, as
tended to the general diffusion of science. After the
American war, as he was a strenuous advocate for independence, he successively filled the offices of treasurer of
the state of Pennsylvania, and director of the national
mint; in the first of which he manifested incorruptible integrity, and in the last, the rare talent of combining theories in such a way as to produce correct practical effects.
He succeeded Dr. Franklin in the office of president of the
American Philosophical Society; but towards the close of
his days he withdrew from public life, and spent his time
in retirement. After a very severe illness, but of no long
continuance, he died July 10, 1796, about the age of 64.
He had the degree of LL. D. conferred upon him. To
the “Transactions

” of the American Philosophical Society
he contributed several excellent papers, chiefly on astronomical subjects.

, an eminent French **mathematician**, was born in 1602, at Roberval, a parish in the diocese of Beauvais.

**mathematician**, an eminent French
**mathematician**, was born in 1602, at Roberval, a parish in
the diocese of Beauvais. He was first professor of mathematics at the college of Maitre-Gervais, and afterwards at
the college-royal. A similarity of taste connected him
with Gassendi andMorin; the latter of whom he succeeded
in the mathematical chair at the royal college? without
quitting, however, that of Ramus. Roberval made experiments on the Torricellian vacuum: he invented two new
kinds of balance, one of which was proper for weighing
air; and made many other curious experiments. He was
one of the first members of the ancient academy of sciences
of 1666; but died in 1675, at seventy-thre years of age.
His principal works are, 1. “A treatise on Mechanics.

”
2. A work entitled “Aristarchus Samos.

” Several memoirs inserted in the volumes ofl the academy of sciences
of 1666; viz. 1. Experiments concerning the pressure of the
air. 2. Observations on the composition of motion, and
on the tangents of curve lines. 3. The recognition of
equations. 4. The geometrical resolution of plane and
cubic equations. 5. Treatise on indivisibles. 6. On the
Trochoicl, or Cycloid. 7. A letter to father Mersenne.
8. Two letters from Torricelli. 9. A new kind of balance.
Robervallian Lines were his, for the transformation of
figures. They bound spaces that are infinitely extended
in length, which are nevertheless equal to other spaces
that are terminated on all sides. The abbot Gallois, in the
Memoirs of the Royal Academy, anno 1693, observes, that
the method of transforming figures, explained at the latter
end of RobervaPs treatise of indivisibles, was the same
with that afterwards published by James Gregory, in his
Geometria Ujiiversalis, and also by Barrow in his LectiotteV Geometric^; and that, by a letter of Torricelli, it
appears, that Roberval was the inventor of this manner of
transforming figures, by means of certain lines, which Torricelli therefore called Robervaliian Lines. He adds, that
it is highly probable, that J. Gregory first learned the method in the journey he made to Padua in 1668, the method
itself having been known in Italy from 164-6, though the
book was not published till 1692. This account David
Gregory has endeavoured to refute, in vindication of his
uncle James. His answer is inserted in the Philos. Trans,
of 1694, and the abbot rejoined in the French Memoirs of
the Academy of 1703.

, an English **mathematician** of great genius and eminence, was born at Bath in Somersetshire

**mathematician**, an English **mathematician** of
great genius and eminence, was born at Bath in Somersetshire in 1707. His parents, who were quakers, were
of low condition, and consequently neither able, from their
circumstances, nor willing from their religious profession,
to have him much instructed in that kind of learning which
they are taught to despise as human. Yet he made an
early and surprising progress in various branches of science
and literature, in the mathematics particularly; and his
friends, being desirous that he might continue his pursuits, and that his merit might not be buried in obscurity,
wished that he could be properly recommended to teach
this science in London. Accordingly, a specimen of his
abilities was shewn to Dr. Pemberton, the author of the
“View of Sir Isaac Newton’s Philosophy;

” who conceiving a good opinion of the writer, for a farther trial of his
proficiency, sent him some problems, which Robins solved
very much to his satisfaction. He then came to London,
where he confirmed the opinion which had been formed
of his abilities and knowledge.

, an English **mathematician**, was born in Staffordshire about the close of the 15th century,

**mathematician**, an English **mathematician**,
was born in Staffordshire about the close of the 15th century, as he was entered a student at Oxford in 1516, and
was in 1620 elected a fellow of All Souls college, where
he took his degrees in arts, and was ordained. But the
bent of his genius lay to the sciences, and he soon made
such a progress, says Wood, in “the pleasant studies of
mathematics and astrology, that he became the ablest person in his time for those studies, not excepted his friend
Record, whose learning was more general. At length,
taking the degree of B. D. in 1531, he was the year following made by king Henry the VIIIth (to whom he was chaplain) one of the canons of his college in Oxon, and in December 1543, canon of Windsor, and in fine chaplain to
queen Mary, who had him in great veneration for his learning. Among several things that he hath written relating to
astrology (or astronomy) I find these following: `De culminatione Fixarum Stellarum,‘ &c.; `De ortu et occasu
Stellarum Fixarum,’ &c.; ‘Annotationes Astrologicæ,’
&c. lib. 3;‘ `Annotationes Edwardo VI.;’ `Tractatus
de prognosticatione per Eclipsin.‘ All which books, that
are in ms. were some time in the choice library of Mr.
Thomas Allen of Glocester Hall. After his death, coming
into the hands of Sir Kenelm Digby, they were by him
given to the Bodleian library, where they yet remain. It
is also said, that he the said Robyns hath written a book
entitled `De Portentosis Cometis;’ but such a thing I
have not yet seen, nor do I know any thing else of the author, only that paying his last debt to nature the 25th of
August 1558, he was buried in the chapel of St. George,
at Windsore.

” This treatise “De Portentosis Cometis,”
which Wood had not seen, is in the royal library (12 B. xv.);
and in the British museum (Ayscough’s Cat.) are other works
by Robins; and one “De sterilitatem generantibus,

” in
the Ashmolean museum.

, an eminent natural philosopher and **mathematician**, was born at Boghall, in the county of Stirling, in Scotland,

**mathematician**, an eminent natural philosopher and
**mathematician**, was born at Boghall, in the county of
Stirling, in Scotland, in 1739. His father, a merchant in
Glasgow, having, by a course of successful industry, acquired considerable property, employed it in the purchase
of an estate to which he retired during the latter part of
his life. His son was educated at Glasgow, and before
entering on his nineteenth year had completed his course
of study at that university, but had manifested a peculiar
predilection for the mathematics. Though he went deep
into algebra and fluxions, yet he derived frm the celebrated Simson, and always retained, a disposition to prefer
the more accurate though less comprehensive system of
ancient geometry. The first thing which is said to have
obtained him the notice of that eminent professor, was his
having produced a geometrical solution of a problem which
had been given out to the class in an algebraic form.

, or Rømer (Olaus), a Danish astronomer and **mathematician**, was born at Arhusen in Jutland in 1644; and, at eighteen, was

**mathematician**, or Rømer (Olaus), a Danish astronomer and **mathematician**, was born at Arhusen in Jutland in 1644; and,
at eighteen, was sent to the university of Copenhagen. He
applied himself assiduously to the study of mathematics
and astronomy, and became such an adept in those sciences, that, when Picard was sent by Lewis XIV. in 1671,
to make observations in the North, he was so pleased with
him, that he engaged him to return with him to France,
and had him presented to the king, who ordered him to
teach the dauphin mathematics, and settled a pension on
him. He was joined with Picard and Cassini, in making
astronomical observations; and, in 1672, was admitted a
member of the academy of sciences. During the ten years
he resided at Paris, he gained a prodigious reputation by
his discoveries; yet is said. to have complained afterwards
that his coadjutors ran away with the honour of many
things which belonged to him. In 1681, Christian V.
king of Denmark called him back to his own country, and
made him professor of astronomy at Copenhagen. He
employed him also in reforming the coin and the architecture, in regulating the weights and measures, and in
measuring the high roads throughout the kingdom. Frederic IV. the successor of Christian, shewed the same
favour to Roemer, and conferred new dignities on him.
He was preparing to publish the result of his observations,
when he died Sept. 19, 1710, aged 66; but some of his observations, with his manner of making those observations,
were published in 1735, under the title of “Basis Astronomise,

” by his scholar Peter Horrebow, then professor of
astronomy at Copenhagen. Roemer was the first who
found out the velocity with which light moves, by means
of the eclipses of Jupiter’s satellites. He had observed
for many years that, when Jupiter was at his greatest distance from the earth, where he could be observed, the
emersions of his first satellite happened constantly 15 or J 6
minutes later than the calculation gave them. Hence he
concluded that the light reflected by Jupiter took up this
time in running over the excess of distance, and consequently that it took up 16 or 18 minutes in running over
the diameter of the earth’s orbit, and 8 or in coming
from the sun to us, provided its velocity was nearly uniform. This discovery had at first many opposers but it
was afterwards confirmed by Dr. Bradley in the most ingenious and beautiful manner.

, a French **mathematician**, was born at Ambert, a small town in Auvergne, April 21, 1652.

**mathematician**, a French **mathematician**, was born
at Ambert, a small town in Auvergne, April 21, 1652. His
first studies and employments were under notaries and attorneys occupations but little suited to his genius, and
therefore he quitted them and went to Paris in 1675, with
no other recommendation than that of writing a fine hand,
and subsisted by giving lessons in penmanship. But as it
was his inclination for the mathematics which had drawn
him to that city, he attended the masters in this science,
and soon became one himself. Ozanam proposed a question in arithmetic to him, to which Rolle gave a solution
so clear and good, that the minister Colbert made him a
handsome gratuity, which at last became a fixed pension.
He then abandoned penmanship, and gave himself up entirely to algebra and other branches of the mathematics.
His conduct in life gained him many friends; in which his
scientific merit, his peaceable and regular behaviour, with
an exact and scrupulous probity of manners, were conspicuous. He was chosen a member of the ancient academy
of sciences in 1685, and named second geometrical-pensionary on its renewal in 1699; which he enjoyed till his
death, which happened July 5, 1719, at the age of 67.

e that the fathers are unanimous in all the essential doctrines of religion. M. Rose was also a good **mathematician**, and in 1778 sent to the academy of sciences at Paris, a “Memoire

**mathematician**, a worthy French priest, a doctor in divinity and member of the academy of Besançon,
was born at Quingey, Feb. 7, 1716. Of his early history
we find no account, previous to his appearing as an author
in 1767, when he published, 1. “Traité elementaire de
Morale,

” 2 vols. 12mo, which had the year before gained
the prize offered by the academy of Dijon, and was thought
a performance of very superior merit. 2. “La Morale
evangelique, comparée à celle des differentes sectes de religion et de philosophie,

” Traité
sur le Providence,

” which was read in ms. and approved
by cardinal de Choiseul, previous to its being published.
4. “L'Esprit des Peres, comparé aux plus celebres ecrivains, sur les matieres interessantes de la philosophie et de
la religion,

” **mathematician**, and in 1778 sent to the academy of sciences at
Paris, a “Memoire sur une courbe à double courbure,

” of
which it is sufficient to say that it was approved by La
Place, and, printed in 1779 at Besançon. In the same
year he sent to the same academy, a memoir, which had
been read in that of Besançon, relative to “the passage of
Venus over the Sun.

” In the organization of the Clergy,

” and left some valuable papers in manuscript. He appears to have escaped
the dangers of the revolution, although an orthodox and
pious priest. He died August 12, 1805, and the tears of
the poor spoke his eulogium.

, an ingenious English **mathematician** and philosopher, was fellow of Magdalen college, Cambridge,

**mathematician**, an ingenious English **mathematician**
and philosopher, was fellow of Magdalen college, Cambridge, and afterwards rector of Anderby in Lincolnshire,
in the gift of that society. He was a constant attendant at
the meetings of the Spalding Society, and was a man of a
philosophical turn of mind, though of a cheerful and companionable disposition. He had a good genius for mechanical contrivances in particular. In 1738 he printed at
Cambridge, in 8vo, “A Compendious System of Natural
Philosophy,

” in 2 vols. 8vo; a very ingenious work, which
has gone through several editions. He had also two
pieces inserted in the Philosophical Transactions, viz.
I. “A Description of a Barometer wherein the Scale of
Variation may be increased at pleasure;

” vol. 38, p. 39.
And 2. “Directions for making a Machine for finding the
Roots of Kquations universally, with the manner of using it;

”
vol. 60, p. 240. Mr. Rowning died at his lodgings in
Carey -street, near Lincoln’s-Inn Fields, the latter end of
November 1771, at the age of seventy-two. Though a
very ingenious and pleasant man, he had but an unpromising and forbidding appearance: he was tall, stooping in
the shoulders, and of a sallow down-looking countenance*.

Dudley Bard. He was educated at Eton school, and afterwards placed under the care of that celebrated **mathematician** sir Jonas Moore at the Tower. Here he continued till the demise

**mathematician**Prince Rupert, who never was married, left a natural
son, usually called Dudley Rupert, by a daughter of Henry
Bard viscount Beilemont, though styled in his father’s last
will and testament Dudley Bard. He was educated at
Eton school, and afterwards placed under the care of that
celebrated **mathematician** sir Jonas Moore at the Tower.
Here he continued till the demise of the prince, when he
made a tour into Germany to take possession of a considerable fortune which had been bequeathed to him. He was
very kindly received by the Palatine family, to whom he
had the honour of being so nearly allied. In 1686 he made
a campaign in Hungary, and distinguished himself at the
siege of Buda, where he had the misfortune to lose his
life, in the month of July or August, in a desperate attempt made by some English gentlemen upon the fortifications of that city, in the twentieth year of his age; and,
though so young, he had signalized his courage in such
an extraordinary manner, that his death was exceedingly
regretted.

digested non wflat. Excellent in positive, excellent in scholastical and polemical, divinity: a rare **mathematician**, even in the most abstruse parts thereof, as in algebra and

**mathematician**Father Fulgentio, his friend and companion, who was a
man of great abilities and integrity, and is allowed on all
hands to have drawn up Paul’s life with great judgment
and impartiality, observes, that, notwithstanding the animosity of the court of Rome against him, the most eminent
prelates of it always expressed the highest regard for him;
and Protestants of all communities have justly supposed
him one of the wisest and best men that ever lived.
ther Paul,“says sir Henry Wotton,

” was one of the humblest things that could be seen within the bounds of humanity; the very pattern of that precept, quanta doctior,
tanto submissior, and enough alone to demonstrate, that
knowledge well digested non wflat. Excellent in positive,
excellent in scholastical and polemical, divinity: a rare
**mathematician**, even in the most abstruse parts thereof, as
in algebra and the theoriques; and yet withal so expert in
the history of plants, as if he had never perused any book
but nature. Lastly, a great canonist, which was the title
of his ordinary service with the state; and certainly, in the
time of the pope’s interdict, they had their principal light
from him. When he was either reading or writing alone,
his manner was to sit fenced with a castle of paper about
his chair and over his head; for he was of our lord St.
Alban’s opinion, that all air is predatory, and especially
hurtful, when the spirits are most employed. He was of a
quiet and settled temper, which made him prompt in his
counsels and answers; and the same in consultation which
Themistocles was in action, ayro-xE&aÆiv ivavoTarogj as will
appear unto you in a passage between him and the prince
of Conde. The said prince, in a voluntary journey to
Home, came by Venice, where, to give some vent to his
own humours, he would often divest himself of his greatness; and after other less laudable curiosities, not long before his departure, a desire took him to visit the famous
obscure Servite. To whose cloyster coming twice, he was
the first time denied to be within; and at the second it was
intimated, that, by reason of his daily admission to their
deliberations in the palace, he could not receive the visit
of so illustrious a personage, without leave from the senate,
which he would seek to procure. This set a greater edge
upon the prince, when he saw he should confer with one
participant of more than monkish speculations. So, after
Jeave gotten, he came the third time; and then, besides
other voluntary discourse, desired to be told by him, who was
the true unmasked author of the late Tridentine History?
To whom father Paul said, that he understood he was
going to Rome, where he might learn at ease, who was
the author of that book."

A blind man moving in the sphere of a **mathematician**, seems a phenomenon difficult to be accounted for, and has excited

**mathematician**A blind man moving in the sphere of a **mathematician**,
seems a phenomenon difficult to be accounted for, and has
excited the admiration of every age in which it has appeared. Tuliy mentions it as a thing scarce credible in his own
master in philosophy, Diodotus, that “he exercised himself in that science with more assiduity after he became
blind; and, what he thought almost impossible to be done
without sight, that he described his geometrical diagrams
so expressly to his scholars, that they could draw every
line in its proper direction.

” Jerome relates a more remarkable instance in Didymus of Alexandria, who, “though
blind from his infancy, and therefore ignorant of the very
letters, appeared so great a miracle to the world, as not
only to learn logic, but geometry also, to perfection, which
seems the most of any thing to require the help of sight.

”
But, if we consider that the ideas of extended quantity,
which are the chief objects of mathematics, may as well be
acquired from the sense of feeling, as that of sight; that a
fixed and steady attention is the principal qualification for
this study; and that the blind are by necessity more abstracted than others, for which reason Democritus is said
to have put out his eyes, that he might think more intensely; we shall perhaps be of opinion, that there is no
other branch of science better adapted to their circumstances.

, a French **mathematician**, was born in 165S* at Courtuson, in the principality of Orange.

**mathematician**, a French **mathematician**, was born
in 165S* at Courtuson, in the principality of Orange. He
was educated by his father, and was at a very early age made
a minister at Eure in Dauphiny. But he was compelled to
retire to Geneva in 1633, in consecpence of having given
offence in a sermon, which he afterwards heightened at
Berne by preaching against some of the established doctrines of the church. He then withdrew to Holland, but
was so ill received by his brethren, that he determined to
turn Roman catholic; with this design, in 1690 he went to
Paris, and made an abjuration of his supposed errors under
the famous Bossuet, rather, it is believed, to have an opportunity of pursuing his studies unmolested at Paris than
from any motives of conscience or mental conviction. After
this he had a pension from the king, and was admitted a
member of the academy of sciences in 1707, as a geometrician. The decline of Saurin’s life was spent in the
peaceable prosecution of his mathematical studies, occasionally
interrupted by literary controversies with Rousseau and
others. He was a man of a daring and impetuous spirit,
and of a lofty and independent mind. Saurin died at Paris
in 1737. Voltaire undertook the vindication of his memory,
but has not been sufficiently successful to clear it from every
unfavourable impression. It was even said he had been
guilty of crimes, by his own confession, that ought to have
been punished with death.

d received with equal readiness whatever information any one was enabled to give him. He was an able **mathematician**, an. accurate observer of phenomena, and ingenious in devising

**mathematician**Sauvages was much loved by his pupils, to whom he
communicated freely all that he knew, and received with
equal readiness whatever information any one was enabled
to give him. He was an able **mathematician**, an. accurate
observer of phenomena, and ingenious in devising experiments; but had too much bias to systems, so that he did
not always consult facts uninfluenced by prepossession. He
was a member of the most learned societies of Europe, viz.
of the Royal Society of London, of those of Berlin, Upsal,
Stockholm, and Montpellier, of the Academy “Naturae
Curiosorum,

” of the Physico-Botanical Academy of Florence, and of the Institute of Bologna. He obtained the
prizes given by many public bodies to the best essays oil
given subjects; and a collection of these prize-essays was
published at Lyons in 1770, in two volumes, with the title
of.“Chef d'Œuvres de M. de Sauvages.

”

, an eminent French **mathematician**, was born at La Fleche, March 24, 1653. He was totally dumb

**mathematician**, an eminent French **mathematician**,
was born at La Fleche, March 24, 1653. He was totally
dumb till he was seven years of age; and ever after was
obliged to speak very slowly and with difficulty. He very
early discovered a great turn for mechanics, and when sent
to the college of the Jesuits to learn polite literature, made
very little progress, but read with greediness books of
arithmetic and geometry. He was, however, prevailed on,
to go to Paris in 1670, and, being intended for the church,
applied himself for a time to the study of philosophy and
theology; but mathematics was the only study he cultivated with any success; and during his course of philosophy, he learned the first six books of Euclid in the space of
a month, without the help of a master.

enches. With the same view also he visited all the towns of FUnders; and on his return he became the **mathematician** in ordinary at the court, with a pension for life. In 1680 he

**mathematician**In 1681 he was sent with M, Mariotte to Chantilli, to
make some experiments upon the waters there, in which
he gave great satisfaction. The frequent visits he made
to this place inspired him with the design of writing a treatise on fortification; and, in order to join practice with
theory, he went to the siege of Mons in 1691, where he
continued all the while in the trenches. With the same
view also he visited all the towns of FUnders; and on his return he became the **mathematician** in ordinary at the court,
with a pension for life. In 1680 he had been chosen to
teach mathematics to the pages of the Dauphiness. In
1686 he was "appointed mathematical professor in the Royal
College. And in 1696 admitted a member of the Academy
of Sciences, where he was in high esteem with the members of that society. He became also particularly acquainted with the prince of Conde, from whom he received
many marks of favour and affection. In 1703, M. Vanban
having been made marshal of France, he proposed Sauveur to the king as his successor in the office of examiner
of the engineers; to which the king agreed, and honoured
him with a pension, which our author enjoyed till his
death, winch happened. July 9, 1716, in the sixty-fourth
year of his age.

rtment, and of simple manners. He was twice married. The first time he took a precaution more like a **mathematician** than a lover; for he would not meet the lady till he had been

**mathematician**Sauveur was of an obliging disposition, and of a good
temper; humble in his deportment, and of simple manners.
He was twice married. The first time he took a precaution
more like a **mathematician** than a lover; for he would not
meet the lady till he had been with a notary to have the
conditions he intended to insist on, reduced into a written
form for fear the sight of her should not leave him enough
master of himself. He had children by both his wives
anJ by the latter a son, who, like himself, was dumb for
the first seven years of his life.

, an eminent physician and **mathematician**, was born about 1616. After the usual classical education he

**mathematician**, an eminent physician and **mathematician**, was born about 1616. After the
usual classical education he was admitted of Caius college,
Cambridge, in 1632, and took his first degree in arts in
1636. He was then elected to a fellowship, and commencing A. M. in 1640, he took pupils. In the mean
time, intending to pursue medicine as his profession, he
applied himself to all the preparatory studies necessary for
that art. Mathematics constituted one of these studies:
and the prosecution of this science having obtained him
the acquaintance of Mr. (afterwards bishop) Seth Ward,
then of Emanuel college, they mutually assisted each other
in their researches. Having met with some difficulties in
Mr. Ougbtred’s “Clavis Mathematical which appeared to
them insuperable, they made a joint visit to the author,
then at his living of Aldbury, in Surrey. Mr. Oughtred
(See Oughtred) treated them with great politeness, being
much gratified to see these ingenious young men apply so
zealously to these studies, and in a short time fully resolved
all their questions. They returned to Cambridge complete
masters of that excellent treatise, and were the first that
read lectures upon it there. In the ensuing civil wars, Mr.
Scarborough became likewise a joint sufferer with his fellow-student for the royal cause, being ejected from his fellowship at Caius. Upon this reverse of fortune he withdrew to Oxford, and entering himself at Merton college,
was incorporated A.M. of that university, 23d of June,
1646. The celebrated Dr. Harvey was then warden of
that college, and being employed in writing his treatise

” De Generatione Animaiium,“gladly accepted the assistance of Mr. Scarborough. The latter also became acquainted with sir Christopher Wren, then a gentleman
commoner of Wadham college, and engaged him to translate

” Oughtred’s Geometrical Dialling" into Latin, which
was printed in 1649.

, a considerable **mathematician** and astronomer, was born at Mundeilheitn in Schwaben, in 1575.

**mathematician**, a considerable **mathematician** and astronomer, was born at Mundeilheitn in Schwaben, in 1575. He entered into the society of the Jesuits
whenhe was twenty; and afterwards taught the Hebrew
tongue and the mathematics at Ingolstadt, Friburg, Brisac,
and Rome. At length, he became rector of the college
of the Jesuits at Neisse in Silesia, and confessor to the
archduke Charles. He died in 1650, at the age of seventylive.

, a noted German philosopher and **mathematician**, was born at Carolostadt in 1477, and died in 1547, aged seventy.

**mathematician**, a noted German philosopher and
**mathematician**, was born at Carolostadt in 1477, and died
in 1547, aged seventy. From his uncommon acquirements,
he was chosen mathematical professor at Nuremberg when
he was but a young man. He wrote a great many works,
and was particularly famous for his astronomical tables,
which he published after the manner of those of Regiomontanus, and to which he gave the title of Resolute, on account of their clearness. But, notwithstanding his great
knowledge, he was, after the fashion of the times, much
addicted to judicial astrology, which he took great pains
to improve. The list of his writings is chiefly as follows:
I. “Three Books of Judicial Astrology.

” 2. “The astronomical tables named Resolutoj.

” 3. “De Usu Globi
Stelliferi; De Compositione Giobi Ccelestis De Usu Globi
Terrestris, et de Compositione ejusdem.

” 4. “Æquatorium Astronomicum.

” 5. “Libeilus de Distantiis Locorum per Instrumenturn et Numeros investigandis.

” 6. “De
Compositione Torqueti.

” 7. “In Constructionem et Usum
Rectangnli sive Radii Astronomic! Annotationes.

” S.
“Horarii Cylindri Canones.

” 9. “Planisphserium, sen
Meteoriscopium.

” 10. “Organum Uranicum.

” 11.“Instrumentum Impedimentorum Luna3.

” All printed at Nuremberg, in

, an ancient **mathematician** and geographer, was a native of Caryanda, in Caria, and is noticed

**mathematician**, an ancient **mathematician** and geographer,
was a native of Caryanda, in Caria, and is noticed by Herodotus, and by Suidas, who, however, has evidently confounded different persons of the same name. There is a
Periplus which still remains, bearing the name of Scylax,
and which is a brief survey of the countries along the shores
of the Mediterranean and Euxine seas, together with part
of the western coast of Africa surveyed by Hanno; but it
seems doubtful to what Scylax it belongs. This Periplus
has come down to us in a corrupted state: it was first published from a palatine ms by Hoeschelius and others in
1600. It was afterwards edited by Isaac Vossius in 1639,
by Hudson in 1698, and by Gronovius in 1700.

, an eminent **mathematician**, mechanist, and astronomer, was descended from an ancient family

**mathematician**, an eminent **mathematician**, mechanist, and astronomer, was descended from an ancient
family at Little-Horton, near Bradford, in the West Riding
of Yorkshire, where he was born about 1651. He was at
first apprenticed to a merchant at Manchester, but his inclination and genius being decidedly for mathematics, he
obtained a release from his master, and removed to Liverpool, where be gave himself up wholly to the study of mathematics, astronomy, &c. and for a subsistence, opened
a school, and taught writing and accounts, &c. Before
he had been long at Liverpool, he accidentally met with a
merchant or tradesman visiting that town from London, in
whose house the astronomer Mr. Flamsteed then lodged;
and such was Sharp’s enthusiasm for his favourite studies,
that with the view of becoming acquainted with this emiment man, he engaged himself to the merchant as a bookkeeper. Having been thus introduced, he acquired the
friendship of Mr. Flamsteed, who obtained for him a profitable employment in the dock-yard at Chatham. In this
he continued till his friend and patron, knowing his great
merit in astronomy and mechanics, called him to his assistance, in completing the astronomical apparatus in the
royal observatory at Greenwich, which had been built about
the year 1676.

The **mathematician** meets with something extraordinary in Sharp’s elaborate treatise

**mathematician**The **mathematician** meets with something extraordinary
in Sharp’s elaborate treatise of “Geometry Improved,

”
(

nto the observatory as his amanuensis, and being, as Mr. Flamsteed tells us, not only a very skilful **mathematician**, but exceedingly expert in mechanical operations, he was principally

**mathematician**The late ingenious Mr. Smea‘ton says (Philos. Trans, an. 1786, p. 5, &c). ’ In the year 1689, Mr. Flamsteed com^
pleted his mural arc at Greenwich; and, in the prolegomena to his “Historia Ccelestis,

” he makes an ample acknowledgment of the particular assistance, care, and industry of Mr. Abraham Sharp; whom, in the month of Aug.
1688, he brought into the observatory as his amanuensis,
and being, as Mr. Flamsteed tells us, not only a very skilful
**mathematician**, but exceedingly expert in mechanical operations, he was principally employed in the construction
of the mural arc; which in the compass of fourteen months
he finished, so greatly to the satisfaction of Mr. Flamsteed,
that he speaks of him in the highest terms of praise.

ut his permission. He was seldom visited by any persons, except two gentlemen of Bradford, the one a **mathematician**, and the other an ingenious apothecary: these were admitted,

**mathematician**In his retirement at Little Horton, he employed four or
five rooms or apartments in his house for different purposes,
into which none of his family, could possibly enter at any
time without his permission. He was seldom visited by
any persons, except two gentlemen of Bradford, the one a
**mathematician**, and the other an ingenious apothecary:
these were admitted, when he chose to be seen by them,
by the signal of rubbing a stone against a certain part of
the outside wall of the house. He duly attended the dissenting chapel at Bradford, of which he was a member,
every Sunday; at which time he took care to be provided
with plenty of halfpence, which he very charitably suffered
to be taken singly out of his hand, held behind him during
his walk to the chapel, by a number of poor people who
followed him, without his ever looking back, or asking a
single question.

d a principal share in, two other periodical works of a miscellaneous mathematical nature; viz. the “ **Mathematician**,” and “Turner’s Mathematical Exercises,” two volumes, in 8vo,

**Mathematician**It has also been commonly supposed that he was the
real editor of, or had a principal share in, two other periodical works of a miscellaneous mathematical nature; viz.
the “

” and “**Mathematician**,Turner’s Mathematical Exercises,

” two volumes, in 8vo, which came out in periodical numbers, in 1750 and 1751, &c. The latter of these
seems especially to have been set on foot to afford a proper
place for exposing the errors and absurdities of Mr. Robert
Heath, the then conductor of the “Ladies Diary

” and the
“Palladium;

” and which controversy between them ended
in the disgrace of Mr. Heath, and expulsion from his office
of editor to the “Ladies Diary,

” and the substitution of
Mr. Simpson in his stead, in 1753.

, an eminent **mathematician**, was the eldest son of Mr. John Simson, of Kirton-hall in Ayrshire,

**mathematician**, an eminent **mathematician**, was the
eldest son of Mr. John Simson, of Kirton-hall in Ayrshire,
and was born Oct. 14, 1687. Being intended for the
church, he was sent to the university of Glasgow in 1701,
where he made great progress in classical learning and the
sciences, and also contracted a fondness for the study of
geometry, although at this time, from a temporary cause,
no mathematical lectures were given in the college. Having procured a copy of Euclid’s Elements, with the aid
only of a few preliminary explanations from some more
advanced students, he soon came to understand them, and
laid the foundation of his future eminence. He did not,
however, neglect the other sciences then taught in college,
but in proceeding through the regular course of academic
study, acquired that variety of knowledge which was visible in his conversation throughout life. In the mean time
his reputation as a **mathematician** became so high, that in
1710, when only twenty-two years of age, themembersof
the college voluntarily made him an offer of the mathematical chair, in which a vacancy in a short time was expected
to take place. From his natural modesty, however, he felt
much reluctance, at so early an age to advance abruptly
from the state of a student, to that of a professor in the
same college, and therefore solicited permission to spend
one year at least in London. Being indulged in this, he
proceeded to the metropolis, and there diligently employed
himself in improving his mathematical knowledge. He
also enjoyed the opportunity of forming an acquaintance
with some eminent mathematicians of that day, particularly
Mr. Jones, Mr. Caswell, Dr. Jurin, and Mr. Ditton. With
the latter, indeed, who was then mathematical master of
Christ’s Hospital, and well esteemed for his learning, &c.
he was more particularly connected. It appears from Mr.
Simson’s own account, in his letter, dated London, Nov.
1710, that he expected to have had an assistant in his studies chosen by Mr. Caswell; but, from some mistake, it
was omitted, and Mr. Simson himself applied to Mr. Ditton.
He went to him not as a scholar (his own words), but to
have general information and advice about his mathematical studies. Mr. Caswell afterwards mentioned to Mr.
Simson that he meant to have procured Mr. Jones’s assistance, if he had not been engaged.

addressed to his terraqueous majesty, the WorUl.” The objects of his ridicule in this are Hill, the **mathematician**, who proposed making verses by an arithmetical table, lord

**mathematician**After he returned to his curacy, he was offered a school
xvorth 500*l*. a year, arising from the benefit of the scholars,
but refused it as interfering with the plan of literary improvement and labour which he had marked out for himself; and when told that he might employ ushers, he said
he could not in conscience take the money, without giving
up his whole time and attention to his scholars. In 1744,
he published “The Candid Reader, addressed to his terraqueous majesty, the WorUl.

” The objects of his ridicule
in this are Hill, the **mathematician**, who proposed making
verses by an arithmetical table, lord Shaftesbury, and Johnson, the author of a play called “Hurlothrumbo,

” with a
parallel between Hurlothrumbo and the rhapsody of Shaftesbury. In the same year he also published “A Letter
to the authors of Divine Analogy and the Minute Philosopher, from an old officer,

” a plain, sensible letter, advising the two polemics to turn their arms from one another
against the common enemies of the Christian faith. During
the rebellion in 1745, he published a very seasonable and
shrewd pamphlet, entitled the “Chevalier’s hopes.

”
On the death of Dr. Sterne, the see of Clogher was filled
by Dr. Clayton, author of the “Essay on Spirit,

” a decided
Arian; and between him and Skelton there could consequently be no coincidence of opinion, or mutuality of respect. In 1748, Mr. Skelton having prepared for the press
his valuable work entitled “Deism revealed,

” he conceived it too important to be published in Ireland, and
therefore determined to go to London, and dispose of it
there. On his arrival, he submitted his manuscript to Andrew Millar, the bookseller, to know if he would purchase
it, and have it printed at his own expence. The bookseller desired him, as is usual, to leave it with him for a
day or two, until he could get a certain gentleman of great
abilities to examine it. Hume is said to have come in
accidentally into the shop, and Millar shewed him the ms.
Hume took it into a room adjoining the shop, examined it
here and there for about an hour, and then said to Andrew, print. By this work Skelton made about 200*l*. The
bookseller allowed him for the manuscript a great many
copies, which he disposed of among the citizens of London, with whom, on account of his preaching, he was a
great favourite. He always spake with high approbation of
the kindness with which he was received by many eminent
merchants. When in London he spent a great part of his
time in going through the city, purchasing books at a cheap
rate, with the greater part of the money he got by his
“Deism revealed,

” and formed a good library. This work
was published in 1749, in two volumes, large octavo, and
a second edition was called for in 1751, which waacomprized in two volumes 12mo. It has ever been considered
as a masterly answer to the cavils of deists; but the style
in this, as in some other of his works, is not uniform, and
his attempts at wit are rather too frequent, and certainly
not very successful. A few months after its publication
the bishop of Clogher, Dr. Clayton, was asked by Sherlock, bishop of London, if he knew the author. “O yes,
he has been a curate in my diocese near these twenty
years.

” “More shame for your lordship,

” answered Sherlock, “to let a man of his merit continue so long a curate
in your diocese.

”

, a **mathematician**, was born in 1620, at Vise, a small town in the county of Liege.

**mathematician**, a **mathematician**, was born in 1620, at Vise, a small town in
the county of Liege. He became abbe of Amas, canon,
councillor, and chancellor of Liege, and made his name
famous for his knowledge in theology, physics, and mathematics. The Royal Society of London elected him one of
their members, and inserted several of his compositions in
their Transactions. This very ingenious and learned man
died at Liege in 1683, at the age of sixty-three. Of his
works there have been published, some learned letters,
and a work entitled “Mesolabium et Problemata solida;

”
besides the following pieces in the Philosophical Transactions: viz. I. Short and easy Method of drawing Tangents
to all Geometrical Curves; vol. VII. p. 5143. 2. Demonstration of the same; vol. VIII. pp. 6059, 6119. 3. On
the Optic Angle of Alhaz, n vol. VIII. p. 6139.

, son of the preceding, and an excellent **mathematician**, was born at Leyden in 1591, where he succeeded his father in

**mathematician**, son of the preceding, and an
excellent **mathematician**, was born at Leyden in 1591,
where he succeeded his father in the mathematical chair in
1613, and where he died in 1626, at only thirty-five years
of age. He was author of several ingenious works and discoveries, and was the first who discovered the true law of
the refraction of the rays of light; a discovery which he
made before it was announced by Des Cartes, as Huygens
assures us. Though the work which Snell prepared upon
this subject, and upon optics in general, was never published, yet the discovery was very well known to belong to
him, by several authors about his time, who had seen it in
his manuscripts. He undertook also to measure the earth.
This he effected by measuring a space between Alcmaer
and Bergen-op-zoom, the difference of latitude between
these places being 1° 1′ 30″. He also measured another
distance between the parallels of Alcmaer and Leyden;
and from the mean of both these measurements, he made
a degree to consist of 55,021 French toises or fathoms.
These measures were afterwards repeated and corrected by
Musschenbroek, who found the degree to contain 57,033
toises. He was author of a great many learned mathematical works, the principal of which are, 1. “Apollonius
Batavus;

” being the restoration of some lost pieces of
Apollonius, concerning Determinate Section, with the Section of a Ratio and Space, in 1608, 4to, published in his
seventeenth year; but on the best authority this work is
attributed to his father. The present might perhaps be a
second edition. 2. “Eratosthenes Batavus,

” in De Circulo & Adscriptis,

” &c. in Cyclometricus, De Circuli Dimensione,

” &c. Tiphis Batavus;

” being a treatise on
Navigation and naval affairs, in 1624, 4to. 6. A posthumous treatise, being four books “Doctrinæ Triangulorum
Canonicæ,

” in Libra Astronomica & Philosophica;

” in
which he undertakes the examination of the principles of
Galileo concerning comets, 9. “Concerning the Comet
which appeared in 1618, &c.

”

, an Egyptian **mathematician**, whose principal studies were chronology and the mathematics

**mathematician**, an Egyptian **mathematician**, whose principal studies were chronology and the mathematics in general, and who flourished in the time of Julius Cxsar, is represented as well versed in the mathematics and astronomy
of the ancients; particularly of those celebrated mathematicians, Thales, Archimedes, Hipparchus, Calippus, and
many others, who had undertaken to determine the quantity of the solar year; which they had ascertained much
nearer the truth than one can well imagine they could,
with instruments so very imperfect; as may appear by reference to Ptolomy’s Almagest. It seems Sosigenes made
great improvements, and gave proofs of his being able to
demonstrate the certainty of his discoveries; by which
means he became popular, and obtained repute with those
who had a genius to understand and relish such inquiries.
Hence he was sent for by Julius Caesar, who being convinced of his capacity, employed him in reforming the
calendar; and it was he who formed the Julian year, which
begins 45 years before the birth of Christ. His other works
are lost since that period.

, a Flemish **mathematician** of Bruges, who died in 1633, was master of mathematics to prince

**mathematician**, a Flemish **mathematician**
of Bruges, who died in 1633, was master of mathematics
to prince Maurice of Nassau, and inspector of the dykes in
Holland. It is said he was the inventor of the sailing chariots, sometimes made use of in Holland. He was a good
practical **mathematician** and mechanist, and was author of
several useful works: as, treatises on arithmetic, algebra,
geometry, statics, optics, trigonometry, geography, astronomy, fortification, and many others, in the Dutch language, which were translated into Latin, by Snellius, and
printed in two volumes folio. There are also two editions
in the French language, in folio, both printed at Leyden,
the one in 1608, and the other in 1634, with curious notes
and additions, by Albert Girard. In Dr. Hutton’s Dictionary, art. Algebra, there is a particular account of
Stevin’s inventions and improvements, which were many and
ingenious.

, an eminent **mathematician**, and professor of mathematics in the university of Edinburgh,

**mathematician**, an eminent **mathematician**,
and professor of mathematics in the university of Edinburgh, was the son of the reverend Mr. Dugald Stewart,
minister of Rothsay in the Isle of Bute, and was born at
that place in 1717. After having finished his course at the
grammar school, being intended by his father for the
church, he was sent to the university of Glasgow, and was
entered there as a student in 1734. His academical studies
were prosecuted with diligence and success; and he uas
particularly distinguished by the friendship of Dr.
Hutcheson, and Dr. Simson the celebrated geometrician, under
whom he made great progress in that science.

, a protestant minister, and very skilful **mathematician**, was born at Eslingen, a town in Germany; and died at Jena in

**mathematician**, a protestant minister, and very skilful **mathematician**, was born at Eslingen, a town in Germany; and died at Jena in Thuringia,
in I 567, at fifty-eight years of age, according to Vossius,
but some others say eighty. Stitels was one of the best
mathematicians ol his time. He published, in the German
language, a treatise on algebra, and another on the Calendar or ecclesiastical computation. But his chief work is
the “Arithmetica Integra,

” a complete and exct llent treatise, in Latin, on Arithmetic and Algebra, printed in 4to,
at Norimberg, 1544. In this work there are a number of
ingenious inventions, both in common arithmetic, and in
algebra, and many curious things, some of which have
been ascribed to a much later date, such as the triangular
table for constructing progressional and figurate numbers,
logarithms, &c. Stifels was a zealous, but weak uisciple
of Luther, and took it into his head to become a prophet.
He predicted that the end of the world would happen on a
certain day in 1553, by which he terrified many people,
but lived to see its fallacy, and to experience the resentment of those whom he had deluded.

, a German **mathematician**, was born at Justingen in Suabia, in 1452, and died in 1531.

**mathematician**, a German **mathematician**, was born at Justingen in Suabia, in 1452, and
died in 1531. He taught mathematics at Tubingen, wnere
he acquired a great reputation, which however he lost
again in a great measure, by intermeddling with the prediction of future events. He announced a great deluge,
which he said would happen in the year 1524, a prediction with which he terrified all Germany, where many persons prepared vessels proper to escape with from the floods.
But the prediction failing, served to convince him of the
absurdity of his prognostications. He was author of several
works in mathematics and astrology, full of foolish and
chimerical ideas; such as, 1. “Elucidatio Fabric. Ususque Astrolabii,

” Procli sphaeram comment.

” Cosmographies aliquot Descriptiones,

”

, an eminent, though self-taught **mathematician**, was a native of Scotland, and son of a gardener in the service

**mathematician**, an eminent, though self-taught **mathematician**, was a native of Scotland, and son of a gardener in the service of the duke of Argyle. Neither the
time nor place of his birth is exactly known, but from a
ms memorandum in our possession it appears that he died
in March or April 1768. The chief account of him that
is extant is contained in a letter written by the celebrated
chevalier Ramsay to father Castel, a Jesuit at Paris, and
published in the Journal de Trevoux, p. 109. From this
it appears, that when he was about eighteen years of age,
his singular talents were discovered accidentally by the
duke of Argyle, who found that he had been reading Newton’s Principia. The duke was surprised, entered into
conversation with him, and was astonished at the force,
accuracy, and candour of his answers. The instructions
he had received amounted to no more than having been
taught to read by a servant of the duke’s, about ten years
before. “I first learned to read,

” said Stone; “the masons were then at work upon your house: I went near
them one day, and I saw that the architect used a rule
and compasses, and that he made calculations. I inquired
what might be the use of these things; and I was informed,
that there was a science called arithmetic: I purchased
a book of arithmetic, and I learned it. I was told there
was another science called geometry: I bought the books,
and I learned geometry. By reading I found that there
were good books in these two sciences in Latin: I bought
a dictionary, and 1 learnt Latin. I understood that there
were good books of the same kind in French: I bought a
dictionary, and I learned French. And this, my lord, is
what I have done. It seems to me that we may learn every
thing, when we know the twenty-four letters of the aipiuibet.

” Delighted with this account, the duke drew him
from obscurity, and placed him in a situation which enabled him to pursue his favourite objects. Stone was author and translator of several useful works 1 “A new
Mathematical Dictionary, 1726, 8vo. 2.

” Fluxions,“1730,
8vo. The direct method is a translation of L' Hospital’s
Analyse des infiniment petits, from the French; and the
inverse method was supplied by Stone himself. 3.

” The
Elements of Euclid," 1731, 2 vols. 8vo. This is a neat
and useful edition of the Elements of Euclid, with an account of the life and writings of that **mathematician**, and a
defence of his elements against modern objectors. 4. ' A
paper in the Philosophical Transactions, vol. xli. p. 218,
containing an account of two species of lines of the
third order, not mentioned by sir Isaac Newton, or Mr.
Sterling; and some other small productions.

, a German Luthe-an divine and **mathematician**, but in this country known only as a chronologist, was born

**mathematician**, a German Luthe-an divine
and **mathematician**, but in this country known only as a
chronologist, was born in 1632, at Wittemberg. He studied
at Leipsic, and was afterwards professor of theology at
Wittemberg, and at Dantzick. He was frequently involved
in theological disputes, both with the Roman catholics and
the Calvinists, from his intemperate zeal in favour of Lutheranism. He died at Wittemberg in 1682. He published
some mathematical works; but was chiefly distinguished
for his chronological and historical disquisitions, of which
he published a considerable number from 1652 to 1680.
One of the best and most useful, his “Breviarium Chronologicum,

” was long known in this country by three editions (with improvements in each) of an English translation, by Richard Sault, called in the title F. R. S. but his
name does not occur in Dr. Thomson’s list of the members
of the Royal Society. Locke’s high commendation of this
work probably introduced it as a useful manual of chronology. The edition of 1745, which, we believe, was the
last, received many improvements and corrections, but it
has since given way to lesser chronological systems.

and had a most prodigious memory; was the most noted Latinist and Grecian of his age; was a singular **mathematician**, and thoroughly read in all political matters, councils, ec

**mathematician**Wood was contemporary with Stubbe at Oxford, and
has given him this character: that, “he was a person of
most admirable parts, and had a most prodigious memory;
was the most noted Latinist and Grecian of his age; was
a singular

”
**mathematician**, and thoroughly read in all political matters, councils, ecclesiastical and profane histories;
had a voluble tongue, and seldom hesitated either in public disputes or common discourse; had a voice big and magisterial, and a mind equal to it; was of an high generous
nature, scorned money and riches, and the adorers of them;
was accounted a very good physician, and excellent in the
things belonging to that profession, as botany, anatomy,
and chemistry. Yet, with all these noble accomplishments,
he was extremely rash and imprudent, and even wanted
common discretion. He was a very bold man, uttered
any thing that came into his mind, not only among his
companions, but in public coffee-houses, of which he was
a great frequenter: and would often speak freely of persons then present, for which he used to be threatened with
kicking and beating. He had a hot and restless head, his
hair being carrot-coloured, and was ever ready to undergo any enterprise, which was the chief reason that
macerated his body almost to a skeleton. He was also a
person of no fixed principles; and whether he believed
those things which every good Christian doth, is not for me
to resolve. Had he been endowed with common sobriety
and discretion, and not have made himself and his learning:
mercenary and cheap to every ordinary and ignorant fellow,
he would have been admired by all, and might have picked
and chused his preferment; but all these things being wanting, he became a ridicule, and undervalued by sober and
knowing scholars, and others too.

, a noted German **mathematician** and philosopher, was born at Hippo! stein in 1635. He was a

**mathematician**, a noted German **mathematician** and philosopher, was born at Hippo! stein in
1635. He was a professor of philosophy and mathematics
at Altdorf, and died there Dec. 26, 1703. In 1670, he
published, 1. A German translation of the works of Archimedes; and afterwards produced many other books of his
own. 2. “Collegium experimental curiosum,

” Nuremberg, Physica electiva, et Hypothetica,

” Nuremberg, Scientia Cosmica,

” Altdorf, Architecture militaris
Tyrocinia,

” at the same place, Epistola
de veritate proposiiionum Borellide motu animalium,

” 4to,
Nuremb. Physicae conciliatricis Conamina,

”
Altdorf, Mathesis enucleata,

” Nuremb.
Mathesis Juvenilis,

” Nureiwb. Physicae modernae compendium,

” Nuremb.
Tyrocinia mathematica,

” Leipsic, Praelectiones Academics,

” Praelectiones Academics,

” Strasburg, 12mo. The works
of this author are still more numerous, but the most important of them are here enumerated.

, a noted **mathematician**, was born at Brescia in Italy, probably towards the conclusion

**mathematician**, a noted
**mathematician**, was born at Brescia in Italy, probably towards the conclusion of the fifteenth century, as we find
he was a considerable master or preceptor in mathematics
in 1521, when the first of his collection of questions and
answers was written, which heafterwards published in
1546, under the title of “Quesiti et Invention! diverse,

” at
Venice, where he then resided as a public lecturer on mathematics, he having removed to this place about 1534.
This work consists of nine chapters, containing answers to
a number of questions on all the different branches of mathematics and philosophy then in vogue. The last or ninth
of these, contains the questions in algebra, among which
are those celebrated letters and communications between
Tartalea and Cardan, by which our author put the latter in
possession of the rules for cubic equations, which he first
discovered in 1530.

, a celebrated philosopher and **mathematician**, was born at Edmonton in Middlesex, Aug. 28, 1685. His grandfather,

**mathematician**, a celebrated philosopher and **mathematician**, was born at Edmonton in Middlesex, Aug.
28, 1685. His grandfather, Nathaniel Taylor, was one of
the Puritans whom Cromwell elected by later, June 14,
1653, to represent the county of Bedford in parliament.
His father, John Taylor, esq. of Bifrons in Kent, is said to
have still retained some of the austerity of the puritanic
character, but was sensible of the power of music; in consequence of which, his son Brook studied that science
early, and became a proficient in it, as he did also in drawing. He studied the classics and mathematics with a private tutor at home, and made so successful a progress, that
at fifteen he was thought to be qualified for the university.
In 1701 he went to St. John’s college, Cambridge, in the
rank of a fellow-commoner, and immediately applied himself with zeal to the study of mathematical science, which
alone could gain distinction there. It was not long before
he became an author in that science, for, in 1708, he wro e
his “Treatise on the Centre of Oscillation,

” though it was
not published till it appeared some years after in the Philosophical Transactions. In 1709, he took the degree of
bachelor of laws; and about the same time commenced a
correspondence with professor Keil, on subjects of the most
abstruse mathematical disquisition. In 1712 he was elected
into the Royal Society, to which in that year he presented
three papers, one, “On the Ascent of Water betwetMi two
Glass Planes.

” 2. “On the Centre of Oscillation.

” 3.
“On the Motion of a stretched String.

” He presented
also, in

His distinguished abilities as a **mathematician** had now recommended him particularly to the esteem of the Royal

**mathematician**His distinguished abilities as a **mathematician** had now
recommended him particularly to the esteem of the Royal
Society, who, in 1714, elected him to the office of secretary. In the same year, he took the degree of doctor of
laws, at Cambridge. In 1715, he published his “Methodus incrementorum,

” and a curious essay in the Philosophical Transactions, entitled, “An Account of an Experiment for the Discovery of the Laws of Magnetic Attraction;

” and, besides these, his celebrated work on perspective, entitled “New Principles of Linear Perspective: or
the art of designing, on a plane, the representations of all
sorts of objects, in a more general and simple method than
has hitherto been done.' 7 This work has gone through several editions, and received some improvements from Mr.
Colson, Lucasian professor at Cambridge. In the same;
year Taylor conducted a controversy, in a correspondence
with Raymond count de Montmort, respecting the tenets
of Malbranche, which occasioned him to be noticed afterwards in the eulogium pronounced on that celebrated metaphysician. In 1716, by invitation from several learned
men, to whom his merits were well known, Dr. Taylor
visited Paris, where he was received with every mark of
respect and distinction. Early in 1717, he returned to London, and composed three treatises, which are in the thirtieth volume of the Philosophical Transactions. But his
health having been impaired by intense application, he was
now advised to go to Aix-la-chapelle, and resigned his
office of secretary to the Royal Society. After his return
to England in 1719, it appears that he applied his mind to
studies of a religious nature, the result of which were found
in some dissertations preserved among his papers,

” On
the Jewish Sacrifices,' 7 &c. He did not, however, neglect
his former pursuits, but amused himself with drawing, improved his treatise on linear perspective, and wrote a defence of it against the attacks of J. Bernoulli!, in a paper
which appears in the thirtieth volume of the Philosophical
Transactions, Bernouilli objected to the work as too abstruse, and denied the author the merit of inventing his system. It is indeed acknowledged, that though Dr. B. Taylor discovered it for himself, he was not the first who had
trod the same path, as it had been done by Guido Ubaldi,
in a book on perspective, published at Pesaro in 1600. The
abstruseness of his work has been obviated by another author, in a work entitled, “Dr. Brook Taylor’s method of
Perspective made easy, both in theory and practice, &c.
by Joshua Kirby, painter;

” and this publication has continued to be the manual both of artists and dilettanti. Towards the end of 1720, Dr. Taylor visited lord Bolingbroke,
near Orleans, hut returned the next year, and published
his last paper in the Philosophical Transactions, which described, “An Experiment made to ascertain the Proportion of Expansion in the Thermometer, with regard to the
Degree of Heat.

”

It was the effort of a strong mind, and affords a most remarkable example of the close logic of the **mathematician**, applied to metaphysics. The effort, however, was Tain, and

**mathematician**In the interval between 1721 and his death, he appears
to have been in part disabled by ill health, and in part diverted by other objects from severe study. “A Treatise
on Logarithms,

” addressed to his friend lord Paisley, afterwards lord Abercorn, is almost the only fruit of his labour
which has been found to belong to that period; and 'this
has never been published. After the loss of his second
wife, he seems to have endeavoured to divert his mind by
study; and an essay, entitled “Contemplatio Philosophica,

”
printed, but not published, by his grandson, sir William
Young, in 1793, was probably written at this time, and for
this purpose. It was the effort of a strong mind, and affords
a most remarkable example of the close logic of the
**mathematician**, applied to metaphysics. The effort, however, was
Tain, and equally vain were the earnest endeavours of his
friends to amuse and comfort him by social gratifications.
Dr. Taylor is proved by his writings to have been a finished
scholar, and a profound **mathematician**: he is recorded to
have been no less a polished gentleman, and a sound and
serious Christian. It is said of him, that “he inspired partiality on his first address; he gained imperceptibly on acquaintance; and the favourable impressions which he made
from genius and accomplishments, he fixed in further intimacy, by the fundamental qualities of benevolence and
integrity.

” His skill in drawing is also commended in the
highest terms. “He drew figures,

” says his biographer,
“with extraordinary precision and beauty of pencil. Landscape was yet his favourite branch of design. His original
landscapes are mostly painted in water-colours, but with all
the richness and strength of oils. They have a. force of
colour, a freedom of touch, a varied disposition of planes
of distance, and a learned use of aerial as well as linear
perspective, which all professional men who have seen these
paintings have admired. Some pieces are compositions;
some are drawn from nature: and the general characteristic of their effect may be exemplified, by supposing the
bold fore-grounds of Salvator Rosa to be backed by the
ession of distances, and mellowed by the sober harmony which distinguishes the productions of Caspar Poussin. The small figures, interspersed in the landscapes,
would not have disgraced the pencil of the correct and classic Nicolas.

”

, called Tripolites, or of Tripoli, was a celebrated **mathematician**, who flourished, as Saxius seems inclined to think, in the first

**mathematician**, called Tripolites, or of Tripoli, was
a celebrated **mathematician**, who flourished, as Saxius seems
inclined to think, in the first century. He is mentioned
by Suidas, as probably the same with Theodosius, the philosopher of Bythinia, who, Strabo says, excelled in mathematics. He appears to have cultivated chiefly that part of
geometry which relates to the doctrine of the sphere, on
which he wrote three books containing fifty-nine propositions, all demonstrated in the pure geometrical manner
of the ancients, and of which Ptolomy as well as all succeeding writers made great use. These three books were
translated by the Arabians out of the Greek into their own
language, and from the Arabic the work was again translated into Latin, and printed at Venice. But the Arabic
rersion being very defective, a more complete edition was
published in Greek and Latin at Paris, in 1558, by John
Pena (See Pena) professor of astronomy. Theodosius’s
works were also commented upon by others, and lastly by
De Chales, in his “Cursus Mathematicus.

” But that
edition of Theodosius’ s spherics which is now most in use, was
translated and published by our countryman the learned
Dr. Barrow, in 1675, illustrated and demonstrated in anew
and concise method. By this author’s’ account, Theodosius
appears not only to he a great master in this more difficult
part of geometry, but the first considerable author of antiquity who has written on thai subject. Theodosius also
wrote concerning the celestial houses; and of dnys and
nights; copies of which, in Greek, are in the king’s library at Paris, and of which there was a Latin edition, published by Peter Dasypody in 1572.

, of Alexandria, a celebrated Greek philosopher and **mathematician**, flourished in the fourth century, about the year 380, in the

**mathematician**, of Alexandria, a celebrated Greek philosopher and **mathematician**, flourished in the fourth century,
about the year 380, in the time of Theodosius the Great;
but the time and manner of his death are unknown. His
genius and disposition for the study of philosophy were
very early improved by a close application to study; so
that he acquired such a proficiency in the sciences as to
render his name venerable in history; and to procure him
the honour of being president of the famous Alexandrian
school. One of his pupils was the celebrated Hypatia, his
daughter, who succeeded him in the presidency of the
school; a trust, which, like, himself, she discharged with
the greatest honour and usefulness. (See Hypatia.)

, an Italian **mathematician**, was born at Verona, Nov. 4, 1721, and was educated at Padua,

**mathematician**, an Italian **mathematician**, was born
at Verona, Nov. 4, 1721, and was educated at Padua, principally in jurisprudence, in which faculty he took his doctor’s degree, but he did not confine himself to that science.
The knowledge which he acquired was so general, that
upon whatever subject the conversation happened to turn,
he delivered his sentiments upon it as if it had formed the
only object of his study. On his return from the university, he entered on the possession of a considerable fortune, and determined to devote himself entirely to literary
pursuits. The Hebrew, Greek, Latin, and Italian languages occupied much of his time, his object being to understand accurately the two first, and to be able to write
and speak the two last with -propriety and elegance. He
also learned French, Spanish, and English, the last particularly, for he was eager to peruse the best English writers,
and was enabled to enter into their spirit. Ethics, metaphysics, divinity, and history, also shared much of his attention, and he displayed considerable taste in the fine
arts, music, painting, and architecture. Nor did he neglect the study of antiquities, but made himself familiarly
acquainted with coins, gems, medals, engravings, &c.
Scarce any monumental inscriptions were engraved at Verona which he had not either composed or corrected. With
the antiquities of his own country he was so intimately acquainted, that every person of eminence, who visited Verona, took care to have him in their company when they
examined the curiosities of the city.

in general thought incompatible; but Torelli was one of the few who could combine the gravity of the **mathematician** with the amenity of the muses and graces. Of his progress in

**mathematician**But these pursuits he considered merely as amusements;
mathematics and the belles lettres were his serious studies.
These studies are in general thought incompatible; but
Torelli was one of the few who could combine the gravity
of the **mathematician** with the amenity of the muses and
graces. Of his progress in mathematics we have a sufficient proof in his edition of the collected works of Archimedes, printed at Oxford in 1792, folio, Greek and Latin.
The preparation of this work had been the labour of most
part of his life. Having been completely ready for publication, and even the diagrams cut which were to accompany the demonstration, the manuscript was disposed of
after his death to the curators of the Clarendon press, by
whose order it was printed under the immediate care of
Dr. Robertson, the present very learned professor of astronomy. It seems to be the general opinion that there have
been few persons in any country, or in any period of time,
who were better qualified, than Torelli, for preparing a correct edition of Archimedes. As a Greek scholar he was
capable of correcting the mistakes, supplying the defects,
and illustrating the obscure passages that occurred in treatises originally written in the Greek tongue; his knowledge
of Latin, and a facility, acquired by habit, of writing in
this language, rendered him a fit person to translate the
Greek into pure and correct Latin, and his comprehensive
acquaintance with mathematics and philosophy qualified
him for conducting the whole with judgment and accuracy.
Torelli wrote the Italian language with the classic elegance of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, as appears
by his different works in that language, both in prose and
verse. He translated the whole of jtsop’s fables into Latin, and Theocritus, the epithalamium of Catullus, and the
comedy of Plautus, called “Pseudolus,

” into Italian verse.
The first two books of the Æneid were also translated by
him with great exactness, and much in the style of the
original. Among his other Italian tanslations was Gray’s
Elegy.

an illustrious **mathematician** and philosopher of Italy, was born at Faenza, in 1608, and was

**mathematician** an illustrious **mathematician** and philosopher of Italy, was born at Faenza, in 1608,
and was trained in Greek and Latin literature by an uncle
who was a monk, Natural inclination led him to cultivate
mathematical knowledge, which he pursued some time
without a master; but, at about twenty years of age, he
went to Rome, where he continued the pursuit of it under
father Benedict Castelli. Castelli had been a scholar of
the great Galilei, and had been called by pope Urban VIII.
to be a professor of mathematics at Rome. Torricelli
made so extraordinary a progress under this master, that,
having read Galilei’s “Dialogues,

” he composed a “Treatise concerning Motion

” upon his principles. Castelli,
astonished at the performance, carried it and read it to
Galilei, who heard it with much pleasure, and conceived
a high esteem and friendship for the author. Upon this
Castelli proposed to Galilei, that Torricelli should come
and live with him; recommending him as the most proper
person he could have, since he was the most capable of
comprehending those sublime speculations which his own
great age, infirmities, and, above all, want of sight, prevented him from giving to the world. Galilei accepted the
proposal, and Torricelli the employment, as things of all
others the most advantageous to each. Galilei was at Florence, whither Torricelli arrived in 1641, and began to
take down what Galilei dictated, to regulate his papers,
and to act in every respect according to his directions. But
he did not enjoy the advantages of this situation long, for
at the end of three months Galilei died. Torricelli was
then about returning to Rome. But the grand duke Ferdinand II. engaged him to continue at Florence, making
him his own **mathematician** for the present, and promising
him the chair as soon as it should be vacant. Here he applied himself intensely to the study of mathematics, physics, and astronomy, making many improvements and some
discoveries. Among others, he greatly improved the art
of making microscopes and telescopes; and it is generally
acknowledged that he first found out the method of ascertaining the weight of the atmosphere by a proportionate
column of quicksilver, the barometer being called from him
the Torricellian tube, and Torricellian experiment. In
short, great things were expected from him, and great
things would probably have been farther performed by him
if he had lived; but he died, after a few days illness, in
1647, when he was but just entered the fortieth year of his
age.

, an ingenious **mathematician**, lord of Killingswald and of Stolzenberg in Lusatia, was born

**mathematician**, an ingenious **mathematician**, lord of Killingswald and of Stolzenberg in Lusatia, was born April 10, 1651.After having
served as a volunteer in the army of Holland in 1672,
be travelled into most parts of Europe, as England,
Germany, Italy, France, &c. He went to Paris for the
third time in 1682; where he communicated to the Academy of Sciences, the discovery of the curves called from
him Tschirnhausen’s Caustics; and the academy in consequence elected the inventor one of its foreign members.
On returning to Italy, he was desirous of perfecting the
science of optics; for which purpose he established two
glass-works, from whence resulted many new improvements in dioptrics and physics, particularly the noted
burning-glass which he presented to the regent. It was to
him too that Saxony owed its porcelain manufactory.

d the spelling of the name) of Bradbourn in Kent. Another brother, John, was a physician, and a good **mathematician**, and wrote on both sciences.

**mathematician**, the second baronet of the family, of Roydon hall, East Peckham, in Kent, was born in
1597. His father, William Twysden, esq. was one of those
who conducted king James to London, when he first came
from Scotland, to take possession of the English crown,
and was first knighted and afterwards created a baronet by
his majesty. Sir William had a learned education, understood Greek and Hebrew well, and accumulated a valuable
collection of books and Mss. which he made useful to the
public, both in defence of the protestant religion and the
ancient constitutions of the kingdom. He died in January
1627-8. Sir Roger, his eldest son, had also a learned education, and was a good antiquary. He assisted Mr. Philpot
in his Survey of Kent, who returns him acknowledgments,
as a person to whom, “for his learned conduct of these his
imperfect labours, through the gloomy and perplexed paths
of antiquity, and the many difficulties that assaulted him,
he was signally obliged.

” He was a man of great
accomplishments, well versed in the learned languages, and exemplary in his attachment to the church of England. He
made many important additions to his father’s library, which
seems seldom to have been unemployed by his family or his
descendants. His brother, Thomas, was brought up to the
profession of the law, and became one of the justices of the
King’s Bench after the restoration, and was created a baronet, by which he became the founder of the family of
Twisdens (for he altered the spelling of the name) of Bradbourn in Kent. Another brother, John, was a physician,
and a good **mathematician**, and wrote on both sciences.

, was an eminent **mathematician** irt Italy, in the end of the sixteenth and early part of the

**mathematician**, was an eminent **mathematician** irt
Italy, in the end of the sixteenth and early part of the
seventeenth century, but no particulars are known of his
life, nor when he died. The following occur in catalogues
as his works: 1. “Mechanica,

” Pis. Pianisphaeriorum universalium Theorica,

”
Pis. Paraphrasis in
ArchimedisSquiponderantia,

” Pis. ibid. 1600, fol. 5.

” Problemata Astronomica,“Ven. 1609, fol. 6.

” De Cochlaea," ibid. 1615, fol.

, a celebrated Spanish **mathematician**, and a commander of the order of St. Jago, was born at Seville

**mathematician**, a celebrated Spanish **mathematician**, and a commander of the order of St. Jago, was
born at Seville Jan. 12, 1716. He was brought up in the
service of the royal marines, in which he at length obtained
the rank of lieutenant-general. In 1735 he was appointed,
with Don George Juan, to sail to South America, and accompany the French academicians who were going to Peru
to measure a degree of the meridian. On his return home
in 1745, in a French ship, he was taken by two English
vessels, and after being detained some time at Louisbourg
in Cape Breton, was brought to England, where his talents
recommended him to Martin Folkes, president of the Royal
Society, and he was the same year elected a member of that
learned body. On his return to Madrid he published his
“Voyage to South America,

” which was afterwards translated into German and French. There is also an English
translation, in two vols. 8vo, 1758, but miserably garbled
and inaccurate. In 1755 he made a second voyage to
America, where he collected materials for another work,
which however did not appear until 1772, under the title of
“Entretenimientos Physico-historicos.

” He travelled afterwards over a considerable part of Europe to collect information respecting such improvements in arts and manufactures as might be serviceable to Spain, and was the means
of introducing many which had not before been known in
Spain, or very imperfectly carried on. He died on July 5,
1795. There are a few of his papers in the “Philosophical
Transactions.

”

, a celebrated French **mathematician** and priest, was born at Caen in 1654. He was the son of an architect

**mathematician**, a celebrated French **mathematician** and priest, was born at Caen in 1654. He was the
son of an architect in middling circumstances, but had a
college education, being intended for the church. Having
accidentally met with a copy of Euclid’s Elements, he was
inclined to study it, and this led him to the works of Des
Cartes, which confirmed his taste for geometry, and he
even abridged himself of the necessaries of life to purchase
books which treated on this science. What contributed to
heighten this passion in him was, that he studied in private:
for his relations observing that the books he studied were
not such as were commonly used by others, strongly opposed his application to them; and as there was a necessity
for his being an ecclesiastic, he continued his theological studies, yet not entirely sacrificing his favourite subject to them.
At this time the Abbé St. Pierre, who studied philosophy in the same college, became acquainted with him. A
taste in common for rational subjects, whether physics or
metaphysics, and continued disputations, formed the bonds
of their friendship, and they became mutually serviceable
to each other in their studies. The abbe, to enjoy Varignon’s company with greater ease, lodged in the same
house with him; and being in time more sensible of his
merit, he resolved to give him a fortune, that he might
fully pursue his inclination. Out of only 18 hundred livres
a year, which he had himself, he conferred 300 of them
upon Varignon; and when determined to go to Paris to
study philosophy, he settled there in 1686, with M. Varignon, in the suburbs of St. Jacques. There each studied
in his own way; the abbé applying himself to the study of
men, manners, and the principles of government whilst
Varignon was wholly occupied with the mathematics. Fontenelie, who was their countryman, often went to see
them, sometimes spending two or three days with them.
They had also room for a couple of visitors, who came
from the same province. “We joined together,

” says
Fontenelle, “with the greatest pleasure. We were young,
full of the first ardour for knowledge, strongly united, and,
what we were not then perhaps disposed to think so great
a happiness, little known. Varignon, who had a strong
constitution, at least in his youth, spent whole days in
study, without any amusement or recreation, except walking sometimes in fine weather. I' have heard him say,
that in studying after supper, as he usually did, he was
often surprised to hear the clock strike two in the morning;
and was much pleased that four hours rest were sufficient
to refresh him. He did not leave his studies with that
heaviness which they usually create; nor with that weariness that a long application might occasion. He left off
gay and lively, filled with pleasure, and impatient to renew it. In speaking of mathematics, he would laugh so
freely, that it seemed as if he had studied for diversion.
No condition was so much to be envied as his; his life was
a continual enjoyment, delighting in quietness.

”
In the solitary suburb of St. Jacques, he formed however
a connection with many other learned men; as Du Hamel,
Du Verney, De la Hire, &c. Du Verney often asked his
assistance in those parts of anatomy connected with mechanics: they examined together the positions of the muscles, and their directions; hence Varignon learned a good
deal of anatomy from Du Verney, which he repaid by the
application of mathematical reasoning to that subject. At
length, in 1687, Varignon made himself known to the public by a “Treatise on New Mechanics,

” dedicated to the
Academy of Sciences. His thoughts on this subject were,
in effect, quite new. He discovered truths, and laid open
their sources. In this work, he demonstrated the necessity
of an equilibrium, in such cases as it happens in, though
the cause of it is not exactly known. This discovery Varignon made by the theory of compound motions, and his
treatise was greatly admired by the mathematicians, and
procured the author two considerable places, the one of
geometrician in the Academy of Sciences, the other of
professor of mathematics in the college of Mazarine, to
which he was the first person raised.

of acquiring knowledge from, every quarter. This historical knowledge is doubtless an ornament in a **mathematician**; but it is an ornament which, is by no means without its utilityThough

**mathematician**As soon as the science of Infinitesimals appeared in the
world, Varignon became one of its most early cultivators.
When that sublime and beautiful method was attacked in
the academy itself (for it could not escape the fate of all innovations) he became one of its most zealous defenders,
and in its favour he put a violence upon his natural character, which abhorred all contention. He sometimes lamented, that this dispute had interrupted him in his inquiries into the Integral Calculation so far, that it would be
difficult for him to resume his disquisition where he had
left it off. He therefore sacrificed Infinitesimals to the
Interest of Infinitesimals, and gave up the pleasure and
glory of making a farther progress in them when called
upon by duty to undertake their defence. All the printed
volumes of the Academy bear witness to his application and
industry. His works are never detached pieces, but complete theories of the laws of motion, central forces, and
the resistance of mediums to motion. In these he makes
such use of his rules, that nothing escapes him that has
any connection with the subject he treats. In all his works
he makes it his chief care to place every thing in the
clearest light; he never consults his ease by declining to
take the trouble of being methodical, a trouble much
greater than that of composition itself; nor does he endeavour to acquire a reputation for profoundness, by leaving
a great deal to be guessed by the reader. He learned the
history of mathematics, not merely out of curiosity, but
because he was desirous of acquiring knowledge from, every
quarter. This historical knowledge is doubtless an ornament in a **mathematician**; but it is an ornament which, is
by no means without its utilityThough Varignon’s constitution did not seem easy to be
impaired, assiduity and constant application brought upon
him a severe disease in 1705. He was six months in clanger, and three years in a languid state, which proceeded
from his spirits being almost entirely exhausted. He said
that sometimes when delirious with a fever, he thought
himself in the midst of a forest, where all the leaves of the
trees were covered with algebraical calculations. Condemned by his physicians, his friends, and himself, to lay
aside all study, he could not, when alone in his chamber,
avoid taking up a book of mathematics, which he bid as
soon as he heard any person coming, and again resumed
the attitude and behaviour of a sick man, which unfortunately he seldom had occasion to counterfeit.

ction entitled “Pieces fugitives sur I'Eucharistie,” published in 1730; an extraordinary thing for a **mathematician** to undertake to demonstrate; which he does, as may be expected,

**mathematician**His works that were published separately, were,
1. “Projet d'une Nouvelle Mechanique,

” Paris, Dcs Nouvelles conjectures sur la Pesanteur.
3. <c Nouvelle Mechanique ou Statique,

” 1725, 2 vols. 4to.
4. “UnTraite du Mouvement et de laMesure des Eaux Courantes, &c.

” Eclaircissement sur l'Analyse
des Infiniment-petits,

” 4to. 6. “De Cahiers de Matheraatiques, ou Elemens de iVlathematiques,

” Une
Demonstration de la possibilit6 de la presence reelle du Corps
de Jesus Christ dans PEucbariste,

” printed in a collection
entitled “Pieces fugitives sur I'Eucharistie,

” published in
**mathematician** to undertake to demonstrate; which he does, as may be expected, not mathematically but sophistically. His “Mamoirs

” in the volumes of the Academy of Sciences are extremely numerous, and extend through almost all the, volumes down to the time of his death in 1722.

school at Hull; and of the rev. Thomas Robinson’s and the rev. William Ludlam’s, the last an eminent **mathematician** at Leicester. He was admitted a member of Sidney Sussex college,

**mathematician**His son, John, whom we have mentioned as the late
rector of Clapham, was born in that parish March 9, 1759,
and received the early part of his education under Mr. Shute
at Leeds. He was then removed to Hippasholme school,
where he was well grounded in classics by the care of Mr.
Sutcliffe. He had afterwards the benefit of the rev. Joseph Milner’s instruction at the grammar-school at Hull;
and of the rev. Thomas Robinson’s and the rev. William
Ludlam’s, the last an eminent **mathematician** at Leicester.
He was admitted a member of Sidney Sussex college, Cambridge, where he took the degree of A. B. in 1781. In
September 1782, he was ordained deacon, as curate to his
father; he entered into priest’s orders in March 1783, and
two days afterwards was instituted to the living of little
Dunham, in Norfolk. In Oct. 1789, he married Miss Catherine King, of Hull, who died April 15, 1803, leaving a
family of seven children. In June 1792, on the death of
sir James Stonehouse (predecessor in the baronetcy to the sir James Stonehouse recorded in our vol. XXVIII.) he
was instituted to the rectory of Clapham. In August Is 12,
he married Miss Turton, daughter of John Turton, esq. of
Clapham, and resided at this place from the beginning of
1793, to the day of his death, July 1, 1813, aged fifty-four.
Mr. Venn never appeared in the character of an author, nor
prepared any sermons for the press; but two volumes have
since been published, selected from his manuscripts, and
may be considered “as a fair exhibition of his manner,
sentiments, and doctrine.

” They are more polished in
style than his father’s, but there is a perceptible difference
in their opinions on some points, the father being a more
decided Calvinist. Prefixed to these sermons, is a brief
account of the author, from which we have extracted the
above particulars.

, a very celebrated French **mathematician**, was born in 1540, at Fontenai, or Fontenai-le-Comte, in Lower

**mathematician**, a very celebrated French **mathematician**, was born in 1540, at Fontenai, or Fontenai-le-Comte, in Lower Poitou, a province of France. He was
master of requests at Paris, where he died in 1603, in the
sixty-third year of his age. Among other branches of
learning in which he excelled, he was one of the most respectable mathematicians of the sixteenth century, or indeed
of any age. His writings abound with marks of great originality and genius, as well as intense application. His application was such, that he has sometimes remained in his
study for three days together, without eating or sleeping.
His inventions and improvements in all parts of the mathematics were very considerable. He was in a manner
the inventor and introducer of Specious Algebra, in which
letters are used instead of numbers, as well as of many
beautiful theorems in that science. He made also corir
siderable improvements in geometry and trigonometry.
His angular sections are a very ingenious and masterly
performance: by these he was enabled to resolve the problem of Adrian Roman, proposed to all mathematicians,
amounting to an equation of the 45th degree. Romanus
was so struck with his sagacity, that he immediately quitted
his residence of Wirtzbourg in Franconia, and came to
France to visit him, and solicit his friendship. His “Apollonius Gallus,

” being a restoration of Apollonius’s tract
on Tangencies, and many other geometrical pieces to be
found in his works, shew the finest taste and genius for
true geometrical speculations. He gave some masterly
tracts on Trigonometry, both plane and spherical, which
may be found in the collection of his works, published
at Leyden in 1646, by Schooten, besides another large
and separate volume in folio, published in the author’s
life-time at Paris 1579, containing extensive trigonometrical tables, with the construction aad use of the same,
which are particularly described in the introduction to Dr.
Hutton’s Logarithms, p. 4, &c. To this complete treatise on Trigonometry, plane and spherical, are subjoined
several miscellaneous problems and observations, such as,
the quadrature of the circle, the duplication of the cube, &c.
Vieta having observed that there were many faults in
the Gregorian Calendar, as it then existed, he composed
a new form of it, to which he added perpetual canons, and an explication of it, with remarks and objections against Clavius, whom he accused of having deformed the true Lelian reformation, by not rightly understanding it. Besides those, it seems, a work greatly
esteemed, and the loss of which cannot be sufficiently deplored, was his “Harmonicon Cceleste,

” which, being
communicated to father Mersenne, was, by some perfidious acquaintance of that honest-minded person, surreptitiously taken from him, and irrecoverably lost, or suppressed, to the great detriment of the learned world.
There were also, it is said, other works of an astronomical kind, that have been buried in the ruins of time, Vieta
was also a profound decypherer, an accomplishment that
proved very useful to his country. As the different
parts of the Spanish monarchy lay very distant from one
another, when they had occasion to communicate any secret designs, they wrote them in cyphers and unknown
characters, during the disorders of the league: the cypher was composed of more than five hundred different
Characters, which yielded their hidden contents to the
penetrating genius of Vieta alone. His skill so disconcerted the Spanish councils for two years, that they reported at Rome, and other parts of Europe, that the
French king had only discovered their cyphers by means
of magic.

, or Vitello, a Polish **mathematician** of the 13th century, flourished about 1254. We have of his a

**mathematician**, or Vitello, a Polish **mathematician** of the
13th century, flourished about 1254. We have of his a
large “Treatise on Optics,

” the best edition of which is
that of

, a celebrated Italian **mathematician**, was born at Florence in 1621, or, according to some, in 1622.

**mathematician**, a celebrated Italian **mathematician**, was born at Florence in 1621, or, according to
some, in 1622. He was a disciple of the illustrious Galileo, and lived with him from the seventeenth to the twentieth year of his age. After the death of his great master
he passed two or three years more in prosecuting geometrical studies without interruption, and in this time it was
that he formed the design of his Restoration of Aristeus.
This ancient geometrician, who was contemporary with
Euclid, had composed five books of problems “De Locis
Solidis,

” the bare propositions of which were collected by
Pappus, but the books are entirely lost; which Viviani undertook to restore by the force of his genius. He discontinued his labour, however, in order to apply himself to
another of the same kind, which was, to restore the fifth
book of Apollonius’s Conic Sections. While he was engaged in this, the famous Borelli found, in the library of
the grand duke of Tuscany, an Arabic manuscript, with a
Latin inscription, which imported, that it contained the
eight books of Apollonius’s Conic Sections; of which the
eighth however was not found to be there. He carried this
manuscript to Rome, in order to translate it, with the assistance of a professor of the Oriental languages. Viviani,
very unwilling to lose the fruits of his labours, procured a
certificate that he did not understand the Arabic language,
and knew nothing of that manuscript: he was so jealous on
this head, that he would not even suffer Borelli to send
him an account of any thing relating to it. At length he
finished his book, and published it 1659, in folio, with
this title, “De Maximis et Minimis Geometrica Divinatio
in quintum Conicorum Apollonii Fergsei.

” It was found
that he had more than divined; as he seemed superior to
Apollonius himself. After this he was obliged to interrupt
his studies for the service of his prince, in an affair of great
importance, which was, to prevent the inundations of the
Tiber, in which Cassini and he were employed for some time,
though nothing was entirely executed.

his master entrusted to him. In 1666, he was honoured by the grand duke with the title of his first **mathematician**. He resolved three problems, which had been proposed to all

**mathematician**In 1664, he had the honour of a pension from LouisXIV.
a prince to whom he was not subject, nor could be useful.
In consequence, he resolved to finish his Divination upon
Aristeus, with a view to dedicate it to that prince; but he
was interrupted in this task again by public works, and some
negotiations which his master entrusted to him. In 1666,
he was honoured by the grand duke with the title of his
first **mathematician**. He resolved three problems, which
had been proposed to all the mathematicians of Europe,
and dedicated the work to the memory of Mr. Chapelain,
under the title of “Enodatio Problematum,

” c. He
proposed the problem of the quadrable arc, of which Leibnitz and l'Hospital gave solutions by the Calculus Differentialis. In 1669, he was chosen to fill, in the Royal
Academy of Sciences, a place among the eight foreign associates. This new favour reanimated his zeal; and he
published three books of his Divination upon Aristeus, at
Florence in 1701, which he dedicated to the king of France.
It is a thin folio, entitled “De Locis Solidis secunda Divinatio Geometrica,

” &c. This was a second edition enlarged; the first having been printed at Florence in 1673.
Viviani laid out the fortune which he had raised by the
bounties of his prince, in building a magnificent house at
Florence; in which he placed a bust of Galileo, with
several inscriptions in honour of that great man; and died
in 1703, at eighty-one years of age.

, a **mathematician** and astronomer of great talents, was born about 1734, and rose

**mathematician**, a **mathematician** and astronomer
of great talents, was born about 1734, and rose from a
low situation, little connected with learning, to some of
the first ranks in literary pursuits. His early labours contributed to the “Ladies Diary,

” a useful little work which
has formed many eminent mathematicians. In 1761) he
was deemed a fit person to be sent to Hudson’s Bay to observe the transit of Venus over the sun; and the manner hi
which he discharged that trust did honour to his talents.

, an able **mathematician**, was born about 1735 at Newcastle upon Tyne, and descended from

**mathematician**, an able **mathematician**, was born
about 1735 at Newcastle upon Tyne, and descended from
a family of considerable antiquity. He received the rudiments of his education at the grammar-school of Newcastle
under the care of the rev. Dr. Moises, a clergyman of the
church of England. At the age of ten he was removed
from Newcastle to Durham, that he might be under the
immediate direction of his uncle, a dissenting minister; and
having decided in favour of the ministry among the dissenters, he was in 1749 sent to one of their academies at Kendal. In 1751 he studied mathematics at Edinburgh under
the tuition of Dr. Matthew Stewart, and made a very great
progress in that science. In 1752 he studied theology for
two years at Glasgow. Returning home, he began to
preach, and in 1757 was ordained minister of a congregation of dissenters at Durham. While here he was a frequent contributor to the “Ladies’ Diary,

” in which, as we
have recently had occasion to notice, most of the mathematicians of the last and present age, tried their skill; and
here also he finished his valuable work on the sphere, which
was not, however, published until 1775, when it appeared
under the title of the “Doctrine of the Sphere,

” in 4to.
In the end of Essays
on Various Subjects,

” published in Sermons

” have also been published, which probably were
suited to the congregations over which he presided, but
contain but a very small portion of doctrinal matter, and
that chiefly of what is called the liberal and rational kind.

, an eminent English **mathematician**, was born Nov. 2S, 1616, at Ashford in Kent, of which place

**mathematician**, an eminent English **mathematician**,
was born Nov. 2S, 1616, at Ashford in Kent, of which
place his father of the same names was then minister, but
did not survive the birth of this his eldest son above six
years. He was now left to the care of his mother, who
purchased a house at Ashford for the sake of the education
of her children, and placed him at school there, until the
plague, which broke out in 1625, obliged her to remove
him to Ley Green, in the parish of Tenterden, under the
tuition of one James Movat or Mouat, a native of Scotland, who instructed him in grammar. Mr. Movat, says
Dr. Wallis, “was a very good schoolmaster, and his
scholar I continued for divers years, and was by him well
grounded in the technical part of grammar, so as to understand the rules and the grounds and reasons of such rules,
with the use of them in such authors, as are usually read
in grammar schools: for it was always my affectation even
from a child, in all parts of learning or knowledge, not
merely to learn by rote, which is soon forgotten, but to
know the grounds or reasons of what I learn, to inform my
judgment as well as furnish my memory, and thereby make
a better impression on both.

” In 1630 he lost this instructor, who was engaged to attend two young gentlemen
on their travels, and would gladly have taken his pupil
Wallis with them; but his mother not consenting on account
of his youth, he was sent to Felsted school in Essex, of
which the learned Mr. Martin Holbeach was then master.
During the Christmas holidays in 1631, he went home to
his mother at Ashford, where finding that one of his brothers had been learning to cypher, he was inquisitive to
know what that meant, and applying diligently was enabled to go through all the rules with success, and prosecuted this study at spare hours on his return to Felsted,
where also he was instructed in the Latin, Greek, and Hebrew tongues, and in the rudiments of logic, music, and
the French language.

; and soon after, in the same year, he published that treatise in 4to, dedicated to the same eminent **mathematician**. To this he prefixed a treatise on conic sections, which he

**mathematician**Notwithstanding this opposition to the ruling powers,
he was in June following appointed by the parliamentary
visitors, Savilian professor of geometry at Oxford, in room
of Dr. Peter Turner, who was ejected; and now quitting
his church, he went to that university, entered of Exeter
college, and was incorporated master of arts. Acceptable
as this preferment was, he was not an inattentive observer
of the theological disputes of the time; and when Baxter published his “Aphorisms of Justification and the Covenant,

”
our author published some animadversions on them, which
Baxter acknowledged were very judicious and moderate.
Before the end of this year, Wallis, in perusing the mathematical works of Torricelli, was particularly struck with
what. he found there of Cavalleri’s method of indivisibles,
this being the first time he had heard or seen any thing of
that method, and conceived hopes of attaining by it some
assistance in the problem concerning the quadrature of the
circle. He accordingly spent a very considerable time in
studying it, but found some insuperable difficulties, which,
with what he had accomplished, he communicated to Mr.
Seth Ward, then Savilian professor of astronomy, Rook,
professor of astronomy at Gresham college, and Christopher Wren, then fellow of All Souls, and several other
eminent mathematicians at that time in Oxford, but not
meeting with the assistance he wished, he desisted from
the farther pursuit.
In 1653, he published a grammar of the English tongue,
for the use of foreigners in Latin, under this title: “Grammatica Linguse Anglicanae, cum Tractatu de Loquela seu
Sonorum Formatione,

” in 8vo. In the piece “De Loquela,

” &c. he tells us, that “he has philosophically considered the formation of all sounds used in articulate speech,
as well of our own as of any other language that he knew;
by what organs, and in what position, each sound was
formed; with the nice distinctions of each, which in some
letters of the same organ are very subtle: so that by such
organs, in such position, the breath issuing from the lungs
will form such sounds, whether the person do or do not
hear himself speak.

” This we shall find he afterwards
endeavoured to turn to an important practical use. In
1654, he was admitted to the degree of D.D. after performing the regular exercise, which he printed afterwards,
and in August of that year, made some observations on the
solar eclipse, which happened about that time. About
Easter, 1655, the proposition in his “Arithmetica Infinitorum,

” containing the quadrature of the circle, being
printed, he sent it to Mr. Oughtred; and soon after, in the
same year, he published that treatise in 4to, dedicated to
the same eminent **mathematician**. To this he prefixed a
treatise on conic sections, which he sdtin a new light, considering them as absolute planes, constituted of an infinite
number of parallelograms, without any relation to the cone,
and demonstrated their properties from his new method of
infinites.

entlemen acknowledged the sufficiency of Wallis’ s solution, with the encomium of being the greatest **mathematician** in Europe. Wallis, however, having heard that Frenicle was about

**mathematician**In 1656 he published a work on the angle of contact, in
which he exposes the opinion of Peletarius. In the foU
lowing year, having completed his plan of lectures, he
published the whole, in two parts, under the title of “Mathesis Universalis, sive Opus Arithmeticum.

” While this
was in the press, he' received a challenge from Mr. Fermat
of Toulouse, which engaged him in an epistolary dispute
with that gentleman, as well as- with Mr. Frenicle of Paris.
The problem was “Invenire cubum, qui additis omnibus
suis partibus aliquotis confieiat quadratum.

” This challenge had been sent by Fermat to Frenicle, Schooten, and
Huygens. Dr. Wallis sent a solution of it before the end
of March, which being objected to both by Frenicle and
Fermat, occasioned a dispute which was carried on this
year and part of the next, after which both these gentlemen acknowledged the sufficiency of Wallis’ s solution,
with the encomium of being the greatest **mathematician**
in Europe. Wallis, however, having heard that Frenicle
was about to publish the correspondence, and being, from
some circumstances in his conduct, a little suspicious of
misrepresentation, requested sir Kenelm Digby, then at
Paris, through whose hands the whole had passed, to give
his consent to the publication of it by the doctor himself,
which being readily granted, it appeared in 1658, under
the title of “Commercium Epistolicum.

”

dge, he resided some time with Dr, Ward’s relations in and about London, and at other times with the **mathematician** Oughtred, at Albury, in Surrey, with whom he had cultivated

**mathematician**The civil war breaking out, Ward was involved not a
little in the consequences of it. His good master and patron, Dr. Samuel Ward, was in 1643 imprisoned in St>
John’s college, which was then made a gaol by the parliament-forces; and Ward, thinking that gratitude obliged
him to attend him, continued with him to his death, which
happened soon after. He was also himself ejected from
his fellowship for refusing the covenant; against which
he soon after joined with Mr. Peter Gunning, Mr. John
Barwick, Mr. Isaac Barrow, afterwards bishop of St.
Asaph, and others in drawing up a treatise, which was
afterwards printed. Being now obliged to leave Cambridge, he resided some time with Dr, Ward’s relations in
and about London, and at other times with the **mathematician** Oughtred, at Albury, in Surrey, with whom he had
cultivated an acquaintance, and under whom he prosecuted his mathematical studies. He was invited likewise
by the earl of Carlisle and other persons of quality, to reside in their families, with offers of large pensions, but
preferred the house of his friend Ralph Freeman, at Aspenden in Hertfordshire, esq. whose sons he instructed,
and with whom he continued for the most part till 1649,
and then he resided some months with lord Wen man, of
Thame Park in Oxfordshire.

y, 1646; and in the British Museum some recommendatory letters from him in favour of Mr. Colfins the **mathematician** which are published in Birch’s” 'History of the Royal Society;“and

**mathematician**Dr. Smith, the learned editor of sir Peter Warwick’s
“Discourse of Government,

” says, “That the author was
a gentleman of sincere piety, of strict morals, of a great
and vast understanding, and of a very solid judgment;
and that, after his retiring into the country, he addicted
himself to reading, study, and meditation; and, being
very assiduous in his contemplations, he wrote a great deal
on various subjects, his genius not being confined to any
one particular study and learning.

” What we have, however, of his in print is, “A Discourse of Government, as
examined by reason, scripture, and the law of the land,
written in 1678,

” and published by Dr. Thomas Smith in
adorned with a head of the author after Lely, engraved by
White, and taken at a later period of his life than that
which appeared in the

” Gentleman’s Magazine“for Sept.
1790. The Memoirs were published in 1701, 8vo; and
to which is not unfrequently added his

” Discourse on Government,“before mentioned. This History, with several
others of the time of Charles I. have this peculiar merit,
that the authors of them were both actors and sufferers in
the interesting scenes which they describe. Our author is
justly allowed to be exceeded by none of them in candour
and integrity. There is likewise ascribed to our author

” A Letter to Mr. Lenthal, shewing that Peace is better
than War,“small 8vo, of 10 pages, published anonymously,
1646; and in the British Museum some recommendatory
letters from him in favour of Mr. Colfins the

” 'History of the
Royal Society;“**mathematician** which are published in Birch’sand in the Life of Collins, in the newedition of the

” Biographia Britannica."

at Woolwich; and he soon after obtained a commission in the corps of engineers. Under the celebrated **mathematician**, Thomas Simpson, Watson prosecuted his studies at Woolwich,

**mathematician**, a gallant officer and able engineer, was the son of a grazier, who lived at Holbeach,
in Lincolnshire, where he was born about 1737, and educated at Gosberton school. Here his genius for the mathematics soon discovered itself, and in 1753 he was a frequent contributor to the “Ladies Diary.

” About this time
his abilities became known to Mr. Whichcot, of HarpsweJJ,
then one of the members of parliament for Lincolnshire,
who introduced him to the royal academy at Woolwich;
and he soon after obtained a commission in the corps of
engineers. Under the celebrated **mathematician**, Thomas
Simpson, Watson prosecuted his studies at Woolwich, and
continued to write for the “Ladies Diary,

” of which Simpson was at that time the editor. Such was Simpson’s
opinion of Watson’s abilities, that at his decease he left
him his unfinished mathematical papers, with a request
that he would revise them, and make what alterations and
additions he might think necessary; but of this privilege
it seems to be doubted whether he made the best use.
(See Simpson, p. 20.)

ne, benevolent, and the friend of indigent genius. When Mr. Rollinson, a man of great abilities as a **mathematician**, conducted the Ladies Diary, after the death of Mr. Simpson,

**mathematician**The colonel’s genius was formed for great undertakings.
He was judicious in planning, cool and intrepid in action,
and undismayed in danger. He studied mankind, and was
a good politician. Few, perhaps, better understood the
interests of the several nations of Europe and the East.
He was humane, benevolent, and the friend of indigent
genius. When Mr. Rollinson, a man of great abilities as
a **mathematician**, conducted the Ladies Diary, after the
death of Mr. Simpson, and was barely existing on the pittance allowed him by the proprietors, the colonel sought
and found him in an obscure lodging, and generously relieved his necessities, though a stranger to his person.
This the old man related while the tears of gratitude stole
down his cheeks. He survived the colonel’s bounty but a
short time.

degree of M. A. as a member of Edmund-hall, “being then esteemed a good philosopher and a tolerable **mathematician**.” He afterwards entered into holy orders, and was chosen lecturer

**mathematician**, an eminent puritan divine, was
born at Banbury in Oxfordshire, in May 1583, where his
father, Thomas Whately, was justice of the peace, and had
been several times mayor. He was educated at Christ’scollege, Cambridge, under the tuition of Mr. Potman, a
man of learning and piety, and was a constant hearer of
Dr. Chaderton, Perkins, and other preachers of the Puritan-stamp. It does not appear that he was originally destined for the church, as it was not until after his marriage
with the daughter of the Rev. George Hunt that he was
persuaded to study for that purpose, at Edmund -hall,
Oxford. Here he was incorporated bachelor of arts, and,
according to Wood, with the foundation of logic, philosophy, and oratory, that he had brought with him from Cambridge, he became a noted disputant and a ready orator.
In 1604, he took his degree of M. A. as a member of
Edmund-hall, “being then esteemed a good philosopher
and a tolerable

” He afterwards entered
into holy orders, and was chosen lecturer of Banbury, his
native place. In 1610, he was presented by king James
to the vicarage of Banbury, which he enjoyed until his
death. He also, with some of his brethren, delivered a
lecture, alternately at Stratford-upon-Avon. In his whole
conduct, Mr. Leigh says, he “**mathematician**.was blameless, sober, just, holy,
temperate, of good behaviour, given to hospitality

”,&c.
Fuller calls him “a good linguist, philosopher,

” and adds, that he “**mathematician**, and divine;was free from
faction?' Wood, who allows that he possessed excellent
parts, was a noted disputant, an excellent preacher, a
good orator, and well versed in the original text, both
Greek and Hebrew, objects, nevertheless, that,

” being a
zealous Calvinist, a noted puritan, and much frequented
by the precise party, for his too frequent preaching, he
laid such a foundation of faction at Banbury, as will not
easily be removed.“Granger, who seems to have considered all these characters with some attention, says,
that

” his piety was of a very extraordinary strain; and his
reputation as a preacher so great, that numbers of different
persuasions went from Oxford, and other distant places,
to hear him. As he ever appeared to speak from his heart,
his sermons were felt as well as heard, and were attended
with suitable effects.“In the life of Mede, we have aa
anecdote of him, which gives a very favourable idea of his
character. Having, in a sermon, warmly recommended his
hearers to put in a purse by itself a certain portion from
every pound of the profits of their worldly trades, for
works of piety, he observed, that instead of secret grudging, when objects of charity were presented, they would
look out for them, and rejoice to find them. A neighbouring clergyman hearing him, and being deeply affected
with what he so forcibly recommended, consulted him as to
what proportion of his income he ought to give.

” As to
that,“said Whately,

” lam not to prescribe to others;
but I will tell you what hath been my own practice. You
know, sir, some years ago, I was often beholden to you
for the loan of ten pounds at a time; the truth is, I could
not bring the year about, though my receipts were not
despicable, and I was not at all conscious of any unnecessary expenses. At length, I inquired of my family
what relief was given to the poor; and not being satisfied,
I instantly resolved to lay aside every tenth shilling of all
my receipts for charitable uses; and the Lord has made
me so to thrive since I adopted this method, that now, if
you have occasion, I can lend you ten times as much as I
have formerly been forced to borrow."

e principal, he was accommodated with lodgings; and there contracted an intimacy with the celebrated **mathematician**, Thomas Allen, by whose interest Camden made him the first reader

**mathematician**, Camdenian professor of history
at Oxford, was born at Jacobstow, in Cornwall, 1573, and
admitted of Broadgate-hall in that university. He took
the degrees in arts, that of master being completed in 1600;
and, two years after, was elected fellow of Exeter-college.
Leaving that house in 1608, he travelled beyond the seas
into several countries; and at his return found a patron in
lord Chandois. Upon the death of this nobleman, he retired with his wife to Gloucester-hall in Oxford, where, by
the care and friendship of the principal, he was accommodated with lodgings; and there contracted an intimacy with
the celebrated **mathematician**, Thomas Allen, by whose interest Camden made him the first reader of that lecture
which he had founded in the university. It was thought
no small honour that on this occasion he was preferred to
Bryan Twyne, whom Camden named as his successor, if
he survived him, but Twyne died first. Soon after, he was
made principal of that hall; and this place, with his lecture, he held to the time of -his death, which happened
Aug. 1, 1647. He was buried in the chapel of Exetercollege. Wood tells us, that he was esteemed by some a
learned and genteel man, and by others suspected to be a
Calyinist. He adds, that he left also behind him a widow
and children, who soon after became poor.

, an ingenious **mathematician**, was born in Nottinghamshire, and educated at the Blue Coat

**mathematician**, an ingenious **mathematician**,
was born in Nottinghamshire, and educated at the Blue
Coat school of Nottingham. Of his early history we have
little information, but it appears that he kept an academy
at Bingham, in the above county, for some years, and
afterwards was preferred to the living of Sulney, where he
died at an advanced age, Oct. 30, 1802. In his latter days
he had a remarkably strong and retentive memory, as a
proof of which, he told a friend that he made a common
practice of solving the most abstruse questions in the mathematics without ever committing a single figure, &c. to
paper till finished and, upon its being observed how
much pen and paper might assist him!" he replied, “I
have to thank God for a most retentive memory and so
long as it is enabled to exercise its functions, it shall not
have any assistance from art.” When is mind was occupied in close study, he always walked to and fro in an
obscure part of his garden, where he could neither see nor
be seen of any one, and frequently paced, in this manner,
several miles in a day.

rare gifts he was a noted theologist and preacher, a curious critic in several matters, an excellent **mathematician** and experimentist, and one as well seen in mechanisms and new

**mathematician**, an ingenious and learned English
bishop, was the son of Mr. Walter Wilkins, citizen and
goldsmith of Oxford, and was born in 1614, at Fawsley,
near Daventry, in Northanvptonshire, in the house of his
mother’s father, the celebrated dissenter Mr. John Dod.
He was taught Latin and Greek by Edward Sylvester, a
teacher of much reputation, who kept a private school in
the parish of All-Saints in Oxford and his proficiency
was such, that at thirteen he entered a student of New-innhall, in 1627. He made no long stay there, but was removed to Magdalen-hall, under the tuition of Mr. John
Tombes, and there took the degrees in arts. He afterwards entered into orders; and was first chaplain to William lord Say, and then to Charles count Palatine of the
Khine, and prince elector of the empire, with whom he continued some time. To this last patron, his skill in the mathematics was a very great recommendation. Upon the
breaking out of the civil war, he joined with the parliament,
and took the solemn league and covenant. He was afterwards made warden of Wadham-college by the committee
of parliament, appointed for reforming the university; and,
being created bachelor of divinity the 12th of April, 1648,
was the day following put into possession of his wardenship. Next year he was created D. D. and about that time
took the engagement then enjoined by the powers in being.
In 1656, he married Robina, the widow of Peter French,
formerly canon of Christ-church, and sister to Oliver Cromwell, then lord-protector of England: which marriage being
contrary to the statutes of Wadham-college, because they
prohibit the warden from marrying, he procured a dispensation from Oliver, to retain the wardenship notwithstanding. In 1659, he was by Richard Cromwell made master
of Trinity-college in Cambridge; but ejected thence the
year following upon the restoration. Then he became
preacher to the honourable society of Gray’s-inn, and rector of St. Lawrence-Jewry, London, upon the promotion
Dr. Seth Ward to the bishopric of Exeter. About this
time, he became a member of the Royal Society, was
chosen of their council, and proved one of their most eminent members. Soon after this, he was made dean of Rippon; and, in 1668, bishop of Chester, Dr. Tillotson, who
had married his daughter-in-law, preaching his consecration sermon. Wood and Burnet both inform us, that he
obtained this bishopric by the interest of Villiers duke of
Buckingham; and the latter adds, that it was no stnall prejudice against him to be raised by so bad a man. Dr. Walter Pope observes, that Wilkins, for some time after the
restoration, was out of favour both at Whitehall and Lambeth, on account of his marriage with Oliver Cromwell’s
sister; and that archbishop Sheldon, who then disposed of
almost all ecclesiastical preferments, opposed his
promotion; that, however, when bishop Ward introduced him
afterwards to the archbishop, he was very obligingly received, and treated kindly by him ever after. He did not
enjoy his preferment long; for he died of a suppression of
urine, which was mistaken for the stone, at Dr. Tiilotson’s
house, in Chancery-lane, London, Nov. 19, 1672. He was
buried in the chancel of the church of St. Lawrence Jewry;
and his funeral sermon was preached by Dr. William Lloyd,
then dean of Bangor, who, although Wilkins had been
abused and vilified perhaps beyond any man of his time,
thought it no shame to say every thing that was good of
him. Wood also, different as his complexion and principles were from those of Wilkins, has been candid enough
to give him the following character “He was,

” says he,
“a person endowed with rare gifts he was a noted theologist and preacher, a curious critic in several matters, an
excellent

”
**mathematician** and experimentist, and one as well
seen in mechanisms and new philosophy, of which he was
3 great promoter, as any man of his time. He also highly
advanced the study and perfecting, of astronomy, both at
Oxford while he was warden of Wadham-college, and at
London while he was fellow of the Royal Society; and I
cannot say that there was any thing deficient in him, but a
constant mind and settled principles.

of some other law books, which show equal judgment and industry, but he is now remembered only as a **mathematician**.

**mathematician**His works are, 1. “The use of the proportional Rules
in Arithmetic and Geometry; also the use of Logarithms
of numbers, with those of sines and tangents;

” printed ill
French, at Paris, Description and construction of Logarithms

” was printed at Lyons in Of Natural,
and Artificial Arithmetic, or Arithmetic made easy,

” Lond.
ibid. 1633, 8vo. 4.

” The Construction and use of Logarithms, with the resolution of Triangles, &c.“5.

” Ludus
Mathematicus: or an Explanation of the description, construction, and use of the numerical table of proportion,“ibid. 1654, 8vo. 6.

” Tacto-metria, seu Tetagne-nqme-t
tria, or the Geometry of regulars, &c.“ 8vo. 7.

” The
exact Surveyor of Land, &c.“8vo. 8.

” An exact abridgment of all the statutes in force and use from the Magna
Charta to 1641,“1655, 8vo, reprinted and continued to
1663, 1680, 1681, and 1684. 9.

” The body of the common
law of England,“1655, &c. 8vo. 10.

” Maxims of reason, or the Reason of the Common Law of England,“1658,
fol. 11.

” Statuta Pacis; or, the Table of all the Statutes
which any way concern the office of a justice of peace,
&c." 12mo. 12. An edition of Britton, 1640, 12mo. He
was supposed to be the editor of some other law books,
which show equal judgment and industry, but he is now
remembered only as a **mathematician**.

, a good astronomer and **mathematician**, was born in 1728. He was maternally descended from the celebrated

**mathematician**, a good astronomer and **mathematician**, was born in 1728. He was maternally descended from the celebrated clock and watchmaker, Daniel
Quare, in which business he was himself brotignt up, and
was educated in the principles of the Quakers, all his progenitors for many generations having been of that community, whose simplicity of manners he practised through
life. It appears that he cultivated the study of astronomy
at a very early age, as he had a communication on that
subject in the “Gentleman’s Diary

” for

, a learned and illustrious English architect and **mathematician**, was nephew to bishop Wren, and the son of Dr. Christopher Wren,

**mathematician**, a learned and illustrious English architect and **mathematician**, was nephew to bishop
Wren, and the son of Dr. Christopher Wren, who was fellow of St. John’s college, Oxford, afterwards chaplain to
Charles I. and rector of Knoyle in Wiltshire; made dean
of Windsor in 1635, and presented to the rectory of
Hasely in Oxfordshire in 1638; and died at Blechindon,
in the same county, 1658, at the house of Mr. William
Holder, rector of that parish, who had married his daughter. He was a man well skilled in all the branches of the
mathematics, and had a great hand in forming the genius
of his only son Christopher.' In the state papers of Edward, earl of Clarendon, vol.1, p. 270, is an estimate of a
building to be erected for her majesty by dean Wren. He
did another important service to his country. After the
chapel of St. George and the treasury belonging to it had
been plundered by the republicans, he sedulously exerted
himself in recovering as many of the records as could be
procured, and was so successful as to redeem the three registers distinguished by the names of the Black, Blue, and
lied, which were carefully preserved by him till his death.
They were afterwards committed to the custody of his son,
who, soon after the restoration, delivered them to Dr.
Bruno Ryves, dean of Windsor.

, a noted English **mathematician**, who flourished in the latter part of the sixteenth century

**mathematician**, a noted English **mathematician**,
who flourished in the latter part of the sixteenth century
and beginning of the seventeenth, is thus characterised in
a Latin paper in the library of Gonvile and Caius college,
Cambridge: “This year (1615) died at London, Edward
Wright, of Garveston, in Norfolk, formerly a fellow of
this college; a man respected by all for the integrity and
simplicity of his manners, and also famous for his skill in
the mathematical sciences; so that he was not undeservedly
styled a most excellent

” Correction of Errors in the art of
Navigation;“**mathematician** by Richard Hackluyt, the author of an original treatise of our English navigations. What knowledge he had acquired in the science
of mechanics, and how usefully he employed that knowledge to ths public as well as to private advantage, abundantly appear both from the writings he published, and
from the many mechanical operations still extant, which
are standing monuments of his great industry and ingenuity.
He was the first undertaker of that difficult but useful work,
by which a little river is brought from the town of Ware
in apew canal, to supply the city of London with water
but by the tricks of others he was hindered from completing the work he had begun. He was excellent both in
contrivance and execution, nor was he inferior to the most
ingenious mechanic in the making of instruments, either
of brass or any other matter. To his invention is owing
whatever advantage Hondius’s geographical charts have
above others; for it was Wright who taught Jodocus Horn
dius the method of constructing them, which wa.s till then
unknown; but the ungrateful Hondius concealed the name
of the true author, and arrogated the glory of the invention
to hjmself. Of this fraudulent practice the good man could
nqt help complaining, and justly enough, in the preface
to his treati.se of thewhich he composed with excellent judgment
and after long experience, to the great advancement of
naval affairsi For the improvement of this art he was appointed mathematical lecturer by the East India company,
and read lectures in the house of that worthy knight sir
Thomas Smith, for which he had a yearly salary of fifty
pounds, This office he discharged with great reputation,
and much to the satisfaction of his hearers. He published
in English a book on the doctrine of the sphere, and another
concerning the construction of sun-dials. He also prefixed an ingenious preface to the learned Gilbert’s book
on the loadstone. By these and other his writings, he has
transmitted his fame to latest posterity. While he was yet
a fellow of this college, he could not be concealed in his
private study, but was called forth to the public business
of the nation by the queen, about 1593. He was ordered
to attend the earl of Cumberland in some maritime expeditions. One of these he has given a faithful account of,
in the manner of a journal or ephemeris, to which he has
prefixed an elegant hydrographical chart of his own contrivance. A little before his death he employed himself
about an English translation of the book of logarithms, then
lately discovered by lord Napier, a Scotchman, who had a
great affection for him. This posthumous work of his- was
published soon after by his only son Samuel Wright, who
was also a scholar of this college. He had formed many
other useful designs, but was hindered by death from bringing them to perfection. Of him it may truly be said, that
he studied more to serve the public than himself; and
though he was rich in fame, and in the promises of the
great, yet he died poor, to tfie scandal of an ungrateful
age.

” So far the memoir; other particulars concerning
him are as follow:

, an eminent Italian **mathematician**, was born at Bologna in January 1692, and was educated among

**mathematician**, an eminent Italian **mathematician**, was born at Bologna in January 1692, and was
educated among the Jesuits. His first pursuit was the law,
which he soon exchanged for philosophy, and particularly
mathematics. In philosophy he was at first a Cartesian,
but when sir Isaac Newtbn’s discoveries were divulged, he
was among the first to acknowledge his great superiority,
particularly in optics and astronomy. He was made librarian and secretary to the academy of Bologna, and wrote
a Latin history of its transactions continued down to 1766,
and he also contributed many mathematical papers of great
importance. But his talents were not confined to philosophy and mathematics: he was also a distinguished poet
both in the Tuscan and Latin languages, and in the latter,
was thought a successful imitator of Catullus, Tibullus,
Ovid, and Virgil. After a life honourably spent in those
various pursuits, which procured him great fame, he died
Dec. 25, 1777. He published a great many works, both
in Italian and Latin, which are enumerated by Fabroni.

, a learned philosopher, **mathematician**, and divine, of the sixteenth century, was born at Landshut,

**mathematician**, a learned philosopher, **mathematician**, and divine, of the sixteenth century, was born at
Landshut, in Bavaria. He taught at Vienna for a considerable time, and resided afterwards near the bishop of Passau in Bavaria, where he died in 1549, leaving several
works; which are different in their spirit, according as
they were written before or after he quitted the Romish
church. Among these, his notes on some select passages of
the Holy Scriptures, Basil, 151?, folio, and his “Description of the Holy Land,

” Strasburg, Amoenitates.

”