Gough, Richard

, the Camden of the eighteenth century, and one of the most illustrious antiquaries England has produced, was the only son of Harry Gough, esq. of Perry-hall. This gentleman, for whom his son ever preserved a reverential affection, was born April 2, 1681, and in his eleventh year, went with his uncle sir Richard Gough, to China, where he kept his accounts. In 1707, he commanded the ship Streatham, of which his younger brother Richard was purser in 1709. He continued to command this ship till 1715, when he retired with a decent competency, and was elected a director of the East India company about 1731. In this situation, his knowledge of the company’s affairs, the result of his many voyages in their service, and his zeal for their interests, joined to habitual activity and integrity, gave him great weight. He became also a representative in parliament in 1734, for the borough of Bramber, for which he sat until his death. His political career was marked by independence of spirit. Although attached to, and in the confidence of, sir Robert Walpole, he refused several offices from that minister, and yet supported him to the last. He died in 1751, and was buried in the rector’s vault in St. Andrew’s church, Holborn. In 1717, he purchased of the lady of sir Richard Shelley, one moiety of the Middlemore estate | in Warwickshire (the other moiety of which he before possessed), which afterwards descended to his son and heir Richard, together with the property at Enfield, which he purchased in 1723. In 1719 he married Elizabeth, daughter of Morgan Hynde, esq. of London, an eminent brewer.

By this lady, who died May 27, 1774, he had an only son, the subject of this article, who was born Oct. 21, 1735, in a large house in Winchester-street, on the site of the monastery of the Austin friars. He received the first rudiments of Latin and Greek under the tuition of one Barnewitz, a Courlander; and afterwards, on his death, was committed to the care of the rev. Roger Pickering, a dissenting minister, a man unfortunate in life, but an accomplished scholar, who. died in 1755*; when Mr. Gough finished his Greek studies under Mr. Samuel Dyer, the friend of Dr. Johnson and of the contemporary literati. Under these instructors, Mr. Gough has not left us to question his proficiency, nor that early ambition to know and to communicate, which forms the instructive editor and author. At the very early age of eleven he commenced a task which would have reflected credit on any period of life, and he completed it with a perseverance of which there is probably no other instance in our literary annals. This was “The History of the Bible, translated from the French,” (of an Amsterdam edition of 1700) “by II. G. junior,” printed at London in 1747. Of this curious volume, consisting of 160 sheets in folio, his mother, delighted at such a display of laudable application, bore the expence of printing twenty-five copies, as presents to a few friends; and when completed at the press, it was marked, by way of colophon, “Done at twelve years and a half old,” after which, in the copy now before us, follows, “A short Chronology of the Holy Scripture,” in

* “From this most accomplished, the guide.” This may probably alas well as learned man,“says Mr. lude to some early view Mr. Gough Gough in a fragment of his own memoirs, entertained of rising in public life; andI must acknowledge myself to have he afterwards gives hints of being long derived great advantage and had he restrained and controuled in the purbeen left to indulge the liberality of suits to which he subsequently was led his temper, uncontrouled by female by inclination, and which became haand maternal partiality and peculia- bitual. In another place he says, rity, 1 might have been forwarded in “Jhe year 1774, by the death of my tfhat style of life to which it was his mother, made me cmpletety master ambition to train me, and to which I of myself.‘ 1 ever after wanted both the spur and | three sheets. The style is throughout juvenile and simple; and such were even at this early age our author’s notions of literary honour, that he would receive no aid without acknowledgment, and therefore page 24, which contains an account of the furniture and inhabitants of Noah’s ark, is introduced with these words:” The printer gives you this explanation." It is impossible not to contemplate this volume with a strong impression of the excellent and amiable disposition which conducted a mere boy, unwearied and pleased, through so laborious a task. Mr. Gough himself, in his mature years, appears to have looked at it with complacency; and the copy in Mr. Nichols’s possession, is filled with corrections and improvements of the language.

It is not difficult to conceive that his parents and friends would be desirous to encourage a turn of mind which indicated so powerful a sense of the value of time and instruction; and accordingly we find him in about three years completing a translation of “The Customs of the Israelites, translated from the French of the abbot Fleury, by R. G.1750, 8vo. This was also printed for distribution among friends. He had about this time fully prepared for the press, even to the title-page and preface, a work of great labour and research, under the title of “Atlas Renovatus, or Geography Modernized; being a particular description f the world as far as known to the ancients, and the present names of such places as now subsist; containing all the cities, towns, villages, castles, &c. mentioned in ancient authors, with all the remarkable occurrences that happened at the several places; the birth-places of famous men, the memorable sieges and battles, &c. the bounds, soil, air, manners, government, religion of each country. The whole being the most complete system ever composed before. To which is annexed a list of the Roman ways, and a copious index to facilitate the whole. Drawn upon the plans of Hornius’s and Cellarius’s maps.” This is a folio volume, dated 1751, fairly written, and now preserved in Mr. Nichols’s library, as a memorial of his consummate industry. Such a compilation, indeed, at the age of sixteen, is probably without a parallel; for much of the design, arrangement, &c. is perfectly original, and such intenseness of application could not have been recommended by any master. | After the death of his father (July 13, 1751) Mr. Gough was admitted, in July 1752, fellow-commoner of Bene’tcollege, Cambridge. The college tutor at this time was Dr. John Barnardiston, afterwards master; but Mr. Gough’s private tutor was the rev. John Cott, fellow of the college, and afterwards rector of Braxted, in Essex, “to whom,” says Mr. Gough, “I regularly repeated my lesson, without a grain of instruction on his part.” To the university Mr. Gough brought a considerable fund of classical literature, and having already imbibed a curiosity after matters of antiquity, found his enthusiasm heightened by a connexion with a college eminent for producing a succession of British antiquaries; and it is certain that he here laid the plan of his “British Topography*.” He applied, in the mean time, to academical studies, with an ardour which even at this age was become habitual, and the knowledge he acquired in philosophy and the sciences was often displayed in his future labours; some of which prove that he had paid no little attention to subjects of theology and sacred criticism; and indeed it was inferred by the friends who kpew his acquisitions most intimately, that he might have passed into any of the learned professions by a very easy transition. Before he left the university he had prepared for the press, although they all remain still in ms. the following works: 1. “Notes on Memnon, annexed to the abbe Gedoyn’s French translation.” 2. “Astro-mythology; or, a short account of the Constellations, with the names of the principal stars in each, and their connexion with mythology.” 3. The History of Bythynia, translated from the French of the abbe“Sevin.” 4. “Memoirs of celebrated Professors of the belles lettres in the academy of inscriptions, &c. at Paris, translated and abridged from the Elogia, &c.” 5. “Reflections on the Egyptian Government; and also on the Jewish, Persian, Cretan, Carthaginian, Spartan, Athenian, and Roman Governments.” 6. “Memoirs of the Life and Character of Mithridates, king of Pontus, extracted from various and genuine authors.” All these, with many voluminous commonplace books, were executed before our author had reached

* While at college I had begun son’s “English Topographer,” till I

to make additions to the list of writers fancied I might commence topographer

en the Topography of Great Britain myself. I formed a quarto volume,"

and Ireland, prefixed to Gibson’s &c. Fragment of his Memoirs, writCamden. I inserted these in Rawliu- ten by himself. | his twenty-first year. Of amusements he must of course have been sparing, and this incessant pursuit of knowledge, while it accumulated a large fund for the use of his future labours, preserved him from those associations which are so dangerous to morals, and enabled him to pass a long life not only untainted with vice, but uniformly guided by a sense of piety.

Amidst all his academical labours, however, his peculiar attachment was to that pursuit on which his fame is founded, the study of the history and antiquity of his native country, which, he always acknowledged, was fostered within the walls of a college that had trained archbishop Parker, the great reviver of the study of antiquity*. In July 1756, he finally left Cambridge without taking a degree, and entered on an excursion to Peterborough, Croyland, and Stamford. In his history of Croyland, published long after, he informs us that his career of antiquarian pursuits began there, and at that time. Similar excursions he afterwards made regularly through the different parts of England, Wales, and Scotland, from 1759 to 1771, collecting materials, noting observations, and examining with historical and critical precision all the remarkable sites of national antiquities; and until within two years of his death, he repeated his visits to spots of particular interest and curiosity. During this period he formed an extensive acquaintance with the antiquaries of his time, which produced an equally extensive correspondence. In some of these tours he made several drawings, which, although he was not a professed draftsman, were not discreditable to his taste and accuracy, and^he also amused himself occasionally with etching, which he did in a very neat manner. A volume of these etchings, now in our possession, by the kindness of his biographer, we treasure as a most pleasing and curious memorial. The result of all his twenty years excursions appeared afterwards in his new edition of Camden’s “Britannia.

* " Was it to be wondered at that usually spent in a college? or that, as

(the pursuit of our national antiquities) I was to return home again to books

should be fostered within thesevenerable and study, without any prospect of

walls, which owed their support and being able to gratify my wish of visplendour to avchbishep Parker, and had siting foreign countries, that desire

nursed a succession of British Anti- should, by recoil, impel me powerfully

quaries to the present time or that, to ramble over my own" Fragment

without any view to a degree or a pro- of Memoirs, as above, fession, I should exc.eed the time | His first regular publication was anonymous, “The History of Carausius; or an examination of what has been advanced on that subject by Genebrier and Dr. Stukeley,1762, 4to, a very elaborate and critical disquisition. In February 1767 he was elected a fellow of the society of antiquaries of London, and in 1771, on the death of Dr. Gregory Sharpe, master of the temple, he was nominated director of the society, which office he held till Dec. 12, 1797, when he quitted the society altogether. Two years before, he quitted the royal society, of which he had been chosen fellow in March 1775. In 1767 he commenced his correspondence with the Gentleman’s Magazine, by an account of the village of Aldfriston, under the signature of D. H. the final letters of his name, which signature he retained to the last, but not altogether uniformly, nor is another signature in some later volumes, with the same letters, to be mistaken for his. On the death of his fellow-collegian, Mr. Duncombe, in 1786, the department of the review in that miscellany was for the most part committed to him. “If,” as he says himself, “he criticised with warmth and severity certain innovations attempted in church and state, he wrote his sentiments with sincerity and impartiality in the fullness of a heart deeply impressed with a sense of the excellence and happiness of the English constitution both in church and state.” Such indeed were Mr. Gough’s steady principles during that period of intellectual delusion which followed the French revolution; and he gave his aid with no mean effect, to a numerous body of writers and thinkers, many of whom (and we wish his name could have been added to the number) have lived to enjoy the full gratification of their hopes. We cannot, however, quit this subject without noticing that extensive knowledge which Mr. Gough displayed in his critical labours in the Magazine; he seems never to have undertaken any thing of the kind without such an acquaintance with the subject as showed that his studies had been almost universal, and even occasionally directed to those points of literatare which could be least expected to demand his attention; we allude to the subjects of theology and criticism, both sacred and classical. The perusal of the classics in particular appears frequently to have relieved his more regular labours. | In 1768 he published in 1 vol. 4to, his “Anecdotes of British Topography,”*


It was printed by Mr. Richardson’s press—on credit; my allowance not permitting any advance of money before publication. Mr. Richardson” (this was the nephew to the celebrated writer) refused interest on his labour. The sale was rapid beyond expectation and I was on the balance between me and honest Tom Payne, gainer of seven pounds." Fragment of Memoirs.

which was reprinted and enlarged in 2 vols. 1780. To have published a third edition, with the improvements of twenty-six years, would have afforded him a high gratification; and in fact a third edition was put to press in 1806, and was rapidly advancing, when the destructive fire (of Feb. 8, 1808,) in Mr. Nichols’s printing-office, and the then declining state of the author’s health, interrupted the undertaking. The corrected copy, with the plates, was given by him to Mr. Nichols, who has since relinquished his right; and it is hoped that the delegates of the Oxford press will speedily undertake a new edition. On the utility of this work to British antiquaries it would be unnecessary to make any remark. It points the way to every future effort to illustrate local history.

In 1773 he first formed the design of a new edition of Camden’s Britannia, which he had partly begun to translate before, and accomplished in about seven years, and which was at length published in three large folio volumes, in 1789. Whatever incorrectness may appear in this laborious and extensive undertaking, no trouble or expence was spared by the liberal editor in obtaining information. Added to his own personal inspection of every county, proof sheets of each were forwarded to those gentlemen who were likely to be most actively useful. Nor could any man be more fastidious than Mr. Gough in revising and correcting his labours; and whatever discoveries some critics may aft’ect to have made, it is certain that he always found it more difficult to satisfy himself than his readers, and that a strict scrutiny by any person qualified for the task was to him the highest obligation. This may be safely averred, while at the same time it is allowed that he knew how to repel petulant remarks with a proper sense of what was due to his character, the extent of his industry, and the munificence of his expences. Of this valuable work it may not be superfluous to observe that Mr. Gough translated it from the original, and supplied his additions with so little interruption of the ordinary intercourse of life, | that none of his family were aware that he was at all engaged in so laborious an undertaking. The copyright he gave (without any other consideration than a few copies for presents) to his old and worthy friend Mr. Thomas Payne, who defrayed the expence of engraving the copper plates; and afterwards disposed of the whole of his interest in the work to Messieurs Robinsons. Mr. Gough superintended the first volume of a new edition; but in, 1806, finding that the copyright had devolved from Messieurs Robinsons to another person, he declined proceeding any farther than to complete the first volume, which they had begun to print. Of this he announced his determination in the newspapers, that no improper use might be made of his name; and added, that it was now “of importance to his health to suspend such pursuits.

Having heard of the difficulties under which Mr. Hutchins laboured respecting his “History of Dorsetshire,” Mr. Gough set on foot a subscription, and was the means of advancing a very valuable county history, which he superintended through the press. It was published in 1774, 2 vols. foL Twenty years after, he contributed his assistance to a second edition, three volumes of which have been published, and a fourth is in a state of great forwardness, under the superintendance of Mr. Nichols. In 1779 Mr. Gough was the improver and editor of Martin’s “History of Thetford,1780, 4to published a new edition of Vertue’s Medals, Coins, and Great Seals, by Simon and in the same year contributed to Mr. Nichols’s “Collection of Royal and Noble Wills.” The preface and glossary are by him. In 1786 he published the first volume of the “Sepulchral Monuments of Great Britain, applied to illustrate the history of Families, Manners, Habits, and Arts, at the different periods from the Norman Conquest to the Seventeenth Century.” This splendid folio volume, which contains the first four centuries, was followed in 1796 by a second, containing the fifteenth century and, in 179I>, by an introduction to it, with which he thought proper to conclude his labours, instead of continuing them to the end of the sixteenth century, as originally intended, Of this truly magnificent work it is but justice to say, with his biographer, “that it would alone have been sufficient to perpetuate his fame and the credit of the arts in England, where few works of superior splendour have appeared.” The independent master of an ample fortune, he was in | all respects pre-eminently qualified for the labours of an antiquary, which rarely meet with an adequate remuneration. Indeed this work must have convinced the world that he possessed not only the most indefatigable perseverance, but an ardour which no expence could possibly deter. One great object of his wishes was to prepare “The Sepulchral Monuments” for a new edition. With this constantly in view, he spared neither trouble nor expence in obtaining an ample store of new and accurate drawings by the first artists, all which, with the numerous and beautiful plates already engraved, form part of his noble bequest to the university of Oxford. Among his latest separate publications were, an Account of the beautiful Missal presented to Henry VI. by the duchess of Bedford, purchased at the duchess of Portland’s sale by James Edwards, esq. in whose possession it remains “The History of Fleshy, in Essex,1803, 4to and the same year, and in the same form, the “Plates of the Coins of the Seleucidae.A few other separate publications, previous to these, will be noticed at the end of this article.

Mr Gough drew up, at the united request of the president and fellows, the History of the Society of Antiquaries of London, prefixed to the first volume of their “Archaeo* logia,” in 1770, and to the eleven succeeding volumes of that work, as well as to the “Vetusta Monumenta,” contributed a great many curious articles *. He was equally liberal in his communications to Mr. Nichols’s *’ Bibliottheca Topographica,“and to his” History of Leicestershire.“Mr. Nichols relates with just feeling, that” for a long series of years he had experienced in Mr. Gough the kind, disinterested friend; the prudent, judicious adviser, the firm, unshaken patron. To him every material event in life was confidentially imparted. In those that were prosperous, no man more heartily rejoiced; in such as were less propitious, no man more sincerely condoled, or

* His Papers in the “Arcbaeologia” On an antient Mosaic Pavement at

are, On the Giants’ Grave in Penrith Ely, p. 121; On a Roman HoroloChurch-yard, vol. II. p. 188; On the gium, p. 172; On Fonts, p. 183; On

l>eJB Matres, vol. Ih. p. 105; On the Analogy between certain Monu­*our Roman Altars found in Graham’s ments, vol. XI. p. 33; On a Greek

Dyke, p. 118; On the Invention of Inscription in London, p. 48.

Card-playing, vol. VIII. p. 152; On In the “Vetusta Monumenta,” he

Parian Chronicle, vol. IX. p. 157; wrotetheDescriptionsofvol.il. Plates

Stamps of the antient Oculists, XXXVI. XXXVII. XXXIX. XL. XLI.

227; On antieot Mansion-houses XLIL XLIII. XLV. L. LIII. LIV.

in Northampton and Dorset Shires, LV. Vol. Hi. Plates I V. XII

vol. X. n^7; Qn Belatucader, p, 118,- XVII, XXV, | more readily endeavoured to alleviate.“The deep concern which he felt at the dreadful fire that destroyed Mr. Nichols’s valuable property in 1808, was shewn in a series of the kindest consolatory letters, which were among the last he ever wrote. In one, dated September of that year, he requested Mr. Nichols to execute a confidential commission,” which,“he emphatically adds,” may be the last office you will have to do for your sincere friend.“This was nearly prophetic, for there was little now to be done that could contribute to his comforts.” The bright gem of intellect,“says his affectionate biographer,” though frequently clouded, had intervals of its former splendour and the frequent emanations of benevolence displayed through a long and painful illness, whilst they comforted and delighted those around him, added poignancy to the regret they experienced for those bitter sufferings which threatened to overwhelm a noble mind with total imbecility; from which, however, he was mercifully relieved, without any apparent struggle at the last, on Feb. 20, 1809, and was buried on the 28th, in the churchyard of Wormley, in Herts, in a vault built for that purpose, on the south side of the chancel, not far from the altar which for several years he had devoutly frequented.“The funeral, although, in conformity to his own directions, as little ceremonious as propriety would permit, was followed from Enfield to Wormley by crowds whose lamentations and regrets were unequivocally shown. The poor and the afflicted had indeed lost in Mr. Gough a father, protector, and benefactor. Enfield and its neighbourhood must long cherish a lively and grateful remembrance of his benevolence, which was at once extensive, judicious, and unostentatious. It was in him a principle and a system it began early, and continued to the last it embraced not only the present, but the future, and he had provided that his charity should continue to be felt long after the heart that dictated it had ceased to beat. His faithful domestics, when unable to continue their services, continued to receive their pay, in the shape of annuities; and as he possessed the attribute ascribed to” the merciful man," the generous steed, exempt by age from labour, and the cow no longer useful in the dairy, were permitted to close their useful lives in a luxuriant meadow reserved for that express purpose. The genuine personal character of Mr. Gough could only be appreciated by those who witnessed him in | his domestic and familiar circle. Though highly and deservedly distinguished as a scholar, the pleasantry and the easy condescension of his convivial hours still more endeared him, not only to his intimates, hut oven to those with whom tin- forms and customs of the world rendered it necessary that he should associate.

In 1774, soon a I’trr tin; death of his mother, an event by which ho oamo in possession of an excellent family residence at Kiiliehl, with tho large estate hequeathed to him in reversion by his father, ho added greatly to all his other comforts, by marrying Aiiih-, fourth daughter of Thomas Hall, esq. of Goldings, Herts; a lady of distinguished merit, who after a long and alVec tionate union, has to lament the loss of him whose object through life was to increase her happiness.

It is, however, as the learned and acute antiquary that he will be handed down to posterity; and from the epitaph written by himself, he appears desirous to rest his fame on his three publications, the “British Topography,” the edition of “Camden,” and the “Sepulchral Monuments;” sufficient indeed to place him in the very first rank of the antiquaries of the eighteenth century. But while he gave a preference in point of value, labour, and utility to those works, he was in no respect ambitious of personal honours. He took no degree at Cambridge, and resisted the solicitations of many members of tho university of Oxford to receive an honorary degree; and when he withdrew from the Royal Society and that of the Antiquaries, from causes on which we shall not enter, but must ever regret, he no longer appended to his name the usual initials of fellowship. In politics, he was a linn friend to the house of Brunswick, and a stranger to the mutability of his contemporaries. “That independence,” he informs us himself, “which he gloried in possessing as his inheritance, and which he maintained by a due attention to his income, discovered itself in his opinions and his attachments. As he could not hastily form connexions, he may seem to have indulged strong aversions. lint he could not accommodate himself to modern manners or opinions; and he had resources within himself, to make it less needful to seek them from without. And perhaps the greatest inconvenience arising from this disposition was the want of opportunities to serve his friends. But he saw enough of the general temper of mankind, to convince him that favours | should not be too often asked; and that as to be too much under obligation is the worst of bondage, so to confer obligations is the truest liberty.” Such sentiments and such conduct do no discredit to men like Mr. Gongh. His talents, his rank in society, and his years, gave him claims to respect, which were, what he thought them, undeniable; and even where he shewed any symptoms of resentment, they were never beyond the limits which his superior character and long services amply justified.

His library, with the exception of his legacy to the Bodleian, was sold, agreeably to his own direction, by Messrs. Leigh and Sothehy, in twenty days, April 5—28, 1810, and produced 3552/, 3.s. His prints, drawings, coins, medals, ike. were sold July 19, 1812, and the two following days, and produced 517l. 6s. 6d. By his last will, he bequeathed to the university of Oxford all his printed books and manuscripts on Saxon and Northern literature, for the use of the Saxon professor; all his manuscripts, printed books, and pamphlets, prints, and drawings, maps, and copperplates relating to British topography, (of which,' in 1808, he had nearly printed a complete catalogue); his interleaved copies of the “British Topography,” “Camden’s Britannia,” and the “Sepulchral Monuments of Great Britain,” with all the drawings relative to the latter work; and all the copper-plates of the “Monuments” and the “Topography;” with fourteen volumes of drawings of sepulchral and other monuments in France. All these he wills and desires may “be placed in the Bodleian library, in a building adjoining to the picture gallery, known by the name of the” Antiquaries closet.“These were accordingly deposited in the closet, and a catalogue has since been printed in a handsome quarto, under the care of the rev. B. Bandinel, librarian of the Bodleian. A more valuable or extensive treasure of British topography was never collected by an individual. The Mss. are very numerous, and many of the most valuable printed books are illustrated by the ms notes of Mr. Cough and other eminent antiquaries. The remainder of his will, for which we refer to our authority, is not less in proof of his liberality, affection, and steady friendship. Such was the life of Mr. Gough, of which he says, in a memoir already quoted,” If I have relieved the wants and distresses of the unhappy without ostentation, have done justice without interest, have served the common cause of literature without vanity, | maintained my own independence without pride or insolence, have moderated my attachment to external objects, and placed my affections on the virtuous and honest character, and may trust to have so passed through things temporal as finally not to lose things eternal I shall have lived enough."

A few of Mr. Cough’s publications yet remain to be noticed: l.New editions of “Description desRoyaulmes d‘Angleterre et d’Ecosse, composed par Etienne Perlin,Paris, 1558; and of “Histoire de I’entree de la Reine Mere dans le Grande Bretagne, par de la Serre,Paris, 1639; which he illustrated with cuts, and English notes; and introduced by historical prefaces, in 1775. 2. “A Catalogue of the Coins of Canute, king of Denmark and England, with specimens,1777, 4to. 3. “An Essay on the Rise and Progress of Geography in Great Britain and Ireland; illustrated with specimens of our oldest maps, M 1780, 4to; and” Catalogue of Sarum and York Missals,“1780, both extracted from the second edition of his” British Topography.“5.A comparative view of the ancient Monuments of India,“&c. 1785, 4to. 6.” List of the members of the Society of Antiquaries of London, from their revival *n 1717 to June 1796; arranged in chronological and alphabetical order,“1798, 4to. 7. In the same year he amended and considerably enlarged, from the Paris edition of 1786, an English translation of theArabian Nights Entertainments,“to which he added notes of illustration, and a preface, in which the supplementary tales published by Dom. Chavis are proved to be a palpable forgery. 8.A Letter to the Lord Bishop of London, by a Layman,“1799, 8vo, on various subjects connected with the prosperity of the church. 9. * Rev. Kennett Gibson’s comment upon part of the fifth journey of Antoninus through Britain,” &c. 1800, 4to. 10. “Description of the Beauchamp chapel, adjoining to the church of St. Mary at Warwick,1804, 4to. As to his assistance to his friends engaged in literary pursuits, it was more extensive than probably will ever be known; but some particulars are stated by his biographer, to which we refer, and many other acknowledgments may be found in various works published within the last forty years. It is to be regretted that no portrait of Mr. Gough exists, nor is it known that he ever would consent to sit to any of the many artists with whom he was connected, and to some of whom he was a steady patron. His person was short, inclining to corpulence. | His features bespoke the energy and activity of his mind. In youth he was peculiarly shy, which he attributed to a late entrance into the world, and an irresistible habit of application to books. As his intercourse with society advanced, his manner became more easy, and his conversation was always lively, often with a pleasant flow of humour, and his disposition communicative, 1


Nichols’s Bowyer, vol. VI. where, and in the other volumes of that interesting series of literary history, will be found many particulars relative to Mr. Gough’s connexioui, and a rery considerable ollection of his epistolary correspondence.